Low-carbon economy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Wind Turbine with Workers - Boryspil - Ukraine

A low-carbon economy (LCE) or decarbonised economy[1] is an economy based on energy sources that produce low levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG emissions due to anthropogenic (human) activity are the dominant cause of observed climate change since the mid-20th century.[2] Continued emission of greenhouse gases may cause long-lasting changes around the world, increasing the likelihood of severe, pervasive, and irreversible effects for people and ecosystems.[2]

Shifting to a low-carbon economy on a global scale could bring substantial benefits both for developed and developing countries.[3] Many countries around the world are designing and implementing low-emission development strategies (LEDS). These strategies seek to achieve social, economic, and environmental development goals while reducing long-term greenhouse gas emissions and increasing resilience to the effects of climate change.[4]

Globally implemented low-carbon economies are therefore proposed as a precursor to the more advanced, zero-carbon economy. The GeGaLo index of geopolitical gains and losses assesses how the geopolitical position of 156 countries may change if the world fully transitions to renewable energy resources. Former fossil fuel exporters are expected to lose power, while the positions of former fossil fuel importers and countries rich in renewable energy resources is expected to strengthen.[5]

Rationale and aims[edit]

Nations may seek to become low-carbon or decarbonised economies as a part of a national climate change mitigation strategy. A comprehensive strategy to mitigate climate change is through carbon neutrality.

The aim of an LCE is to integrate all aspects of itself from its manufacturing, agriculture, transportation, and power generation, etc. around technologies that produce energy and materials with little GHG emission, and, thus, around populations, buildings, machines, and devices that use those energies and materials efficiently, and, dispose of or recycle its wastes so as to have a minimal output of GHGs. Furthermore, it has been proposed that to make the transition to an LCE economically viable we would have to attribute a cost (per unit output) to GHGs through means such as emissions trading and/or a carbon tax.

Some nations are presently low carbon: societies that are not heavily industrialized or populated. In order to avoid climate change on a global level, all nations considered carbon intensive societies and societies that are heavily populated might have to become zero-carbon societies and economies. EU emission trading system allows companies to buy international carbon credits, thus the companies can channel clean technologies to promote other countries to adopt low-carbon developments.[6] Previous[clarification needed] research shows that in China investments in green projects reduce short- and long-term carbon emission levels. In contrast, the extraction of natural resources, the development of the financial sector, and energy investments increase carbon emissions in short and long run.[7]

Benefits[edit]

Low-carbon economies present multiple benefits to ecosystem resilience, trade, employment, health, energy security, and industrial competitiveness.[8]

Ecosystem resilience[edit]

Low emission development strategies for the land use sector can prioritize the protection of carbon-rich ecosystems to not only reduce emissions, but also to protect biodiversity and safeguard local livelihoods to reduce rural poverty - all of which can lead to more climate resilient systems, according to a report by the Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership (LEDS GP). REDD+ and blue carbon initiatives are among the measures available to conserve, sustainably manage, and restore these carbon rich ecosystems, which are crucial for natural carbon storage and sequestration, and for building climate resilient communities.[9]

Economic benefits[edit]

Job creation[edit]

Transitioning to a low-carbon, environmentally and socially sustainable economies can become a strong driver of job creation, job upgrading, social justice, and poverty eradication if properly managed with the full engagement of governments, workers, and employers’ organizations.[10]

Estimates from the International Labour Organization’s Global Economic Linkages model suggest that unmitigated climate change, with associated negative impacts on enterprises and workers, will have negative effects on output in many industries, with drops in output of 2.4% by 2030 and 7.2% by 2050.[11]

Transitioning to a low-carbon economy will cause shifts in the volume, composition, and quality of employment across sectors and will affect the level and distribution of income. Research indicates that eight sectors employing around 1.5 billion workers, approximately half the global workforce, will undergo major changes: agriculture, forestry, fishing, energy, resource intensive manufacturing, recycling, buildings, and transport.[10]

Business competitiveness[edit]

Low emission industrial development and resource efficiency can offer many opportunities to increase the competitiveness of economies and companies. According to the Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership (LEDS GP), there is often a clear business case for switching to lower emission technologies, with payback periods ranging largely from 0.5–5 years, leveraging financial investment.[12]

Improved trade policy[edit]

Trade and trade policies can contribute to low-carbon economies by enabling more efficient use of resources and international exchange of climate-friendly goods and services. Removing tariffs and nontariff barriers to trade in clean energy and energy efficiency technologies are one such measure. In a sector where finished products consist of many components that cross borders numerous times - a typical wind turbine, for example, contains up to 8,000 components - even small tariff cuts would reduce costs. This would make the technologies more affordable and competitive in the global market, particularly when combined with a phasing out of fossil fuel subsidies.[13]

Energy policy[edit]

Renewable energy and energy efficiency[edit]

Worldwide installed wind power capacity 1997–2020 [MW], history and predictions. Data source: WWEA
Solar array at Nellis Solar Power Plant. These panels track the sun in one axis.

