Calorie restriction

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Low calorie)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Calorie restriction (caloric restriction or energy restriction) is a dietary regimen that reduces food intake without incurring malnutrition. "Reduce" can be defined relative to the subject's previous intake before intentionally restricting food or beverage consumption, or relative to an average person of similar body type.

Calorie restriction is typically adopted intentionally to reduce body weight. It is recommended as a possible regimen by US dietary guidelines and scientific societies for body weight control.[1][2][3] Mild calorie restriction may be beneficial for pregnant women to reduce weight gain (without weight loss), and reduce perinatal risks for both the mother and child.[4][5] For overweight or obese individuals, long-term health improvement may result from calorie restriction, although a gradual weight regain may occur.[2]

Health effects[edit]


Caloric intake control, and reduction for overweight individuals, is recommended by US dietary guidelines and science-based societies.[1][2][3][6][7][8] Calorie restriction is recommended for people with diabetes[9][10] and prediabetes,[10] in combination with physical exercise and a weight loss goal of 5-15% for diabetes and 7-10% for prediabetes to prevent progression to diabetes.[10] and Mild calorie restriction may be beneficial for pregnant women to reduce weight gain (without weight loss) and reduce perinatal risks for both the mother and child.[4][5] For overweight or obese individuals, calorie restriction may improve health through weight loss, although a gradual weight regain of 1–2 kg per year may occur.[2][6]

Risks of malnutrition[edit]

The term "calorie restriction" as used in the study of aging refers to dietary regimens that reduce calorie intake without incurring malnutrition.[11] If a restricted diet is not designed to include essential nutrients, malnutrition may result in serious deleterious effects, as shown in the Minnesota Starvation Experiment.[12] This study was conducted during World War II on a group of lean men, who restricted their calorie intake by 45%[13] for 6 months and composed roughly 77% of their diet with carbohydrates.[12] As expected, this malnutrition resulted in metabolic adaptations, such as decreased body fat, improved lipid profile, and decreased resting heart rate. The experiment also caused negative effects, such as anemia, edema, muscle wasting, weakness, dizziness, irritability, lethargy, and depression.[12]

Typical low-calorie diets may not supply sufficient nutrient intake that is typically included in a calorie restriction diet.[14][15][16]

Side effects[edit]

People losing weight during calorie restriction risk developing side effects, such as cold sensitivity, menstrual irregularities, infertility, or hormonal changes.[17]



The long-term effects of calorie restriction are unknown. One objection to calorie restriction in humans is a claim that the physiological mechanisms determining longevity are complex, and that the effect would be small to negligible.[18] Effects of calorie restriction in humans over multiple years or decades may be small in comparison to conventional medical and public health interventions, but have not been clearly determined.[11]


In a 2017 report on rhesus monkeys, caloric restriction in the presence of adequate nutrition was effective in delaying the effects of aging.[19][20] Older age of onset, female sex, lower body weight and fat mass, reduced food intake, diet quality, and lower fasting blood glucose levels were factors associated with fewer disorders of aging and with improved survival rates.[19] Specifically, reduced food intake was beneficial in adult and older primates, but not in younger monkeys.[19] The study indicated that caloric restriction provided health benefits with fewer age-related disorders in elderly monkeys and, because rhesus monkeys are genetically similar to humans, the benefits and mechanisms of caloric restriction may apply to human health during aging.[21][22]

Activity levels[edit]

Calorie restriction preserves muscle tissue in nonhuman primates[23][24] and rodents.[25][26] Mechanisms include reduced muscle cell apoptosis and inflammation;[25] protection against[26] or adaptation to[23] age-related mitochondrial abnormalities; and preserved muscle stem cell function.[27] Muscle tissue grows when stimulated, so it has been suggested that the calorie-restricted test animals exercised more than their companions on higher calories, perhaps because animals enter a foraging state during calorie restriction. However, studies show that overall activity levels are no higher in calorie restriction than ad libitum animals in youth.[28] Laboratory rodents placed on a calorie restriction diet tend to exhibit increased activity levels (particularly when provided with exercise equipment) at feeding time. Monkeys undergoing calorie restriction also appear more restless immediately before and after meals.[29]

Sirtuin-mediated mechanism[edit]

Preliminary research indicates that sirtuins are activated by fasting and serve as "energy sensors" during metabolism.[30] Sirtuins, specifically Sir2 (found in yeast) have been implicated in the aging of yeast,[31] and are a class of highly conserved, NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase enzymes.[32] Sir2 homologs have been identified in a wide range of organisms from bacteria to humans.[31][33]


