Luís I of Portugal
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Photograph by Augusto Bobone, 1885
|King of Portugal|
|Reign||11 November 1861 – |
19 October 1889
|Acclamation||22 December 1861|
|Born||31 October 1838|
Necessidades Palace, Lisbon, Portugal
|Died||19 October 1889 (aged 50)|
Citadel of Cascais, Cascais, Portugal
|Spouse||Maria Pia of Savoy|
Infante Afonso, Duke of Porto
|Father||Ferdinand II of Portugal|
|Mother||Maria II of Portugal|
Dom Luís I (31 October 1838 in Lisbon – 19 October 1889 in Cascais) was a member of the House of Braganza, and King of Portugal from 1861 to 1889. The second son of Maria II and Ferdinand II, he acceded to the throne upon the death of his brother Pedro V.
Luís was a cultured man who wrote vernacular poetry, but had no distinguishing gifts in the political field into which he was thrust by the deaths of his brothers Pedro V and Fernando in 1861. Luís's domestic reign was a tedious and ineffective series of transitional governments called Rotativism formed at various times by the Progressistas (Liberals) and the Regeneradores (Conservatives – the party generally favoured by King Luís, who secured their long term in office after 1881). Despite a flirtation with the Spanish succession prior to the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, Luís's reign was otherwise one of domestic stagnation as Portugal fell ever further behind the nations of western Europe in terms of public education, political stability, technological progress and economic prosperity. In colonial affairs, Delagoa Bay was confirmed as a Portuguese possession in 1875, whilst Belgian activities in the Congo (1880s) and a British Ultimatum in 1890 denied Portugal a land link between Portuguese Angola and Portuguese Mozambique at the peak of the Scramble for Africa.
Luís was mostly a man of the sciences, with a passion for oceanography. He invested a large portion of his fortune in funding research boats to collect specimens in the oceans of the world, and was responsible for the establishment of one of the world's first aquariums, the Aquário Vasco da Gama in Lisbon, which is still open to the public with its vast collection of maritime life forms, including a 10 meter long squid. His love for the sciences and advances in knowledge was passed on to his two sons. Luís was also very keen with literature, not only with books in Portuguese but also in English; he was the first to bring fully translated Shakespearean works to Portugal, such as The Merchant of Venice, Richard III and Othello, the Moor of Venice; his best-known work in all of Portugal was his translation of Hamlet.
Marriages and descendants
On 6 October 1862, Luís married Princess Maria Pia of Savoy (16 October 1847 – 5 July 1911), daughter of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Maria Adelaide of Austria. They both had a deep love at first, but Luis's countless mistresses led Maria Pia to depression. Together they had two sons who survived childhood, and a stillborn son in 1866.
- Dom Carlos, Prince Royal of Portugal (28 September 1863 – 1 February 1908), successor as King Carlos I; murdered by the Carbonária.
- Dom Afonso, Prince Royal of Portugal (31 July 1865 – 21 February 1920), Infante of Portugal, Duke of Porto, Viceroy of India, and after 1908 Prince Royal.
The King also fathered one illegitimate son, also named Carlos, who was born in 1874 in Lisbon.
Titles, styles and honours
|Royal styles of|
King Luís I of Portugal
|Reference style||His Most Faithful Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Most Faithful Majesty|
Titles and styles
- 31 October 1838 - 11 November 1861: His Royal Highness The Duke of Porto and Viseu
- 11 November 1861 - 19 October 1889: His Most Faithful Majesty The King of Portugal and the Algarves
Luís I's official styling as King of Portugal:
By the Grace of God and by the Constitution of the Monarchy, Luís I, King of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, South Africa etc.
- Kingdom of Portugal:
- Sovereign of the Military Order of Knights of Our Lord Jesus Christ
- Sovereign of the Order of Saint Benedict of Aviz
- Sovereign of the Military Order of Saint James of the Sword
- Sovereign of the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa
- Sovereign of the Order of the Tower and Sword
- Austrian Empire: Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary - 1854
- Baden: Grand Cross of the Order of the Zähringer Lion
- Kingdom of Bavaria: Knight of the Order of Saint Hubert
- Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold - 1854
- Empire of Brazil:
- Denmark: Knight of the Order of the Elephant - 18 April 1864
- Kingdom of Greece: Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer
- Kingdom of Hawaii: Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Kamehameha I - 19 August 1881
- Grand Duchy of Hesse: Grand Cross of the Ludwig Order
- Liberia: Grand Commander of the Humane Order of African Redemption
- Mecklenburg: Grand Cross of the House Order of the Wendish Crown
- Monaco: Grand Cross of the Order of Saint-Charles
- Netherlands: Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion
- Ottoman Empire: Order of the Medjidie, First Class
- Kingdom of Prussia: Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle
- Kingdom of Sardinia:
- Kingdom of Saxony: Knight of the Order of the Rue Crown
- Principality of Serbia: Grand Cross of the Order of the Cross of Takovo
- Siam: Knight of the Order of the Nine Gems
- Sweden: Knight of the Order of the Seraphim - 27 November 1861
- Tunisia: Grand Cordon of the Order of Glory
- United Kingdom: Knight of the Order of the Garter - 17 June 1865
- "While remaining patrilineal dynasts of the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha according to pp. 88, 116 of the 1944 Almanach de Gotha, Title 1, Chapter 1, Article 5 of the 1838 Portuguese constitution declared, with respect to Ferdinand II of Portugal's issue by his first wife, that 'the Most Serene House of Braganza is the reigning house of Portugal and continues through the Person of the Lady Queen Maria II'. Thus their mutual descendants constitute the Coburg line of the House of Braganza"
- "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Le livre d'or de l'ordre de Léopold et de la croix de fer, Volume 1 /Ferdinand Veldekens
- Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 272. ISBN 978-87-7674-434-2.
- King Kalakaua's Tour Round the World (Honolulu, 1881) page 72
- "Toison Espagnole (Spanish Fleece) - 19th century" (in French), Chevaliers de la Toison D'or. Retrieved 2018-08-07.
- Wm. A. Shaw, The Knights of England, Volume I (London, 1906) page 62
Luís I of Portugal
Cadet branch of the House of AvizBorn: 31 October 1838 Died: 19 October 1889
| King of Portugal
| Duke of Porto