Recent advances in technology and policy will allow renewable energy and energy efficiency to play major roles in displacing fossil fuels, meeting global energy demand while reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Renewable energy technologies are being rapidly commercialized and, in conjunction with efficiency gains, can achieve far greater emissions reductions than either could independently.[14]

Renewable energy is energy that comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2015, about 19% of global final energy consumption came from renewables.[15] During the five years from the end of 2004 through 2009, worldwide renewable energy capacity grew at rates of 10–60 percent annually for many technologies. For wind power and many other renewable technologies, growth accelerated in 2009 relative to the previous four years.[16] More wind power capacity was added during 2009 than any other renewable technology. However, grid-connected photovoltaics increased the fastest of all renewables technologies, with a 60 percent annual average growth rate for the five-year period.[16]

Energy for power, heat, cooling, and mobility is the key ingredient for development and growth, with energy security a prerequisite economic growth, making it arguably the most important driver for energy policy. Scaling up renewable energy as part of a low emission development strategy can diversify a country's energy mixes and reduces dependence on imports. In the process of decarbonizing heat and transport through electrification, potential changes to electricity peak demand need to be anticipated whilst switching to alternative technologies such as heat pumps for electric vehicles.[17]

Installing local renewable capacities can also lower geopolitical risks and exposure to fuel price volatility, and improve the balance of trade for importing countries (noting that only a handful of countries export oil and gas). Renewable energy offers lower financial and economic risk for businesses through a more stable and predictable cost base for energy supply.[18]

Energy efficiency gains in recent decades have been significant, but there is still much more that can be achieved. With a concerted effort and strong policies in place, future energy efficiency improvements are likely to be very large. Heat is one of many forms of "energy wastage" that could be captured to significantly increase useful energy without burning more fossil fuels.[14]

Sustainable biofuels[edit]

Biofuels, in the form of liquid fuels derived from plant materials, are entering the market, driven by factors such as oil price spikes and the need for increased energy security. However, many of the biofuels that are currently being supplied have been criticised for their adverse impacts on the natural environment, food security, and land use.[19][20]

The challenge is to support biofuel development, including the development of new cellulosic technologies, with responsible policies and economic instruments to help ensure that biofuel commercialization is sustainable. Responsible commercialization of biofuels represents an opportunity to enhance sustainable economic prospects in Africa, Latin America and Asia.[19][20][21]

Biofuels have a limited ability to replace fossil fuels and should not be regarded as a ‘silver bullet’ to deal with transport emissions. However, they offer the prospect of increased market competition and oil price moderation. A healthy supply of alternative energy sources will help to combat gasoline price spikes and reduce dependency on fossil fuels, especially in the transport sector.[20] Using transportation fuels more efficiently is also an integral part of a sustainable transport strategy.

Nuclear power[edit]

Nuclear power has been offered as the primary means to achieve a LCE. In terms of large industrialized nations, mainland France, due primarily to 75% of its electricity being produced by nuclear power, has the lowest carbon dioxide production per unit of GDP in the world and it is the largest exporter of electricity in the world, earning it approximately €3 billion annually in sales.[22]

Concern is often expressed with the matter of spent nuclear fuel storage and security; although the physical issues are not large, the political difficulties are significant. The liquid fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR) has been suggested as a solution to the concerns posed by conventional nuclear.[23]

France reprocesses their spent nuclear fuel at the La Hague site since 1976 and has also treated spent nuclear fuel from France, Japan, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, and the Netherlands.

Some researchers have determined that achieving substantial decarbonization and combating climate change would be much more difficult without increasing nuclear power.[24] Nuclear power is a reliable form of energy that is available 24/7, relatively safe, and can be expanded on a large scale. Nuclear power plants can replace fossil fuel-based power plants — shifting to a low carbon economy.

Smart grid[edit]

One proposal from Karlsruhe University[25] developed as a virtual power station is the use of solar and wind energy for base load with hydro and biogas for make up or peak load. Hydro and biogas are used as grid energy storage. This requires the development of a smart intelligent grid hopefully including local power networks than use energy near the site of production, thereby reducing the existing 5% grid loss.[26]

Decarbonisation technologies[edit]

There are five technologies commonly identified in decarbonisation:

  1. Electrifying heat as furnaces are powered by electricity rather than burning fuels. Green energy must still be used.
  2. The use of hydrogen as a furnace steam, a chemical feedstock, or a reactant in chemical processes.
  3. The use of biomass as a source of energy or feedstock. In other words, replacing coal with bio coal or gas with bio-gas. One example is charcoal, which is made by converting wood into coal and has a CO2 footprint of zero.
  4. Carbon capture and storage. This is where greenhouse gases are isolated from other natural gases, compressed, and injected into the earth to avoid being emitted into the atmosphere.
  5. Carbon capture and usage. The aim of this method is to turn industrial gases into something valuable, such as ethanol or raw materials for the chemical industry.[27][28]

Decarbonisation plans that get to zero CO2 emissions[edit]

A comprehensive decarbonisation plan describes how to generate enough green energy to replace coal, oil, and natural gas; and takes into consideration factors such as increasing GDP, increasing standard of living, and increasing efficiencies. Each year the world consumes 583 exajoules (EJ) of heat energy.[29] This corresponds to 56,000 TWh of electricity when heat is converted to electricity via a 35% efficient turbine. To decarbonise, the world needs to generate this energy without emitting CO2. To get a sense of how large this is, one can look at how many Hoover Dams, London Arrays and nuclear reactors corresponds to this amount of energy:

  • 22,600 London Arrays, a wind farm with 175 large windmills[30]
  • 13,500 Hoover Dams, a large hydroelectric dam in Nevada (based on average production between 1999 and 2008)[31]
  • 21-times more than the world's current installed base of 400 GWe of nuclear power[32]

Below are example global decarbonization plans:

