Lucretia Mott

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Lucretia Mott
Mott Lucretia Painting Kyle 1841.jpg
Lucretia Mott at the age of 49 (1842), at the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.
Born Lucretia Coffin
(1793-01-03)January 3, 1793
Nantucket, Massachusetts, U.S.
Died November 11, 1880(1880-11-11) (aged 87)
Cheltenham, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Occupation abolitionist, Suffragist
Spouse(s) James Mott
Children 6
Parent(s) Thomas Coffin
Anna Folger Coffin
Relatives Mayhew Folger (uncle)

Lucretia Coffin Mott (January 3, 1793 – November 11, 1880) was an American Quaker, abolitionist, a women's rights activist, and a social reformer. She had formed the idea of reforming the position of women in society when she was amongst the women excluded from the World Anti-Slavery Convention in 1840. In 1848 she was invited by Jane Hunt to a meeting that led to the first meeting about women's rights. Mott helped write the Declaration of Sentiments during the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention.

Early life and education[edit]

Lucretia Coffin was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, the second child of eight by Anna Folger and Thomas Coffin. Through her mother she was a descendent of Peter Foulger and Mary Morrill.[1] This ancestry links her to, among many other notable early Americans, Founding Father Benjamin Franklin.

At the age of thirteen, she was sent to the Nine Partners School in what is now Millbrook, Dutchess County, New York, which was run by the Society of Friends. There she became a teacher after graduation. Her interest in women's rights began when she discovered that male teachers at the school were paid three times as much as the female staff. After her family moved to Philadelphia, she and James Mott, another teacher at Nine Partners, followed.

Marriage and family[edit]

Daguerreotype portrait of Lucretia and James Mott sitting together
James and Lucretia Mott, 1842

On April 10, 1811, Lucretia Coffin married James Mott at Pine Street Meeting in Philadelphia. They had six children. Their second child, Thomas Mott, died at age two. Their surviving children all became active in the anti-slavery and other reform movements, following in their parents' paths.

Early anti-slavery efforts[edit]

Like many Quakers, Mott considered slavery to be evil. Inspired in part by minister Elias Hicks, she and other Quakers refused to use cotton cloth, cane sugar, and other slavery-produced goods. In 1821, Mott became a Quaker minister. With her husband's support, she traveled extensively as a minister, and her sermons emphasized the Quaker inward light, or the presence of the Divine within every individual. Her sermons also included her free produce and anti-slavery sentiments. In 1833, her husband helped found the American Anti-Slavery Society. By then an experienced minister and abolitionist, Lucretia Mott was the only woman to speak at the organizational meeting in Philadelphia. She tested the language of the society's Constitution and bolstered support when many delegates were precarious. Days after the conclusion of the convention, at the urging of other delegates, Mott and other white and black women founded the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society. Integrated from its founding, the organization opposed both slavery and racism, and developed close ties to Philadelphia's Black community. Mott herself often preached at Black parishes. Around this time, Mott's sister-in-law, Abigail Lydia Mott, and brother-in-law, Lindley Murray Moore, were helping to found the Rochester Anti-Slavery Society (see Julia Griffiths).

Amidst social persecution by abolition opponents and pain from dyspepsia, Mott continued her work for the abolitionist cause. She managed their household budget to extend hospitality to guests, including fugitive slaves, and donated to charities. Mott was praised for her ability to maintain her household while contributing to the cause. In the words of one editor, "She is proof that it is possible for a woman to widen her sphere without deserting it."[2] Mott and other female activists also organized anti-slavery fairs to raise awareness and revenue, providing much of the funding for the movement.[3]

Women's participation in the anti-slavery movement threatened societal norms.[citation needed] Many members of the abolitionist movement opposed public activities by women, especially public speaking. At the Congregational Church General Assembly, delegates agreed on a pastoral letter warning women that lecturing directly defied St. Paul's instruction for women to keep quiet in church.(1 Timothy 2:12) Other people opposed women's speaking to mixed crowds of men and women, which they called "promiscuous." Others were uncertain about what was proper, as the rising popularity of the Grimké sisters and other women speakers attracted support for abolition.

