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Lucene logo
Developer(s) Apache Software Foundation
Stable release 6.1.0 / June 17, 2016 (2016-06-17)
Development status Active
Written in Java
Operating system Cross-platform
Type Search and index
License Apache License 2.0

Apache Lucene is a free and open-source information retrieval software library, originally written in Java by Doug Cutting. It is supported by the Apache Software Foundation and is released under the Apache Software License.

Lucene has been ported to other programming languages including Delphi, Perl, C#, C++, Python, Ruby, and PHP.[1]


Doug Cutting originally wrote Lucene in 1999.[2] It was initially available for download from its home at the SourceForge web site. It joined the Apache Software Foundation's Jakarta family of open-source Java products in September 2001 and became its own top-level Apache project in February 2005.

Lucene formerly included a number of sub-projects, such as Lucene.NET, Mahout, Tika and Nutch. Lucene.NET, Mahout, Nutch, and Tika are now independent top-level projects.

In March 2010, the Apache Solr search server joined as a Lucene sub project, merging the developer communities.

Version 4.0 was released on October 12, 2012.[3]

The latest version of Lucene is 6.1.0 which was released on June 17, 2016.[3]

Features and common use[edit]

While suitable for any application that requires full text indexing and searching capability, Lucene has been widely recognized[4][5] for its utility in the implementation of Internet search engines and local, single-site searching.

At the core of Lucene's logical architecture is the idea of a document containing fields of text. This flexibility allows Lucene's API to be independent of the file format. Text from PDFs, HTML, Microsoft Word, Mind Maps, and OpenDocument documents, as well as many others (except images), can all be indexed as long as their textual information can be extracted.[6]

Lucene-based projects[edit]

Lucene itself is just an indexing and search library and does not contain crawling and HTML parsing functionality. However, several projects extend Lucene's capability:


For a list of companies that use Lucene (rather than extend), see Lucene's "Powered By" page.[21] As an example, Twitter is using Lucene for its real time search.[22]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "LuceneImplementations". Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  2. ^ "Better Search with Apache Lucene and Solr" (PDF). 19 November 2007. 
  3. ^ a b "Apache Lucene - Welcome to Apache Lucene". Retrieved 4 February 2016. 
  4. ^ McCandless, Michael; Hatcher, Erik; Gospodnetić, Otis (2010). Lucene in Action, Second Edition. Manning. p. 8. ISBN 1933988177. 
  5. ^ GNU/Linux Semantic Storage System
  6. ^ Perner, Petra (2007). Machine Learning and Data Mining in Pattern Recognition: 5th International Conference. Springer. p. 387. ISBN 978-3-540-73498-7. 
  7. ^ a b "What are the main differences between ElasticSearch, Apache Solr and SolrCloud? - Quora". Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  8. ^ "Elasticsearch: RESTful, Distributed Search & Analytics - Elastic". Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  9. ^ "The Future of Compass & Elasticsearch". the dude abides. Retrieved 2015-10-14. 
  10. ^ Riley, Matt (May 9, 2012). "What is the technology stack behind Swiftype? - Quora". Quora. Retrieved 3 October 2014. 
  11. ^ Ferret-Github repository
  12. ^
  13. ^ a b Natividad, Angela. "Socialtext Updates Search, Goes Kino". CMS Wire. Retrieved 2011-05-31. 
  14. ^ Marvin Humphrey. "KinoSearch - Search engine library. -". Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  15. ^ Diment, Kieren; Trout, Matt S (2009). "Catalyst Cookbook". The Definitive Guide to Catalyst. Apress. p. 280. ISBN 978-1-4302-2365-8. 
  16. ^ "HMDB: a knowledgebase for the human metabolome". Nucleic Acids Res. 37 (Database issue): D603–10. January 2009. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn810. PMC 2686599. PMID 18953024. 
  17. ^ "T3DB: a comprehensively annotated database of common toxins and their targets". Nucleic Acids Res. 38 (Database issue): D781–6. January 2010. doi:10.1093/nar/gkp934. PMC 2808899. PMID 19897546. 
  18. ^ Michael McCandless; Erik Hatcher; Otis Gospodnetić (2010). Lucene in Action (2 ed.). Manning Publications. p. 338. ISBN 978-1-933988-17-7. 
  19. ^ "Apache Lucy". Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  20. ^ "DmitryKey/luke". GitHub. Retrieved 2015-10-14. 
  21. ^ "PoweredBy". Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  22. ^ MG Siegler. "Twitter Quietly Launched A New Search Backend Weeks Ago". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved 23 September 2015. 


External links[edit]