Below are example plans that decarbonize the United States:

Tools that create decarbonization plans are in various stages of development:

Carbon-neutral hydrocarbons[edit]

Carbon capture and storage[edit]

Global proposed vs. implemented annual CO
2
sequestration. More than 75% of proposed gas processing projects have been implemented, with corresponding figures for other industrial projects and power plant projects being about 60% and 10%, respectively.[33]

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) or carbon capture and sequestration[34] is the process of capturing carbon dioxide (CO
2
) before it enters the atmosphere, transporting it, and storing it (carbon sequestration) for centuries or millennia. Usually the CO
2
is captured from large point sources, such as a chemical plant or biomass power plant, and then stored in an underground geological formation. The aim is to prevent the release of CO
2
from heavy industry with the intent of mitigating the effects of climate change.[35] Although CO
2
has been injected into geological formations for several decades for various purposes, including enhanced oil recovery, the long-term storage of CO
2
is a relatively new concept. Carbon capture and utilization (CCU) and CCS are sometimes discussed collectively as carbon capture, utilization, and sequestration (CCUS). This is because CCS is a relatively expensive process yielding a product with an intrinsic low value (i.e. CO
2
). Hence, carbon capture makes economically more sense when being combined with a utilization process where the cheap CO
2
can be used to produce high-value chemicals to offset the high costs of capture operations. [36]

CO
2
can be captured directly from an industrial source, such as a cement kiln, using a variety of technologies; including absorption, adsorption, chemical looping, membrane gas separation or gas hydration.[37][38] As of 2020, about one thousandth of global CO
2
emissions are captured by CCS. Most projects are industrial.[39]

Storage of the CO
2
is envisaged either in deep geological formations, or in the form of mineral carbonates. Pyrogenic carbon capture and storage (PyCCS) is also being researched.[40] Geological formations are currently considered the most promising sequestration sites. The US National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) reported that North America has enough storage capacity for more than 900 years worth of CO
2
at current production rates.[41] A general problem is that long-term predictions about submarine or underground storage security are very difficult and uncertain, and there is still the risk that some CO
2
might leak into the atmosphere.[42]

Despite carbon capture increasingly appearing in policymakers' proposals to address climate change,[43] existing CCS technologies have significant shortcomings that limit their ability to reduce or negate carbon emissions; current CCS processes are usually less economical than renewable sources of energy[44][45] and most remain unproven at scale.[46] Opponents also point out that many CCS projects have failed to deliver on promised emissions reductions. [47] One of the most well-known failures is the FutureGen program, partnerships between the US federal government and coal energy production companies which were intended to demonstrate ″clean coal″, but never succeeded in producing any carbon-free electricity from coal.

Combined heat and power[edit]

Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is a technology which by allowing the more efficient use of fuel will at least reduce carbon emissions; should the fuel be biomass or biogas or hydrogen used as an energy store then in principle it can be a zero carbon option. CHP can also be used with a nuclear reactor as the energy source; there are examples of such installations in the far North of the Russian Federation.

Decarbonisation activity by sector[edit]

Primary sector[edit]

Agriculture[edit]

Most of the agricultural facilities in the developed world are mechanized due to rural electrification. Rural electrification has produced significant productivity gains, but it also uses a lot of energy. For this and other reasons (such as transport costs) in a low-carbon society, rural areas would need available supplies of renewably produced electricity.[citation needed]

Irrigation can be one of the main components of an agricultural facility's energy consumption. In parts of California, it can be up to 90%.[48] In the low carbon economy, irrigation equipment will be maintained and continuously updated and farms will use less irrigation water.

Livestock operations can also use a lot of energy depending on how they are run. Feedlots use animal feed made from corn, soybeans, and other crops. Energy must be expended to produce these crops, process, and transport them. Free-range animals find their own vegetation to feed on. The farmer may expend energy to take care of that vegetation, but not nearly as much as the farmer growing cereal and oil-seed crops.

Many livestock operations currently use a lot of energy to water their livestock. In the low-carbon economy, such operations will use more water conservation methods such as rainwater collection, water cisterns, etc., and they will also pump/distribute that water with on-site renewable energy sources (most likely wind and solar).

Due to rural electrification, most agricultural facilities in the developed world use a lot of electricity. In a low-carbon economy, farms will be run and equipped to allow for greater energy efficiency. Changes in the dairy industry include heat recovery, solar hearing, and use of biodigesters:[49]

Replacing livestock with plant-based alternatives is another way of reducing our carbon emissions. The carbon footprint of livestock is large - it provides just 18% of total calories but takes up 83% of farmland.[50]

Forestry[edit]

Protecting forests provides integrated benefits to all, ranging from increased food production, safeguarded local livelihoods, protected biodiversity and ecosystems provided by forests, and reduced rural poverty. Adopting low emission strategies for both agricultural and forest production also mitigates some of the effects of climate change.[51]

In the low-carbon economy, forestry operations will be focused on low-impact practices and regrowth. Forest managers will make sure that they do not disturb soil-based carbon reserves too much. Specialized tree farms will be the main source of material for many products. Quick maturing tree varieties will be grown on short rotations in order to maximize output.[52]

Mining[edit]

Flaring and venting of natural gas in oil wells is a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. Its contribution to greenhouse gases has declined by three-quarters in absolute terms since a peak in the 1970s of approximately 110 million metric tons/year, and in 2004 accounted for about 1/2 of one percent of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions.[53]

