Lucius Duncan Bulkley
Lucius Duncan Bulkley
|Born||January 12, 1845|
|Died||July 20, 1928|
Bulkley was born in Manhattan. His father was Henry Daggett Bulkley. In 1869, he obtained his M.D. from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. He was house physician at New York Hospital and travelled to Europe to study dermatology in London, Paris and Vienna.
Bulkley was awarded the Stevens Triennial Prize from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, for his essay Thermometry in Disease and the Alvarenga prize by the College of Physicians of Philadelphia for his monograph Syphilis in the Innocent, in 1891. He was Chairman of Dermatology and Syphilology of the American Medical Association. He was President of the New York Dermatological Society and the New York Academy of Medicine.
Bulkley edited the Archives of Dermatology (1874-1882), the only journal in English during this period devoted to dermatology. He founded the New York Skin and Cancer Hospital in 1883. He wrote on a variety of subjects including acne, eczema, relationship of diet to skin disease and cancer.
His 1885 book Acne, Its Etiology, Pathology, And Treatment, was positively reviewed in the British Medical Journal as a useful monograph for practitioners. It was the first textbook on acne. Bulkley advocated a vegetarian diet for treatment of psoriasis and other skin diseases.
Bulkley believed that the fundamental cause of cancer was faulty metabolism, largely influenced by unhealthy dieting. He recommended his patients to practice simple living and avoid consuming meat, alcohol, tea and coffee. Bulkley held the same view of William Arbuthnot Lane that intestinal stasis may cause cancer. He commented that "I feel like saying that the toxins produced by the millions of micro-organisms generated through intestinal stasis and fecal putrefaction, are the real, incidental cause of cancer."
Bulkley argued that cancer is more frequent in advanced and richer nations, among people who indulge in luxuries. He noted that cancer occurs less frequently in rice-eating countries where little meat is eaten. He believed that cancer is a disease of civilization and can be cured by dietary, hygienic and medical measures without surgery. He firmly opposed the surgical treatment of cancer.
Bulkley recommended a vegetarian diet, moderate exercise, a simple life without stress and sufficient sleep to treat cancer. His recommended diet consisted of vegetables, fruits, butter, bread and cereals. The occasional egg or use of milk was allowed. He also prescribed the use of potassium acetate.
The Historical Atlas of Dermatology and Dermatologists, notes that:
[Bulkley] eventually became a dietary fanatic, convinced that cancer, skin cancer included, could be cured or prevented by adherence to dietary regimens to which he was privy. In the end his fanaticism destroyed his credibility, blinded the younger generation to the marvelous contributions he had made to the specialty in its formative years, and reduced him to a pathetic figure sitting silently and by himself at medical meetings he attended during his final days.
Bulkley was the editor of Cancer: A Practical Quarterly Journal Devoted to the Best Interests of Cancer. Physician Albert G. Hulett criticized the journal for rejecting radiotherapy and surgery. Another critic wrote that Bulkley and his collaborators from the journal were promoting unsafe treatments.
Bulkley's book Cancer and its Non-Surgical Treatment, published in 1921 was widely criticized by the medical community. A review in the Journal of the American Medical Association described it as an "unsourced and unpropitious book" and Bulkley's dietary ideas and opposition to surgical treatment of cancer as a "medical heresy". In 1924, Henry H. Whitehouse President of the New York Skin and Cancer Hospital sent a letter to the Journal of the American Medical Association stating that the medical profession and staff of the New York Skin and Cancer Hospital reject Bulkley's dietary treatment for cancer.
- The Skin in Health and Disease (1880)
- Manual of Diseases of the Skin (1882)
- Acne, its Etiology, Pathology and Treatment (1885)
- Syphilis in the Innocent (1894)
- On the Restriction of Meat in the Treatment of Psoriasis (Dietetic and Hygienic Gazette, 1897)
- Eczema With An Analysis of Eight Thousand Cases of the Disease (1901)
- The Value of an Absolutely Vegetarian Diet in Psoriasis (1908)
- Diet and Hygiene in Diseases of the Skin (1913)
- Cancer: Its Cause and Treatment (1915)
- Medical Aspects of Cancer (Medical Record, 1915)
- Cancer From a Medical Standpoint (New York State Journal of Medicine, 1916)
- The Medical Treatment of Cancer (1919)
- Cancer and its Non-Surgical Treatment (1921)
- Proofs of the Constitutional Nature of Cancer (New York Medical Journal, 1921)
- Cancer is Never a Purely Local Disease (International Clinics, 1923)
- Crissey, John Thorne; Parish, Lawrence C; Holubar, Karl. (2002). Historical Atlas of Dermatology and Dermatologists. Parthenon Publishing. p. 81. ISBN 1-84214-100-7
- "Lucius Duncan Bulkley". Bull N Y Acad Med. 4 (9): 978. 1928. PMC 2393885.
