Luciferin (from the Latin lucifer, "light-bringer") is a generic term for the light-emitting compound found in organisms that generate bioluminescence. Luciferins typically undergo an enzyme-catalysed oxidation and the resulting excited state intermediate emits light upon decaying to its ground state. This may refer to molecules that are substrates for both luciferases and photoproteins.
Luciferins are a class of small-molecule substrates that are oxidized in the presence of a luciferase (an enzyme) to produce energy in the form of light. It is not known just how many types of luciferins there are, but some of the better-studied compounds are listed below.
Because of the chemical diversity of luciferins, there is no clear unifying mechanism of action, except that all require molecular oxygen at some step, Based on the variety of luciferins and luciferases, their diverse reaction mechanisms and scattered phylogenetic distribution, it is estimated that many of them have arisen independently in the course of evolution.
Firefly luciferin is the luciferin found in many Lampyridae species. It is the substrate of beetle luciferases (EC 22.214.171.124) responsible for the characteristic yellow light emission from fireflies, though can cross-react to produce light with related enzymes from non-luminous species. The chemistry is unusual, as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is required for light emission, in addition to molecular oxygen.
Coelenterazine is found in radiolarians, ctenophores, cnidarians, squid, brittle stars, copepods, chaetognaths, fish, and shrimp. It is the prosthetic group in the protein aequorin responsible for the blue light emission.
Dinoflagellate luciferin is a chlorophyll derivative (i. e. a tetrapyrrole) and is found in some dinoflagellates, which are often responsible for the phenomenon of nighttime glowing waves (historically this was called phosphorescence, but is a misleading term). A very similar type of luciferin is found in some types of euphausiid shrimp.
While there may be multiple different luciferins within the kingdom of fungi, 3-hydroxy hispidin was determined to be the luciferin in the fruiting bodies of several species of fungi, including Neonothopanus nambi and Panellus stipticus.
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