The World Bank estimates that 134 billion cubic meters of natural gas are flared or vented annually (2010 datum), an amount equivalent to the combined annual gas consumption of Germany and France or enough to supply the entire world with gas for 16 days. This flaring is highly concentrated: 10 countries account for 70% of emissions, and twenty for 85%.[54]

Secondary sector[edit]

Basic metals processing[edit]

Nonmetallic product processing[edit]

  • variable speed drives
  • injection molding - replace hydraulic with electric servo motors

Wood processing[edit]

  • high efficiency motors
  • high efficiency fans
  • dehumidifier driers

Paper and pulp making[edit]

  • variable speed drives
  • high efficiency motors

Food processing[edit]

  • high efficiency boilers
  • heat recovery e.g. refrigeration
  • solar hot water for pre-heating
  • bio fuels e.g. tallow, wood

Tertiary sector[edit]

Building and Construction[edit]

In 2018, building construction and operations accounted for 39% of global greenhouse gas emissions.[55] The construction industry has seen marked advances in building performance and energy efficiency over recent decades,[56] but there continues to be a large need for additional improvement in order to decarbonize this sector. International and government organizations have taken actions to promote the decarbonization of buildings, including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) signed in 1992, the Kyoto Protocol[57] signed in 1997, and many countries' Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) of the Paris Climate Agreement which was signed in 2016.[58]

The largest contributor to building sector emissions (49% of total) is the production of electricity for use in buildings.[55] To decarbonize the building sector, the production of electrical energy will need to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas, and instead shift to carbon-free alternatives like solar, wind, and nuclear. Currently many countries are heavily dependent on fossil fuels for electricity generation. In 2018, 61% of US electricity generation was produced by fossil fuel power plants (23% by coal and 38% by natural gas).[59]

Of global building sector GHG emissions, 28% are produced during the manufacturing process of building materials such as steel, cement (a key component of concrete), and glass.[55] The conventional process inherently related to the production of steel and cement results in large amounts of CO2 emitted. For example, the production of steel in 2018 was responsible for 7 to 9% of the global CO2 emissions.[60] However, these industries lend themselves very well for carbon capture and storage and carbon capture and utilization technology as the CO2 is available in large concentration in an exhaust gas, which is considered a so-called point source. GHG emissions which are produced during the mining, processing, manufacturing, transportation and installation of building materials are referred to as the embodied carbon of a material.[61] The embodied carbon of a construction project can be reduced by using low-carbon materials for building structures and finishes, reducing demolition, and reusing buildings and construction materials whenever possible.[55]

The remaining 23% of global building sector GHG emissions are produced directly on site during building operations.[55] These emissions are produced by fossil fuels such as natural gas which are burned on site to generate hot water, provide space heating, and supply cooking appliances. These pieces of equipment will need to be replaced by carbon-free alternatives such as heat pumps and induction cooktops to decarbonize the building sector.

Retail[edit]

Retail operations in the low-carbon economy will have several new features. One will be high-efficiency lighting such as compact fluorescent, halogen, and eventually LED light sources. Many retail stores will also feature roof-top solar panel arrays. These make sense because solar panels produce the most energy during the daytime and during the summer. These are the same times that electricity is the most expensive and also the same times that stores use the most electricity.[62]

Transportation services[edit]

Elements of Low-Carbon Urban Development
Elements of Low-Carbon Urban Development

Sustainable, low-carbon transport systems are based on minimizing travel and shifting to more environmentally (as well as socially and economically) sustainable mobility, improving transport technologies, fuels and institutions.[63] Decarbonisation of (urban) mobility by means of:

  • More energy efficiency and alternative propulsion:
  • Less international trade of physical objects, despite more overall trade (as measure by value of goods)
  • Greater use of marine and electric rail transport, less use of air and truck transport.
  • Increased non-motorised transport (i.e. walking and cycling) and public transport usage, less reliance on private motor vehicles.
  • More pipeline capacity for common fluid commodities such as water, ethanol, butanol, natural gas, petroleum, and hydrogen (in addition to gasoline and diesel). See[64][65][66]

Sustainable transport has many co-benefits that can accelerate local sustainable development. According to a series of reports by the Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership (LEDS GP), low carbon transport can help create jobs,[67] improve commuter safety through investment in bicycle lanes and pedestrian pathways,[68] make access to employment and social opportunities more affordable and efficient. It also offers a practical opportunity to save people's time and household income as well as government budgets,[69] making investment in sustainable transport a 'win-win' opportunity.

Health services[edit]

There have been some moves to investigate the ways and extent to which health systems contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and how they may need to change to become part of a low-carbon world. The Sustainable Development Unit[70] of the NHS in the UK is one of the first official bodies to have been set up in this area, whilst organisations such as the Campaign for Greener Healthcare[71] are also producing influential changes at a clinical level. This work includes

  • Quantification of where the health services emissions stem from.
  • Information on the environmental impacts of alternative models of treatment and service provision

Some of the suggested changes needed are:

  • Greater efficiency and lower ecological impact of energy, buildings, and procurement choices (e.g., in-patient meals, pharmaceuticals, and medical equipment).
  • A shift from focusing solely on cure to prevention, through the promotion of healthier, lower-carbon lifestyles, e.g. diets lower in red meat and dairy products, walking or cycling wherever possible, better town planning to encourage more outdoor lifestyles.
  • Improving public transport and liftsharing options for transport to and from hospitals and clinics.

