In electrical engineering, low voltage is a relative term, the definition varying by context. Different definitions are used in electric power transmission and distribution, and electrical safety codes define "low voltage" circuits that are exempt from the protection required at higher voltages. These definitions vary by country and specific codes or regulations.
|IEC voltage range||AC RMS
|DC voltage (V)||Defining risk|
|High voltage||> 1 000||> 1 500||Electrical arcing|
|Low voltage||50 to 1 000||120 to 1 500||Electrical shock|
|Extra-low voltage||< 50||< 120||Low risk|
In electrical power systems low voltage most commonly refers to the mains voltages as used by domestic and light industrial and commercial consumers. "Low voltage" in this context still presents a risk of electric shock, but only a minor risk of electric arcs through the air. System voltages around the world are defined in IEC 60038, IEC standard voltages, .
- British Standard BS 7671, Requirements for Electrical Installations. IET Wiring Regulations, defines supply system low voltage as:
exceeding 50 V ac or 120 V ripple-free dc. but not exceeding 1000 V ac or 1500 V dc between conductors, or 600 V ac or 900 V ac between conductors and earth.
The ripple-free direct current requirement only applies to 120 V dc, not to any dc voltage above that. For example, a direct current that is exceeding 1500 V dc during voltage fluctuations it is not categorized as low-voltage.
In electrical power distribution, the US National Electrical Code (NEC), NFPA 70, article 725 (2005), defines low distribution system voltage (LDSV) as 0 to 49 V..
The NFPA standard 79 article 18.104.22.168 defines distribution protected extra-low voltage (PELV) as nominal voltage of 30 Vrms or 60 V dc ripple-free for dry locations, and 6 Vrms or 15 V dc in all other cases.
- IEC standard voltages, IEC 60038, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Geneva. 2009.
- Requirements for Electrical Installations. IET Wiring Regulations, BS 7671, British Standards Institute (BSI), London, 2018+A1:2020