Some research has pointed toward hormesis as an explanation for the benefits of caloric restriction, representing beneficial actions linked to a low-intensity biological stressor such as reduced calorie intake.[34] As a potential role for caloric restriction, the diet imposes a low-intensity biological stress on the organism, eliciting a defensive response that may help protect it against the disorders of aging.[35] In other words, caloric restriction places the organism in a defensive state so that it can survive adversity.[34]

Intensive care[edit]

As of 2019, current clinical guidelines recommend that hospitals ensure that the patients get fed with 80–100 % of energy expenditure, the normocaloric feeding. A systematic review investigated whether people in hospitals' intensive care units have different outcomes with normocaloric feeding or hypocaloric feeding, and found no difference.[36] However, a comment criticized the inadequate control of protein intake, and raised concerns that hypocaloric feeding safety should be further assessed with underweight critically ill people.[37]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b US Department of Health and Human Services. (2017). "2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans -". Skyhorse Publishing Inc. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d Arnett, Donna K.; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Albert, Michelle A.; Buroker, Andrew B.; Goldberger, Zachary D.; Hahn, Ellen J.; Himmelfarb, Cheryl D.; Khera, Amit; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; McEvoy, J. William; Michos, Erin D.; Miedema, Michael D.; Muñoz, Daniel; Smith, Sidney C.; Virani, Salim S.; Williams, Kim A.; Yeboah, Joseph; Ziaeian, Boback (17 March 2019). "2019 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease". Circulation. 140 (11): e596–e646. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000678. PMID 30879355.
  3. ^ a b "Obesity: maintaining a healthy weight and preventing excess weight gain".
  4. ^ a b Glazier, JD; Hayes, DJL; Hussain, S; D'Souza, SW; Whitcombe, J; Heazell, AEP; Ashton, N (25 October 2018). "The effect of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy on perinatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis". BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 18 (1): 421. doi:10.1186/s12884-018-2048-y. PMC 6202808. PMID 30359228.
  5. ^ a b Thangaratinam, S; Rogozinska, E; Jolly, K; Glinkowski, S; Roseboom, T; Tomlinson, JW; Kunz, R; Mol, BW; Coomarasamy, A; Khan, KS (16 May 2012). "Effects of interventions in pregnancy on maternal weight and obstetric outcomes: meta-analysis of randomised evidence". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 344: e2088. doi:10.1136/bmj.e2088. PMC 3355191. PMID 22596383.
  6. ^ a b Jensen, MD; Ryan, DH; Apovian, CM; Ard, JD; Comuzzie, AG; Donato, KA; Hu, FB; Hubbard, VS; Jakicic, JM; Kushner, RF; Loria, CM; Millen, BE; Nonas, CA; Pi-Sunyer, FX; Stevens, J; Stevens, VJ; Wadden, TA; Wolfe, BM; Yanovski, SZ; Jordan, HS; Kendall, KA; Lux, LJ; Mentor-Marcel, R; Morgan, LC; Trisolini, MG; Wnek, J; Anderson, JL; Halperin, JL; Albert, NM; Bozkurt, B; Brindis, RG; Curtis, LH; DeMets, D; Hochman, JS; Kovacs, RJ; Ohman, EM; Pressler, SJ; Sellke, FW; Shen, WK; Smith SC, Jr; Tomaselli, GF; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice, Guidelines.; Obesity, Society. (24 June 2014). "2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society". Circulation. 129 (25 Suppl 2): S102–38. doi:10.1161/ PMC 5819889. PMID 24222017.
  7. ^ "Diet - NICE Pathways".
  8. ^ Garvey, WT; Mechanick, JI; Brett, EM; Garber, AJ; Hurley, DL; Jastreboff, AM; Nadolsky, K; Pessah-Pollack, R; Plodkowski, R; Reviewers of the AACE/ACE Obesity Clinical Practice, Guidelines. (July 2016). "American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology Comprehensive Clinical Practice Guidelines for Medical Care of Patients with Obesity". Endocrine Practice. 22 Suppl 3: 1–203. doi:10.4158/EP161365.GL. PMID 27219496.
  9. ^ American Diabetes, Association. (January 2019). "5. Lifestyle Management: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2019". Diabetes Care. 42 (Suppl 1): S46–S60. doi:10.2337/dc19-S005. PMID 30559231.
