Lower Lake (Bhopal)
|Location||Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India|
|Primary inflows||Seepage from Upper Lake and drainage from 28 sewage-filled nullahs|
|Primary outflows||Halali River via Patra Drain|
|Catchment area||9.6 km2 (3.7 sq mi)|
|Surface area||1.29 km2 (0.50 sq mi) (2011)|
|Average depth||6.2 m (20 ft)|
|Max. depth||10.7 m (35 ft)|
|References||International Lake Environment Committee|
The lake was built by creating in 1794 to beautify the city. The construction was commissioned by Chote Khan, a minister of Nawab Hayat Muhammad Khan Bahadur. A number of earlier wells were merged in this lake.
The bridge that separates the Lower Lake and the Upper Lake is called "Pul Pukhta" or Lower Lake bridge. The lower lake has also been mentioned as "Pukhta-Pul Talao" in literature.
The Lower Lake is located to the east of the Upper Lake. An earthen dam separates the two lakes. The two lakes are built in a terraced manner, the lowest level of the Upper Lake is just below the highest level of the Lower Lake.
The Lower Lake has an area (water spread) of 1.29 , and its catchment area is 9.6 km2. The lake receives subsurface seepage from the Upper Lake. In the 1850s, the maximum and minimum depths of the lake were 11.7 m and 6.16 m respectively. As of 2011, the maximum depth was 10.7m.
The Lower Lake does not have any fresh water source; it receives seepage water from the Upper Lake and drainage from 28 sewage-filled nullahs. It drains into the Patra rivulet, which joins Halali River, a small tributary of the Betwa River.
The Lower Lake suffers from pollution due to drainage from sewage-filled nullahs, lack of fresh water source and commercial washing of clothes. The entire lake is eutrophic, and its water is not suitable for drinking.
- "Lower Lake". International Lake Environment Committee. Retrieved 2011-10-28.
- "Places of Interest in Bhopal". Collectorate, Bhopal. Retrieved 2011-10-28.
- Pranab Kumar Bhattacharyya (1977). Historical Geography of Madhya Pradesh from Early Records. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 275. ISBN 978-0-8426-9091-1.
- Prashant S. Khirwadkar (2000). "Lake front planning for a sustainable lake". In Ugo Maione; Beatrice Majone Lehto; Rossella Monti (eds.). New trends in water and environmental engineering for safety and life (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-90-5809-138-3.