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The Luandi (simplified Chinese: 挛鞮; traditional Chinese: 攣鞮; pinyin: Luándī; Wade–Giles: Luan-ti; alternatively written as Xulianti simplified Chinese: 虚连题; traditional Chinese: 虛連題; pinyin: Xūliántí) was a clan and the ruling dynasty of the ancient Xiongnu that flourished between 3rd century BCE to 4th century CE. The form Luandi (挛鞮) comes from Hanshu,[1] while the form Xulianti comes from Hou Hanshu.[2] Anna Dybo reconstructed 攣鞮's Old Chinese pronunciation as *r(h)wan-de & posits that the clan's name was an Iranic loanword, cognate with Khotanese runde, plural of rre from *rwant- "king".[3] There were four other noble tribes: Huyan, Xubu, Qiulin and Lan. The Huyan belonged to the dominating left wing, and the Lan and the Xubu belonged to the right wing.[4]

The Luandi was a clan that held some of the highest positions in the Xiongnu society, including the title of chanyu within the Xiongnu confederacy. In the confederation, Luandi was a paternal dynastic tribe, Huyan was an initially maternal dynastic tribe, and Xubu was a subsequently maternal dynastic tribe. They were the three most prominent tribes ("Houses" in N. Bichurin)[5] in the Xiongnu.

The earliest prominent figure from the clan itself was perhaps their leader Touman. Later on, a branch of the Luandi changed their family name to Liu (劉).

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Hanshu, chapter 94a, l. 7a
  2. ^ Hou Hanshu, chapter 89, l. 7b
  3. ^ Dybo, Anna (2014), “Early contacts of Turks and problems of Proto-Turkic reconstruction”, in Tatarica, 2, p. 9
  4. ^ Taskin B.S., "Materials on Sünnu history", Science, Moscow, 1968, p. 130 (In Russian)
  5. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", vol. 1, Saint Petersburg, 1851, p. 15 ( note 1: Huyan and Xubu always were in marital relationship with Chanyu. Xubu had a post of the State Judge. The custom of taking for the Khan maidens only from the same houses also survived in the Chingis-khan's house.)


  • Wang, Zhonghan (2004). "Outlines of Ethnic Groups in China". Taiyuan: Shanxi Education Press. ISBN 7-5440-2660-4. p. 134.
  • Lin, Gan (1986). "A Comprehensive History of Xiongnu". Beijing: People's Press. CN / K289. p. 11-12.
  • Book of Han, vol. 94a.
  • Book of Later Han, vol. 89.
  • Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", vol. 1, Sankt Petersburg, 1851