  10. ^ a b c Evert AB, Dennison M, Gardner CD, Garvey WT, Lau KH, MacLeod J, et al. (May 2019). "Nutrition Therapy for Adults With Diabetes or Prediabetes: A Consensus Report". Diabetes Care (Professional society guidelines). 42 (5): 731–754. doi:10.2337/dci19-0014. PMID 31000505.
  11. ^ a b Everitt, A. V; Le Couteur, D. G (2007). "Life extension by calorie restriction in humans". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1114 (1): 428–33. Bibcode:2007NYASA1114..428E. doi:10.1196/annals.1396.005. PMID 17717102.
  12. ^ a b c Keys A, Brozek J, Henschels A & Mickelsen O & Taylor H. The Biology of Human Starvation, 1950. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis
  13. ^ Keys A 1950, p. 114.
  14. ^ St. Jeor, S. T.; Howard, B. V.; Prewitt, T. E.; Bovee, V.; Bazzarre, T.; Eckel, R. H.; Nutrition Committee Of The Council On Nutrition (2001). "Dietary Protein and Weight Reduction: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association". Circulation. 104 (15): 1869–74. doi:10.1161/hc4001.096152. PMID 11591629.
  15. ^ De Souza, RJ; Swain, JF; Appel, LJ; Sacks, FM (2008). "Alternatives for macronutrient intake and chronic disease: a comparison of the OmniHeart diets with popular diets and with dietary recommendations". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 88 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1093/ajcn/88.1.1. PMC 2674146. PMID 18614716.
  16. ^ Ma, Y; Pagoto, S; Griffith, J; Merriam, P; Ockene, I; Hafner, A; Olendzki, B (2007). "A Dietary Quality Comparison of Popular Weight-Loss Plans". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 107 (10): 1786–91. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2007.07.013. PMC 2040023. PMID 17904938.
  17. ^ Marzetti, E.; Wohlgemuth, S. E.; Anton, S. D.; Bernabei, R; Carter, C. S.; Leeuwenburgh, C (2012-10-19). "Cellular mechanisms of cardioprotection by calorie restriction: state of the science and future perspectives". Clin. Geriatr. Med. 25 (4): 715–32, ix. doi:10.1016/j.cger.2009.07.002. PMC 2786899. PMID 19944269.
  18. ^ Phelan, J; Rose, M (2005). "Why dietary restriction substantially increases longevity in animal models but won't in humans". Ageing Research Reviews. 4 (3): 339–50. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2005.06.001. PMID 16046282.
  19. ^ a b c Mattison, Julie A.; Colman, Ricki J.; Beasley, T. Mark; Allison, David B.; Kemnitz, Joseph W.; Roth, George S.; Ingram, Donald K.; Weindruch, Richard; de Cabo, Rafael; Anderson, Rozalyn M. (2017-01-17). "Caloric restriction improves health and survival of rhesus monkeys". Nature Communications. 8 (1): 14063. Bibcode:2017NatCo...814063M. doi:10.1038/ncomms14063. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 5247583. PMID 28094793.
  20. ^ "Calorie restriction lets monkeys live long and prosper". ScienceDirect. 17 January 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  21. ^ Mattison, Julie A.; Roth, George S.; Beasley, T. Mark; Tilmont, Edward M.; Handy, April M.; Herbert, Richard L.; Longo, Dan L.; Allison, David B.; Young, Jennifer E.; Bryant, Mark; Barnard, Dennis; Ward, Walter F.; Qi, Wenbo; Ingram, Donald K.; de Cabo, Rafael (2012-08-29). "Impact of caloric restriction on health and survival in rhesus monkeys from the NIA study". Nature. 489 (7415): 318–321. Bibcode:2012Natur.489..318M. doi:10.1038/nature11432. ISSN 0028-0836. PMC 3832985. PMID 22932268.
  22. ^ Vaughan, Kelli L; Kaiser, Tamzin; Peaden, Robert; Anson, R Michael; de Cabo, Rafael; Mattison, Julie A (2017-06-13). "Caloric Restriction Study Design Limitations in Rodent and Nonhuman Primate Studies". The Journals of Gerontology: Series A. 73 (1): 48–53. doi:10.1093/gerona/glx088. ISSN 1079-5006. PMC 5861872. PMID 28977341.
  23. ^ a b McKiernan, SH; Colman, RJ; Aiken, E; Evans, TD; Beasley, TM; Aiken, JM; Weindruch, R; Anderson, RM (Mar 2012). "Cellular adaptation contributes to calorie restriction-induced preservation of skeletal muscle in aged rhesus monkeys". Exp Gerontol. 47 (3): 229–36. doi:10.1016/j.exger.2011.12.009. PMC 3321729. PMID 22226624.