Tourism[edit]

Low-carbon tourism includes travels with low energy consumption, and low CO2 and pollution emissions. Change of personal behavior to more low-carbon oriented activities is mostly influenced by both individual awareness and attitudes, as well as external social aspect, such as culture and environment. Studies indicate that educational level and occupation influence an individual perception of low-carbon tourism.[72]

Actions taken by countries[edit]

A good overview of the history of international efforts towards a low-carbon economy, from its initial seed at the inaugural UN Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm in 1972, has been given by David Runnals.[73] On the international scene, the most prominent early step in the direction of a low-carbon economy was the signing of the Kyoto Protocol, which came into force in 2005, under which most industrialized countries committed to reduce their carbon emissions.[74][75] Europe is the leading geopolitical continent in defining and mobilising decarbonisation policies.[76] For instance, the UITP - an organisation advocating sustainable mobility and public transport - has an EU office, but less well developed contacts with, for example, the US. The European Union Committee of the UITP wants to promote decarbonisation of urban mobility in Europe.[77] However, the 2014 Global Green Economy Index™ (GGEI)[78] ranks 60 nations on their green economic performance, finding that the Nordic countries and Switzerland have the best combined performance around climate change and green economy.

China[edit]

In China, the city of Dongtan is to be built to produce zero net greenhouse gas emissions.[79]

The Chinese State Council announced in 2009 it aimed to cut China's carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40%-45% in 2020 from 2005 levels.[80] However carbon dioxide emissions were still increasing by 10% a year by 2013 and China was emitting more carbon dioxide than the next two biggest countries combined (U.S.A. and India).[81] Total carbon dioxide emissions were projected to increase until 2030.[82]

Costa Rica[edit]

Costa Rica sources much of its energy needs from renewables and is undertaking reforestation projects. In 2007, the Costa Rican government announced the commitment for Costa Rica to become the first carbon neutral country by 2021.[83][84][85]

Iceland[edit]

Iceland began utilising renewable energy early in the 20th century and so since has been a low-carbon economy. However, since dramatic economic growth, Iceland's emissions have increased significantly per capita. As of 2009, Iceland energy is sourced from mostly geothermal energy and hydropower, renewable energy in Iceland and, since 1999, has provided over 70% of the nation's primary energy and 99.9% of Iceland's electricity.[86] As a result of this, Iceland's carbon emissions per capita are 62% lower than those of the United States[87] despite using more primary energy per capita,[88] due to the fact that it is renewable and low-cost. Iceland seeks carbon neutrality and expects to use 100% renewable energy by 2050 by generating hydrogen fuel from renewable energy sources.

Peru[edit]

The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) estimates that economic losses related to climate change for Peru could reach over 15% of national gross domestic product (GDP) by 2100.[89] Being a large country with a long coastline, snow-capped mountains and sizeable forests, Peru's varying ecosystems are extremely vulnerable to climate change. Several mountain glaciers have already begun to retreat, leading to water scarcity in some areas. In the period between 1990 and 2015, Peru experienced a 99% increase in per capita carbon emissions from fossil fuel and cement production, marking one of the largest increases amongst South American countries.[90]

Peru brought in a National Strategy on Climate Change in 2003. It is a detailed accounting of 11 strategic focuses that prioritize scientific research, mitigation of climate change effects on the poor, and creating Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) mitigation and adaptation policies.[91]

In 2010, the Peruvian Ministry of Environment published a Plan of Action for Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change.[92] The Plan categorises existing and future programmes into seven action groups, including: reporting mechanisms on GHG emissions, mitigation, adaptation, research and development of technology of systems, financing and management, and public education. It also contains detailed budget information and analysis relating to climate change.

In 2014, Peru hosted the Twentieth Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC COP20) negotiations.[93] At the same time, Peru enacted a new climate law which provides for the creation of a national greenhouse gas inventory system called INFOCARBONO.[94] According to the Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership (LEDS GP), INFOCARBONO is a major transformation of the country's greenhouse gas management system. Previously, the system was under the sole control of the Peruvian Ministry of the Environment. The new framework makes each relevant ministry responsible for their own share of greenhouse gas management.

United Kingdom[edit]

In the United Kingdom, the Climate Change Act 2008 outlining a framework for the transition to a low-carbon economy became law on November 26, 2008. It was the world's first long-term legislation to reduce carbon emissions.[95] This act requires an 80% cut in the UK's carbon emissions by 2050 (compared to 1990 levels), with an intermediate target of between 26% and 32% by 2020.[96] Thus, the UK became the first country to set such a long-range and significant carbon reduction target into law.

A meeting at the Royal Society on 17–18 November 2008 concluded that an integrated approach, making best use of all available technologies, is required to move toward a low-carbon future. It was suggested by participants that it would be possible to move to a low-carbon economy within a few decades, but that 'urgent and sustained action is needed on several fronts'.[97]

In June 2012, the UK coalition government announced the introduction of mandatory carbon reporting, requiring around 1,100 of the UK's largest listed companies to report their greenhouse gas emissions every year. Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg confirmed that emission reporting rules would come into effect from April 2013 in his piece for The Guardian.[98]

In July 2014, the UK Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme (ESOS) came into force.[99] This requires all large businesses in the UK to undertake mandatory assessments looking at energy use and energy efficiency opportunities at least once every four years.[100]

