Luce–Celler Act of 1946

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President Truman signs the bill

The Luce–Celler Act of 1946 (H. R. 3517; Public Law 483) was proposed by Republican Clare Boothe Luce and Democrat Emanuel Celler in 1943 and signed into law by President Harry Truman on July 2, 1946, two days before the Philippines became independent with the signing of the Treaty of Manila on July 4, 1946.

The Act provided a quota of 100 Filipinos[1] and 100 Indians to immigrate into the United States per year.[2] As the Philippines became independent from the United States in 1946, Filipinos would have been barred from immigrating without the Act.[3]

The act also allowed Filipino Americans and Indian Americans to naturalize and become US citizens.[4] Indian Americans had not been allowed to naturalize since United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind in 1923, which the law effectively reversed.[5] Upon becoming citizens, the new Americans could own homes and farmland and petition for family from their nation of birth.[6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Bayor, Ronald (2011). Multicultural America: An Encyclopedia of the Newest Americans. ABC-CLIO. p. 714. ISBN 978-0-313-35786-2. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
  2. ^ Bayor, Ronald (2011). Multicultural America: An Encyclopedia of the Newest Americans. ABC-CLIO. p. 969. ISBN 978-0-313-35786-2. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
  3. ^ Trinh Võ, Linda (2004). Mobilizing an Asian American community. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-1-59213-262-1. Retrieved 7 February 2012. The Philippines was granted independence in 1946, and Filipinos, then barred from immigration along with individuals from other countries in the "Eastern Hemisphere," were allotted 100 immigration slots (Yu 1980).
  4. ^ Okihiro, Gary Y. (2005). The Columbia Guide to Asian American History. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-231-11511-7. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
  5. ^ Huping Ling; Allan W. Austin (17 March 2015). Asian American History and Culture: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 1111. ISBN 978-1-317-47644-3.
    Kathryn Gin Lum; Paul Harvey (1 March 2018). The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Race in American History. Oxford University Press. p. 449. ISBN 978-0-19-022118-8.
  6. ^ Mabalon, Dawn B.; Rico Reyes (2008). Filipinos in Stockton. Arcadia Publishing. Filipino American National Historical Society, Little Manila Foundation. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7385-5624-6. Retrieved 7 February 2012.