  24. ^ Colman, RJ; Beasley, TM; Allison, DB; Weindruch, R (2008). "Attenuation of Sarcopenia by Dietary Restriction in Rhesus Monkeys". The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 63 (6): 556–9. doi:10.1093/gerona/63.6.556. PMC 2812805. PMID 18559628.
  25. ^ a b Dirks Naylor, AJ; Leeuwenburgh, C (Jan 2008). "Sarcopenia: the role of apoptosis and modulation by caloric restriction". Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 36 (1): 19–24. doi:10.1097/jes.0b013e31815ddd9d. PMID 18156949.
  26. ^ a b Bua, E; McKiernan, SH; Aiken, JM (Mar 2004). "Calorie restriction limits the generation but not the progression of mitochondrial abnormalities in aging skeletal muscle". FASEB J. 18 (3): 582–4. doi:10.1096/fj.03-0668fje. PMID 14734641.
  27. ^ Cerletti, M; Jang, YC; Finley3=LW; Haigis 4=MC; Wagers 5=AJ (May 4, 2012). "Short-term calorie restriction enhances skeletal muscle stem cell function". Cell Stem Cell. 10 (5): 515–9. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2012.04.002. PMC 3561899. PMID 22560075.
  28. ^ Faulks, SC; Turner, N; Else, PL; Hulbert, AJ (Aug 2006). "Calorie restriction in mice: effects on body composition, daily activity, metabolic rate, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, and membrane fatty acid composition". J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 61 (8): 781–94. doi:10.1093/gerona/61.8.781. PMID 16912094.
  29. ^ Vitousek K. M.; Manke F. P.; Gray J. A.; Vitousek M. N. (2004). "Caloric Restriction for Longevity: II--The Systematic Neglect of Behavioural and Psychological Outcomes in Animal Research". European Eating Disorders Review. 12 (6): 338–360. doi:10.1002/erv.604.
  30. ^ Chang, H. C; Guarente, L (2013). "SIRT1 and other sirtuins in Metabolism". Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism. 25 (3): 138–145. doi:10.1016/j.tem.2013.12.001. hdl:1721.1/104067. PMC 3943707. PMID 24388149.
  31. ^ a b Guarente, L. (2007). "Sirtuins in aging and disease". Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. 72: 483–488. doi:10.1101/sqb.2007.72.024. ISSN 0091-7451. PMID 18419308.
  32. ^ Lin, Su-Ju; Ford, Ethan; Haigis, Marcia; Liszt, Greg; Guarente, Leonard (2004-01-01). "Calorie restriction extends yeast life span by lowering the level of NADH". Genes & Development. 18 (1): 12–16. doi:10.1101/gad.1164804. ISSN 0890-9369. PMC 314267. PMID 14724176.
  33. ^ Kaeberlein M.; McVey M.; Guarente L. (1999). "The SIR2/3/4 complex and SIR2 alone promote longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by two different mechanisms. '". Genes & Development. 13 (19): 2570–2580. doi:10.1101/gad.13.19.2570. PMC 317077. PMID 10521401.
  34. ^ a b Nikolai, Sibylle; Pallauf, Kathrin; Huebbe, Patricia; Rimbach, Gerald (22 September 2015). "Energy restriction and potential energy restriction mimetics". Nutrition Research Reviews. 28 (2): 100–120. doi:10.1017/S0954422415000062. PMID 26391585.
  35. ^ Martins, I; Galluzzi, L; Kroemer, G (2011). "Hormesis, cell death and aging". Aging. 3 (9): 821–8. doi:10.18632/aging.100380. PMC 3227447. PMID 21931183.
  36. ^ Marik, PE; Hooper, MH (March 2016). "Normocaloric versus hypocaloric feeding on the outcomes of ICU patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Intensive care medicine. 42 (3): 316–323. doi:10.1007/s00134-015-4131-4. PMID 26556615.
  37. ^ Bitzani, M (April 2016). "Comments on Marik and Hooper: Normocaloric versus hypocaloric feeding on the outcomes of ICU patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Intensive care medicine. 42 (4): 628–629. doi:10.1007/s00134-016-4248-0. PMID 26880090.


  • Everitt, Arthur V.; Heilbronn, Leonie K.; Le Couteur, David G. (2010). "Food Intake, Life Style, Aging and Human Longevity". In Everitt, Arthur V; Rattan, Suresh IS; Le Couteur, David G; de Cabo, Rafael (eds.). Calorie Restriction, Aging and Longevity. New York: Springer. ISBN 978-90-481-8555-9.
  • Keys, Ancel; Brozek, Josef; Henschel, Austin; Mickelsen, Olaf; Taylor, Henry Longstreet (1950). The Biology of Human Starvation. I. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 9780816672349.