The low carbon economy has been described as a "UK success story", accounting for more than £120 billion in annual sales and employing almost 1 million people. A 2013 report suggests that over a third of the UK's economic growth in 2011/12 was likely to have come from green business.[101] This data is complementary to the strong correlation between GDP per capita and national rates of energy consumption.[95]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Decarbonised Economy". Greenpeace India. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
  2. ^ a b "IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)" (PDF). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
  3. ^ Koh, Jae Myong (2018). Green Infrastructure Financing: Institutional Investors, PPPs and Bankable Projects. London: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-3-319-71769-2.
  4. ^ "LEDS GP factsheet" (PDF). Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership (LEDS GP). Retrieved 22 March 2016.
  5. ^ Overland, Indra; Bazilian, Morgan; Ilimbek Uulu, Talgat; Vakulchuk, Roman; Westphal, Kirsten (2019). "The GeGaLo index: Geopolitical gains and losses after energy transition". Energy Strategy Reviews. 26: 100406. doi:10.1016/j.esr.2019.100406.
  6. ^ "The EU Emission Trading System(EU ETS) Factsheet" (PDF). European Commission. European Union. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-15. Retrieved 27 Oct 2014.
  7. ^ Li,Z.Z., Li, R.Y.M., Malik, M.Y., Murshed, M., Khan, Z., Umar, M. (2021) Determinants of Carbon Emission in China: How Good is Green Investment, Sustainable Production and Consumption, 27, 392-401
  8. ^ "Presenting the benefits of low emission development strategies". Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership (LEDS GP). Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  9. ^ "Boost ecosystem resilience to realize the benefits of low emission development". Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership (LEDS GP). Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  10. ^ a b "Create green jobs to realize the benefits of low emission development". Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership (LEDS GP). Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  11. ^ "Global Economic Linkages Model". International Labour Organization. 30 October 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  12. ^ "Gain the competitive edge to realize the benefits of low emission development". Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership (LEDS GP). Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  13. ^ "Use trade policy to realize the benefits of low emission development". Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership (LEDS GP). Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  14. ^ a b Janet L. Sawin and William R. Moomaw. Renewable Revolution: Low-Carbon Energy by 2030 Worldwatch Report, 2009.
  15. ^ REN21 (2017). Renewables 2017 Global Status Report
  16. ^ a b REN21 (2010). Renewables 2010 Global Status Report Archived August 20, 2010, at the Wayback Machine p. 15.
  17. ^ Eggimann S., Hall, J.W, Eyre, N. (2019). "A high-resolution spatiotemporal energy demand simulation to explore the potential of heating demand side management with large-scale heat pump diffusion". Applied Energy. 236: 997–1010. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.12.052.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. ^ "LEDS in Practice: Ensure energy security to realize the benefits of low emission development". Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership (LEDS GP). Retrieved 6 July 2016.
  19. ^ a b The Royal Society (January 2008). Sustainable biofuels: prospects and challenges, ISBN 978-0-85403-662-2, p. 61.
  20. ^ a b c Gordon Quaiattini. Biofuels are part of the solution Canada.com, April 25, 2008. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
  21. ^ EPFL Energy Center (c2007). Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels Retrieved December 23, 2009.
  22. ^ "Privacy policy". Business & Finance. Archived from the original on 2 March 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
  23. ^ Cooper, N.; Minakata, D.; Begovic, M.; Crittenden, J. (2011). "Should We Consider Using Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors for Power Generation?". Environmental Science & Technology. 45 (15): 6237–8. Bibcode:2011EnST...45.6237C. doi:10.1021/es2021318. PMID 21732635. "LFTR can mean a 1000+ year solution or a quality low-carbon bridge to truly sustainable energy sources solving a huge portion of mankind’s negative environmental impact."
  24. ^ "Nuclear energy and climate change - World Nuclear Association". www.world-nuclear.org. Retrieved 2021-01-27.
  25. ^ "Kombikraftwerk 1 - English". 2019-01-24. Archived from the original on 2019-01-24. Retrieved 2019-10-04.
  26. ^ "How much electricity is lost in electricity transmission and distribution in the United States? - FAQ - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". www.eia.gov. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  27. ^ Rissman, Jeffrey; Bataille, Chris; Masanet, Eric; Aden, Nate; Morrow, William R.; Zhou, Nan; Elliott, Neal; Dell, Rebecca; Heeren, Niko; Huckestein, Brigitta; Cresko, Joe; Miller, Sabbie A.; Roy, Joyashree; Fennell, Paul; Cremmins, Betty; Koch Blank, Thomas; Hone, David; Williams, Ellen D.; de la Rue Du Can, Stephane; Sisson, Bill; Williams, Mike; Katzenberger, John; Burtraw, Dallas; Sethi, Girish; Ping, He; Danielson, David; Lu, Hongyou; Lorber, Tom; Dinkel, Jens; Helseth, Jonas (2020-05-15). "Technologies and policies to decarbonize global industry: Review and assessment of mitigation drivers through 2070". Applied Energy. 266: 114848. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.114848. ISSN 0306-2619.