- Sprague, John Franklin. (1893). New York, The Metropolis: Its Noted Business and Professional Men. The New York Recorder. pp. 39-40.
- Forest, H. P. De. (1894). "Syphilis in the Innocent (Syphilis Insontinum)". Annals of Surgery. 20 (2): 253–256. doi:10.1097/00000658-189407000-00041. PMC 1493817.
- "Lucius Duncan Bulkley, M.D. 1845-1928". Arch Derm Syphilol. 18 (5): 755. 1928. doi:10.1001/archderm.1928.02380170111011.
- "Reviewed Work: Acne, Its Etiology, Pathology, And Treatment by L. Duncan Bulkley". British Medical Journal. 2 (1303): 1169. 1885.
- Plewig, G; Kligman, A. M. (2012). Acne and Rosacea. Springer. p. 5. ISBN 978-3-642-64096-4
- "Reviewed Work: Diet And Hygiene In Diseases Of The Skin by L. Duncan Bulkley". British Medical Journal. 1 (2730): 886. 1913.
- "Dr. L.D. Bulkley Dies in 84th Year; Noted as a Dermatologist and a Specialist in Treatment of Cancer. Founded Two Hospitals Training School for Nurses Named for Him--Practiced Medicine More Than 56 Years. Studied Dietetic Treatment. Studied Much in Europe. Head of Academy of Medicine". The New York Times. Retrieved September 3, 2020.
- Anonymous. (1915). Reviewed Work: Cancer: Its Cause And Treatment by L. Duncan Bulkley. British Medical Journal 2 (2846): 100.
- Anonymous. (1915). Notes from the Medical Press. The American Journal of Nursing 15 (10): 855.
- Anonymous. (1920). The Medical Treatment of Cancer. Journal of the Iowa State Medical Society 10: 197-198.
- Anonymous. (1915). Cancer, Its Cause and Treatment. Medical Record 87: 706.
- Lerch, Otto. (1919). Rational Therapy. The Southworth Company. p. 68
- Anonymous. (1923). "Cancer". British Medical Journal 2 (3287): 1272.
- Kenton, F. Reese. (1928). The Medical Treatment of Cancer. The American Journal of Clinical Medicine 28: 82.
- "Reviewed Work: Cancer And Its Non-Surgical Treatment by L. Duncan Bulkley". The British Medical Journal. 1 (3247): 516–517. 1923.
- Anonymous. (1916). Cancer, Its Cause and Treatment. Maryland Medical Journal 59 (1): 22-23.
- Herrick, F. C. (1915). Cancer, Its Cause and Treatment. Public Health Nursing 7: 121-122.
- M. C. B. (1915). Cancer, Its Cause and Treatment. New Mexico Medical Journal 14 (4): 128.
- Anonymous. (1917). Cancer, Its Cause and Treatment. Charlotte Medical Journal 75: 267.
- Anonymous. (1915). Cancer, Its Cause and Treatment. Military Medicine 36: 567-568.
- J. M. B. (1917). Cancer, Its Cause and Treatment. The Medical Herald 36: 236.
- Anonymous. (1915). Cancer, Its Cause and Treatment. Medical Review of Reviews 21: 430.
- Anonymous. (1915). Cancer: Its Cause and Treatment. The Trained Nurse and Hospital Review 54: 303.
- Anonymous. (1915). Cancer: Its Cause and Treatment. The Journal of Advanced Therapeutics 33: 365.
- Anonymous (1915). Cancer: Its Cause and Treatment. The Medical Standard 38: 226.
- F. C. K. (1915). Cancer: Its Cause and Treatment. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 150: 277-278.
- Anonymous. (1917). Cancer, Its Cause and Treatment. Journal of Ophthalmology, Otology and Laryngology 23: 577-578.
- Loeb, Leo. (1916). Reviewed Work: Cancer, Its Cause and Treatment by L. Duncan Bulkley. Science 43 (1098): 69.
- Hulett, Albert G. (1924). L. Duncan Bulkley and "Cancer". Journal of the American Medical Association 82 (16): 1285.
- Kenney, F. W. (1924). Cancer: A Practical Quarterly Journal in the Best Interests of Cancer. Colorado Medicine 21 (4): 119.
- "Cancer and Its Non-Surgical Treatment". Journal of the American Medical Association. 77 (15): 1201. 1921. doi:10.1001/jama.1921.02630410057034. hdl:2027/chi.087071024.
- Whitehouse, Henry H; McWilliams, Clarence A. (1924). "L. Duncan Bulkley and Cancer". Journal of the American Medical Association. 82.