Mott attended all three national Anti-Slavery Conventions of American Women (1837, 1838, 1839). During the 1838 convention in Philadelphia, a mob destroyed Pennsylvania Hall, a newly opened meeting place built by abolitionists. Mott and the white and black women delegates linked arms to exit the building safely through the crowd. Afterward, the mob targeted her home and Black institutions and neighborhoods in Philadelphia. As a friend redirected the mob, Mott waited in her parlor, willing to face her violent opponents.[4]

World's Anti-Slavery Convention[edit]

Isaac Crewdson (Beaconite) writer Samuel Jackman Prescod - Barbadian Journalist William Morgan from Birmingham William Forster - Quaker leader George Stacey - Quaker leader William Forster - Anti-Slavery ambassador John Burnet -Abolitionist Speaker William Knibb -Missionary to Jamaica Joseph Ketley from Guyana George Thompson - UK & US abolitionist J. Harfield Tredgold - British South African (secretary) Josiah Forster - Quaker leader Samuel Gurney - the Banker's Banker Sir John Eardley-Wilmot Dr Stephen Lushington - MP and Judge Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton James Gillespie Birney - American John Beaumont George Bradburn - Massachusetts politician George William Alexander - Banker and Treasurer Benjamin Godwin - Baptist activist Vice Admiral Moorson William Taylor William Taylor John Morrison GK Prince Josiah Conder Joseph Soul James Dean (abolitionist) John Keep - Ohio fund raiser Joseph Eaton Joseph Sturge - Organiser from Birmingham James Whitehorne Joseph Marriage George Bennett Richard Allen Stafford Allen William Leatham, banker William Beaumont Sir Edward Baines - Journalist Samuel Lucas Francis August Cox Abraham Beaumont Samuel Fox, Nottingham grocer Louis Celeste Lecesne Jonathan Backhouse Samuel Bowly William Dawes - Ohio fund raiser Robert Kaye Greville - Botanist Joseph Pease, railway pioneer W.T.Blair M.M. Isambert (sic) Mary Clarkson -Thomas Clarkson's daughter in law William Tatum Saxe Bannister - Pamphleteer Richard Davis Webb - Irish Nathaniel Colver - American not known John Cropper - Most generous Liverpudlian Thomas Scales William James William Wilson Thomas Swan Edward Steane from Camberwell William Brock Edward Baldwin Jonathon Miller Capt. Charles Stuart from Jamaica Sir John Jeremie - Judge Charles Stovel - Baptist Richard Peek, ex-Sheriff of London John Sturge Elon Galusha Cyrus Pitt Grosvenor Rev. Isaac Bass Henry Sterry Peter Clare -; sec. of Literary & Phil. Soc. Manchester J.H. Johnson Thomas Price Joseph Reynolds Samuel Wheeler William Boultbee Daniel O'Connell - "The Liberator" William Fairbank John Woodmark William Smeal from Glasgow James Carlile - Irish Minister and educationalist Rev. Dr. Thomas Binney Edward Barrett - Freed slave John Howard Hinton - Baptist minister John Angell James - clergyman Joseph Cooper Dr. Richard Robert Madden - Irish Thomas Bulley Isaac Hodgson Edward Smith Sir John Bowring - diplomat and linguist John Ellis C. Edwards Lester - American writer Tapper Cadbury - Businessman not known Thomas Pinches David Turnbull - Cuban link Edward Adey Richard Barrett John Steer Henry Tuckett James Mott - American on honeymoon Robert Forster (brother of William and Josiah) Richard Rathbone John Birt Wendell Phillips - American M. L'Instant from Haiti Henry Stanton - American Prof William Adam Mrs Elizabeth Tredgold - British South African T.M. McDonnell Mrs John Beaumont Anne Knight - Feminist Elizabeth Pease - Suffragist Jacob Post - Religious writer Anne Isabella, Lady Byron - mathematician and estranged wife Amelia Opie - Novelist and poet Mrs Rawson - Sheffield campaigner Thomas Clarkson's grandson Thomas Clarkson Thomas Morgan Thomas Clarkson - main speaker George Head Head - Banker from Carlisle William Allen John Scoble Henry Beckford - emancipated slave and abolitionist Use your cursor to explore (or Click "i" to enlarge)
1840 World Anti-Slavery Convention.[5] Move your cursor to identify delegates or click the icon to enlarge