  28. ^ Decarbonising European industry: hydrogen and other solutions (PDF). European Investment Bank. 2021.
  29. ^ "BP Statistical Review of World Energy Report (2019 data, pre-COVID, table page 10)" (PDF). 2021.
  30. ^ Weston, David. "London Array breaks offshore production record". www.windpowermonthly.com. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  31. ^ "Bureau of Reclamation: Lower Colorado Region - Hoover Dam Power FAQs". 2010-03-23. Archived from the original on 2010-03-23. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  32. ^ "Preliminary Nuclear Power Facts and Figures for 2019". www.iaea.org. 2020-01-01. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  33. ^ Abdulla, Ahmed; Hanna, Ryan; Schell, Kristen R.; Babacan, Oytun; et al. (29 December 2020). "Explaining successful and failed investments in U.S. carbon capture and storage using empirical and expert assessments". Environmental Research Letters. 16 (1): 014036. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/abd19e.
  34. ^ Fanchi, John R; Fanchi, Christopher J (2016). Energy in the 21st Century. World Scientific Publishing Co Inc. p. 350. ISBN 978-981-314-480-4.
  35. ^ The UK Carbon Capture Usage and Storage deployment pathway (PDF). BEIS. 2018.
  36. ^ "Dream or Reality? Electrification of the Chemical Process Industries". www.aiche-cep.com. Retrieved 2021-08-22.
  37. ^ Bui, Mai; Adjiman, Claire S.; Bardow, André; Anthony, Edward J.; Boston, Andy; Brown, Solomon; Fennell, Paul S.; Fuss, Sabine; Galindo, Amparo; Hackett, Leigh A.; Hallett, Jason P.; Herzog, Howard J.; Jackson, George; Kemper, Jasmin; Krevor, Samuel; Maitland, Geoffrey C.; Matuszewski, Michael; Metcalfe, Ian S.; Petit, Camille; Puxty, Graeme; Reimer, Jeffrey; Reiner, David M.; Rubin, Edward S.; Scott, Stuart A.; Shah, Nilay; Smit, Berend; Trusler, J. P. Martin; Webley, Paul; Wilcox, Jennifer; Mac Dowell, Niall (2018). "Carbon capture and storage (CCS): the way forward". Energy & Environmental Science. 11 (5): 1062–1176. doi:10.1039/C7EE02342A.
  38. ^ D'Alessandro, Deanna M.; Smit, Berend; Long, Jeffrey R. (16 August 2010). "CO
    2
    Capture: Prospects for New Materials"
    (PDF). Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 49 (35): 6058–6082. doi:10.1002/anie.201000431. PMID 20652916.
  39. ^ "Industrial carbon capture business models" (PDF).
  40. ^ Werner, C; Schmidt, H-P; Gerten, D; Lucht, W; Kammann, C (1 April 2018). "Biogeochemical potential of biomass pyrolysis systems for limiting global warming to 1.5 °C". Environmental Research Letters. 13 (4): 044036. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aabb0e.
  41. ^ NETL 2007 Carbon Sequestration Atlas, 2007
  42. ^ Phelps, Jack J.C.; Blackford, Jerry C.; Holt, Jason T.; Polton, Jeff A. (July 2015). "Modelling large-scale CO 2 leakages in the North Sea". International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. 38: 210–220. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.10.013.
  43. ^ Goering, Laurie (2021-07-02). "ANALYSIS-Scarce carbon storage threatens net-zero push as emissions keep rising". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-07-19.
  44. ^ "Carbon Capture and Storage Is About Reputation, Not Economics" (PDF).
  45. ^ "IEEFA Australia: Carbon capture and storage is a poor investment". Institute for Energy Economics & Financial Analysis. 2020-07-01. Retrieved 2021-07-19.
  46. ^ "Carbon Capture and Storage: An Expensive and Unproven False Solution" (PDF).
  47. ^ Groom, Nichola (2020-08-07). "Problems plagued U.S. CO2 capture project before shutdown: document". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-07-19.
  48. ^ "Thank You". Archived from the original on 11 December 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
  49. ^ New Zealand Energy Intensive Business Initiative, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-07-14.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  50. ^ Poore, J.; Nemecek, T. (22 February 2019). "Reducing food's environmental impacts through producers and consumers" (PDF). Science. Retrieved 2019-10-03.
  51. ^ "LEDS GP Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Working Group factsheet" (PDF). Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership (LEDS GP). Retrieved 22 March 2016.
  52. ^ Trees and their role in carbon management for land and business Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine, The Woodland Trust.
  53. ^ Global, Regional, and National CO2 Emissions Archived 2007-07-11 at the Wayback Machine. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change, Marland, G., T.A. Boden, and R. J. Andres, 2005, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
  54. ^ "Global Gas Flaring Reduction Partnership (GGFR)". worldbank.org. The World Bank. Retrieved August 24, 2016. previous redirect from web.worldbank.org
  55. ^ a b c d e International Energy Agency (2019). Global Status Report for Buildings and Construction 2019. Paris: IEA. ISBN 978-92-807-3768-4.
  56. ^ Fowlie, Meredith; Greenstone, Michael; Wolfram, Catherine (2018-08-01). "Do Energy Efficiency Investments Deliver? Evidence from the Weatherization Assistance Program". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 133 (3): 1597–1644. doi:10.1093/qje/qjy005. ISSN 0033-5533.
  57. ^ United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. "What is the Kyoto Protocol?". unfccc.int.
  58. ^ United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. "Communication of long-term strategies". unfccc.int.
  59. ^ United States Environmental Protection Agency (2020). "Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2018". epa.gov.
  60. ^ De Ras, Kevin; Van De Vijver, Ruben; Galvita, Vladimir V.; Marin, Guy B.; Van Geem, Kevin M. (2019-12-01). "Carbon capture and utilization in the steel industry: challenges and opportunities for chemical engineering". Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering. 26: 81–87. doi:10.1016/j.coche.2019.09.001. ISSN 2211-3398.