In June 1840, Mott attended the General Anti-Slavery Convention, better known as the World's Anti-Slavery Convention, in London, England. In spite of Mott's status as one of six women delegates, before the conference began, the men voted to exclude the American women from participating, and the female delegates were required to sit in a segregated area. Anti-slavery leaders didn't want the women's rights issue to become associated with the cause of ending slavery worldwide and dilute the focus on abolition.[6] In addition, the social mores of the time generally prohibited women's participation in public political life. Several of the American men attending the convention, including William Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips, protested the women's exclusion[citation needed]. Garrison, Nathaniel Peabody Rogers, William Adam, and African American activist Charles Lenox Remond sat with the women in the segregated area.

Activists Elizabeth Cady Stanton and her husband Henry B. Stanton attended the convention while on their honeymoon. Stanton admired Mott, and the two women became united as friends and allies.

One Irish reporter deemed her the "Lioness of the Convention".[7] Mott was among the women included in the commemorative painting of the convention, which also featured female British activists: Elizabeth Pease, Mary Anne Rawson, Anne Knight, Elizabeth Tredgold and Mary Clarkson, daughter of Thomas Clarkson.[8]

Encouraged by active debates in England and Scotland, Mott also returned with new energy for the anti-slavery cause in the United States. She continued an active public lecture schedule, with destinations including the major Northern cities of New York City and Boston, as well as travel over several weeks to slave-owning states, with speeches in Baltimore, Maryland and other cities in Virginia. She arranged to meet with slave owners to discuss the morality of slavery. In the District of Columbia, Mott timed her lecture to coincide with the return of Congress from Christmas recess; more than 40 Congressmen attended. She had a personal audience with President John Tyler who, impressed with her speech, said, "I would like to hand Mr. Calhoun over to you",[9] referring to the senator and abolition opponent.

Seneca Falls Convention[edit]

Mott and Cady Stanton became well acquainted at the World's Anti-Slavery Convention. Cady Stanton later recalled that they first discussed the possibility of a women's rights convention in London.

In 1848, Mott and Cady Stanton organized a women's rights convention at Seneca Falls, New York. Stanton noted the Seneca Falls Convention was the first public women's rights meeting in the United States[citation needed]. Stanton's resolution that it was "the duty of the women of this country to secure to themselves the sacred right to the elective franchise" was passed despite Mott's opposition. Mott viewed politics as corrupted by slavery and moral compromises, but she soon concluded that women's "right to the elective franchise however, is the same, and should be yielded to her, whether she exercises that right or not."[10] Mott signed the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments.

Despite Mott's opposition to electoral politics, her fame had reached into the political arena even before the July, 1848 women's rights convention. During the June, 1848 National Convention of the Liberty Party, 5 of the 84 voting delegates cast their ballots for Lucretia Mott to be their party's candidate for the Office of U.S. Vice President. In delegate voting, she placed 4th in a field of nine.

Over the next few decades, women's suffrage became the focus of the women's rights movement. While Cady Stanton is usually credited as the leader of that effort, it was Mott's mentoring of Cady Stanton and their work together that inspired the event. Mott's sister, Martha Coffin Wright, also helped organize the convention and signed the declaration.

Noted abolitionist and human rights activist Frederick Douglass was in attendance and played a key role[11] in persuading the other attendees to agree to a resolution calling for women's suffrage.

Opinions[edit]

Women's rights activists advocated a range of issues, including equality in marriage, such as women's property rights and rights to their earnings. At that time it was very difficult to obtain divorce, and fathers were almost always granted custody of children. Cady Stanton sought to make divorce easier to obtain and to safeguard women's access to and control of their children. Though some early feminists disagreed, and viewed Cady Stanton's proposal as scandalous, Mott stated "her great faith in Elizabeth Stanton's quick instinct & clear insight in all appertaining to women's rights."[12]

Mott's theology was influenced by Unitarians including Theodore Parker and William Ellery Channing as well as early Quakers including William Penn. She thought that "the kingdom of God is within man" (1749) and was part of the group of religious liberals who formed the Free Religious Association in 1867, with Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise,[13] Ralph Waldo Emerson and Thomas Wentworth Higginson. Her theological position was particularly influential among Quakers, as in the future many harked back to her positions, sometimes without even knowing it[citation needed].

American Equal Rights Association[edit]

After the Civil War, Mott was elected the first president of the American Equal Rights Association, an organization that advocated universal suffrage. She resigned from the association in 1868 when Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony allied with a controversial businessman named George Francis Train. Mott tried to reconcile the two factions that split the following year over the priorities of woman suffrage and Black male suffrage. Ever the peacemaker, Mott tried to heal the breach between Stanton, Anthony and Lucy Stone over the immediate goal of the women's movement: suffrage for freedmen and all women, or suffrage for freedmen first?

Writing[edit]

In 1849, Mott's "Sermon to the Medical Students" was published.[14] In 1850, Mott published her speech Discourse on Woman, a pamphlet about restrictions on women in the United States.[15] In general, as a Quaker preacher, Mott spoke from the divine light within, and she never wrote down her sermons or speeches. She seldom wrote anything for publication. Yet her speaking abilities made her an important abolitionist, feminist, and reformer. When slavery was outlawed in 1865, she advocated giving Black Americans the right to vote. She remained a central figure in the abolition and suffrage movement until her death in 1880.

Swarthmore[edit]

In 1864, Mott and several other Hicksite Quakers incorporated Swarthmore College near Philadelphia, which remains one of the premier liberal-arts colleges in the country.[16]

Organizations[edit]

Mott was involved in a number of anti-slavery organizations, including the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society, the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society (founded in 1838), the American Free Produce Association, and the American Anti-Slavery Society.

In 1866, Mott joined with Stanton, Anthony, and Stone to establish the American Equal Rights Association. The following year, the organization became active in Kansas where black suffrage and woman suffrage were to be decided by popular vote, and it was then that Stanton and Anthony formed a political alliance with Train, leading to Mott's resignation. Kansas failed to pass both referenda.

Mott was a pacifist, and in the 1830s, she attended meetings of the New England Non-Resistance Society. She opposed the War with Mexico. After the Civil War, Mott increased her efforts to end war and violence, and she was a leading voice in the Universal Peace Union, founded in 1866.[citation needed].

Mott was a founder and president of the Northern Association for the Relief and Employment of Poor Women in Philadelphia (founded in 1846).

Death[edit]

Mott died on November 11, 1880 of pneumonia at her home, Roadside, in Cheltenham, Pennsylvania. She was buried in the Quaker Fairhill Burial Ground in North Philadelphia.

Legacy[edit]

United States postage stamp featuring Elizabeth Stanton, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Lucretia Mott, with caption: 100 years of progress of women, 1848-1948
U.S. postage stamp commemorating the Seneca Falls Convention titled 100 Years of Progress of Women: 1848–1948 (Elizabeth Cady Stanton on left, Carrie Chapman Catt in middle, Lucretia Mott on right.)

Susan Jacoby writes, "When Mott died in 1880, she was widely judged by her contemporaries... as the greatest American woman of the nineteenth century." She was a mentor to Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who continued her work.[17]

A stamp was issued in 1948 in remembrance of the Seneca Falls Convention, featuring Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Lucretia Mott.

Mott is commemorated in a sculpture by Pablo Picasso at the Carrier Dome, Syracuse, unveiled in 1997.

Mott is commemorated along with Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony in a sculpture by Adelaide Johnson at the United States Capitol, unveiled in 1921. Originally kept on display in the crypt of the US Capitol, the sculpture was moved to its current location and more prominently displayed in the rotunda in 1997.[18]

Mott's great-granddaughter served briefly as the Italian interpreter for American feminist Betty Friedan during a controversial speaking engagement in Rome.[19]

Ten Dollar Bill[edit]