  61. ^ Pomponi, Francesco; Moncaster, Alice (2016). "Embodied carbon mitigation and reduction in the built environment - What does the evidence say?". Journal of Environmental Management. 181: 687–700. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.08.036. PMID 27558830.
  62. ^ Grocery Store Sets California Solar Standard, Renewable Energy World, 22 August 2005.
  63. ^ "LEDS GP Transport Working Group factsheet" (PDF). Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership (LEDS GP). Retrieved 22 March 2016.
  64. ^ Energy Information Administration Industry Analysis Briefs, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mecs/iab/index5e.html
  65. ^ Carbon Trust, http://www.carbontrust.com
  66. ^ BERR - Redirect Archived 2006-09-25 at the Wayback Machine
  67. ^ "LEDS in Practice: Create jobs". The Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership.
  68. ^ "LEDS in Practice: Make roads safe". The Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership.
  69. ^ "LEDS in Practice: Save money and time". The Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership.
  70. ^ "Sustainable Development Unit". Retrieved 30 May 2015.
  71. ^ Auto-generated Munin. "Munin :: overview". Retrieved 30 May 2015.
  72. ^ Wu, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaolei; Yang, Zhaoping; Wall, Geoffrey; Wang, Fang (2017-06-04). "Creating a low carbon tourism community by public cognition, intention and behaviour change analysisa case study of a heritage site (Tianshan Tianchi, China)". Open Geosciences. 9 (1): 197–210. Bibcode:2017OGeo....9...17W. doi:10.1515/geo-2017-0017. ISSN 2391-5447.
  73. ^ Runnals, D. (2011) “Environment and economy: joined at the hip or just strange bed-fellows?”. S.A.P.I.EN.S. 4 (1)
  74. ^ "Low-Carbon Society Research Project". Retrieved 30 May 2015.
  75. ^ Margot Wallström (11 March 2004). Towards a low carbon economy (Speech). Brussels. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-19.
  76. ^ "The decarbonisation challenge - US and European perspectives". EurActiv - EU News & policy debates, across languages. 28 March 2007. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
  77. ^ "News" (PDF). UITP. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
  78. ^ Tamanini, Jeremy (2014). "Measuring National Performance in the Green Economy 4th Edition –THE GLOBAL GREEN ECONOMY INDEX GGEI 2014" (PDF). Dual Citizen LLC. Retrieved 2019-10-03.
  79. ^ "Arup unveils plans for world's first sustainable city in Dongtan, China". Arup. 2005-08-24. Archived from the original on April 7, 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-26.
  80. ^ "China targets massive 45% carbon cut". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  81. ^ Borenstein, Seth (12 April 2013) China's Carbon Emissions Directly Linked To Rise In Daily Temperature Spikes, Study Finds The Huffington Post, Retrieved 15 May 2013
  82. ^ Kaiman, Jonathan (26 November 2012). "China's emissions expected to rise until 2030, despite ambitious green policies". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-06-20.
  83. ^ "Costa Rica Aims to Be a Carbon-Neutral Nation". Retrieved 2008-02-18.
  84. ^ "Costa Rica Aims to Become First "Carbon Neutral" Country". Archived from the original on 2009-03-26. Retrieved 2008-02-18.
  85. ^ "País quiere ser primera nación con balance neutro de carbono" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2008-02-18.
  86. ^ "Gross energy consumption by source 1987–2005". Statistics Iceland. Archived from the original (XLS) on 2007-11-25. Retrieved 2007-05-14.
  87. ^ "United Nations Millennium Development Goals Indicators". United Nations. Retrieved 2006-08-02.
  88. ^ "Energy in Iceland". Icelandic Ministries of Industry and Commerce. Archived from the original on 2007-03-05. Retrieved 2007-05-14.
  89. ^ "The Economics of Climate Change in Peru". Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.
  90. ^ "Forging low emission development paths in Latin America and the Caribbean: Multi-level dynamics in the world's most urbanized region" (PDF). LEDS GP. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
  91. ^ "LSE Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment". London School of Economics.
  92. ^ "Action Plan for Adaptation and Mitigation Against Climate Change (Peru)". The REDD Desk. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  93. ^ "UN Framework Convention on Climate Change COP20". UNFCCC COP20.
  94. ^ "LEDS GP Peru's National Climate Law" (PDF). LEDS Global Partnership.
  95. ^ a b Bridgea, Gavin; Bouzarovskib, Stefan; Bradshawc, Michael; Eyred, Nick (February 1, 2013). "Geographies of energy transition: Space, place and the low-carbon economy". Energy Policy. Elsevier. 53: 331–340. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2012.10.066. ISSN 0301-4215. OCLC 4936702952. Retrieved July 22, 2021.
  96. ^ "New Bill and strategy lay foundations for tackling climate change". Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. 2007-03-13. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-13.
  97. ^ Towards a low carbon future, Royal Society, 29 June 2009
  98. ^ "Rio's reprise must set hard deadlines for development". The Guardian. 2012-06-19. Archived from the original on July 30, 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
  99. ^ "The Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme Regulations 2014". UK Government. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  100. ^ "ESOS: Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme". The Carbon Trust. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  101. ^ "Low Carbon Entrepreneurs: the new engines of growth". The Carbon Trust. May 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2014.

External links[edit]