On April 20, 2016 Treasury Secretary Jacob Lew announced that several denominations of United States currency would be redesigned prior to 2020, the 100th anniversary of the 19th Amendment. The newly designed $10 bill will include images which will pay homage to the women's suffrage movement and feature the images of Mott, Sojourner Truth, Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Alice Paul.[20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Faulkner, Carol (2011). Lucretia Mott's Heresy: Abolition and Women's Rights in Nineteenth-Century America. University of Pennsylvania. p. 12. 
  2. ^ Bacon, Magaret Hope. Valiant friend: the life of Lucretia Mott. New York, New York: Quaker Press of Friends General Conference. p. 68. ISBN 9781888305111. 
  3. ^ Faulkner, Carol (2011), "Fugitives", in Faulkner, Carol, Lucretia Mott's heresy abolition and women's rights in nineteenth-century America, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, p. 169, ISBN 9780812222791, The anti-slavery fair...held every year during the Christmas season, sold anti-slavery and free produce goods—sewed by members of the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society and donated by anti-slavery women in the U.S. and England—to raise money to fund abolitionist efforts. Celebrating their twentieth anniversary in 1853, the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society noted that since the first fair in 1835, it had donated more than $13,000, worth almost $320,000 today, to the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society. 
  4. ^ "Pennsylvania Hall", Lucretia Mott's Heresy, p. 79
  5. ^ The Anti-Slavery Society Convention, 1840, Benjamin Robert Haydon, 1841, National Portrait Gallery, London, NPG599, Given by British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society in 1880
  6. ^ Rodriguez, Junius P. (2011), "Entries, O-W", in Rodriguez, Junius P., Slavery in the modern world: a history of political, social, and economic oppression, Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, LCC, pp. 585–596, ISBN 9781851097883. 
  7. ^ Valiant Friend, p. 92
  8. ^ Haydon, Benjamin Robert (1840). "The anti-slavery society convention". Retrieved 19 July 2008. 
  9. ^ Valiant Friend, p. 105
  10. ^ "The Year 1848", Lucretia Mott's Heresy, p. 147
  11. ^ "The Seneca Falls Convention". npg.si.edu. Retrieved 6 March 2014. 
  12. ^ "Conventions", Lucretia Mott's Heresy, p. 160
  13. ^ Proceedings at the Fortieth Annual Meeting of the Free Religious Association. Boston: Adams & Company. 1907. pp. 30–31. 
  14. ^ "A Sermon to the Medical Students". anti-slavery.org. 1849. 
  15. ^ Mott, Lucretia. "Votes for Women: Selections from the National American Woman Suffrage Association Collection, 1848-1921, "Discourse on woman"". American Memory. Library of Congress. 
  16. ^ "1860 Founders and the Quaker Tradition". Swarthmore College. 
  17. ^ Jacoby, Susan (2005). Freethinkers: a history of American secularism. New York: Metropolitan/Owl. p. 95. ISBN 9780805077766. 
  18. ^ "Architect of the Capitol; Portrait Monument of Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony". 
  19. ^ Friedan, Betty (2001), "The enemies without and the enemies within", in Friedan, Betty, Life so far, New York: Touchstone, p. 221, ISBN 9780743200240. 
  20. ^ Korte, Gregory (21 April 2016). "Anti-slavery activist Harriet Tubman to replace Jackson on $20 bill". USA Today. Retrieved 2016-08-07. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Bacon, Margaret Hope (1989). Mothers of feminism: the story of Quaker women in America. San Francisco: Harper & Row. ISBN 9780062500465. 
  • Cromwell, Otelia (1958). Lucretia Mott. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. OCLC 757626. 
  • Mott, Lucretia (author); Greene, Dana (editor) (1980). Lucretia Mott, her complete speeches and sermons. New York: The Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 9780889469686. 
  • Mott, Lucretia (author); Hallowell, Anna Davis (editor) (1884). James and Lucretia Mott. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company. 
  • Hare, Lloyd C.M. (1937). The greatest American woman, Lucretia Mott. New York: The American Historical Society, Inc. OCLC 1811544. 
  • Mott, Lucretia (author); Palmer, Beverly Wilson (2002). Selected letters of Lucretia Coffin Mott. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 9780252026744. 
  • Unger, Nancy C. (February 2000). "Mott, Lucretia Coffin". American National Biography Online. 

External links[edit]