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|• Total||3,767 km2 (1,454 sq mi)|
|Area rank||1 (out of 22)|
|• Rank||1 (out of 22)|
|• Density||975/km2 (2,530/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Sex ratio||1000/873 ♂/♀|
|Lok Sabha constituency||1|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||14|
|HDI (2006)||0.761 (High)|
|^ ‡: Population increase (2001–2011): 15%|
Ludhiana District is one of the 22 districts in the Indian state of Punjab. It is the largest district of Punjab, by both area and population. Ludhiana city, the district headquarters, is the hub of industry in Punjab.[original research?] The main industries are bicycle parts and hosiery. Ludhiana is the biggest city of the state. It has eight tehsils, seven sub-tehsils and twelve development blocks.
Ludhiana gets its name from the Lodhi Dynasty, which is believed to have founded the city in 1480. During the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar the area formed part of the Sarkar of Sirhind. Chakar, Talwandi Rai in 1478 AD, Raikot in 1648 AD and Jagraon in 1688 AD were founded by the Rai family of Raikot.
In the latter period of Mughal rule the western part of the district was leased to the Rais of Raikot. By the early eighteenth century, they had become semi-independent of the Mughals. The villages in Ludhiana district remained independent and under the rule of local powerful village Sikh chieftains, from 1707 to 1835. In 1747 Ahmad Shah Durrani invaded and battled the imperial army near Khanna. Although the Mughals were able to stop Ahmad Shah, his subsequent invasions weakened the Mughals, which allowed the Rais to take control of Ludhiana town in 1760.
During the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Ludhiana became an important British cantonment. Initially, in 1805, Ranjit Singh occupied Ludhiana. However, in 1809, the British decided to curb his advance eastward and sent troops to confront him. Ranjit Singh was forced to sign the treaty of 'perpetual friendship' with the British, which confined his activities to the right bank of the Sutlej. British troops were permanently stationed in Ludhiana and the Cis-Sutlej states came under British protection. There was also the battle of Saragarahi fought on 12 September 1897 According to the 1901 census, Hindus numbered 269,076, or 40% of the total; Muslims, 235,937, or 35%; and Sikhs, 164,919, or 24%. In 1947 due to violence and strife between the communities, most of the Muslim population left for Pakistan.
Sikh Chieftains of 1860, who held great influence and local power
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- Bhagwant Singh of Bhadaur village, Sidhu Jatt (Phulkian Sikh Misl descendants)
- Badan Singh of Malaudh village, Sidhu Jatt (Phulkian Sikh Misl descendants)
- Bhai Arjan Singh of Bagrian village, Ramgarhia Sikh
- Bahadur Ragbhir Singh of Ladhran village, Guron Jatt (Nishanawali misl descendants)
- Satguru Ram Singh Ji of Bhaini Sahib, Ramgarhia Sikh
- Ganda Singh of Dhiru Mazra village, Jatt
- Sardar Shaheed Chuhar Singh Dhaliwal of Leel Pakhowal village
- Harnam Singh of Bhari village, Bhangu Jatt (descendant of Bhai Mehtab Singh (d. 1740), a Sikh warrior and martyr, who belonged to the village Mirankot, in Amritsar District (Majha region) of Punjab; later his son Rai Singh Bhangu, who in the year 1764, with a large Sikh force, crossed the Sutlej river, captured present-day Bhari village (Ludhiana District), and established his headquarters there. His son was the famous Sikh historian Bhai Rattan Singh Bhangu (d. 1846), ancestors of the Bhari chieftains.)
According to the 2011 census, Ludhiana district has a population of 3,498,739 roughly equal to the nation of Panama or the US state of Connecticut. Ludhiana district has a total of 2,560,225 literates which constitutes 73.5% of the population, of which male literary is 76.5% and female literacy is 69.4%. The effective literacy of 7+ population of Ludhiana district is 82.20%, of which male is 86% and female literacy is 77.9%. The sex ratio of 873 females for every 1,000 males. The total Scheduled Caste population is 923,358. There were 716826 households in the district in 2011.
The number of workers in the district is 12.85 lakh, which means a work participation rate of 36.7%. Out of the total workforce of the district, 18.7% are engaged in the agriculture sector, 5.6% are working in the household industry, and the rest are employed in other sectors/industries.
Ludhiana is the most centrally located district in the Malwa region of the state of Punjab. For administrative purposes, it has been placed in the Patiala Division. It lies between north latitude 30°-34' and 31°-01' and east longitude 75°-18' and 76°-20'.
It is bounded on the north by the Satluj River, which separates it from Jalandhar district. The river forms its northern boundary with Hoshiarpur district. On other sides it shares common boundaries with Rupnagar district in the east, Moga district in the west, and Barnala, Sangrur and Patiala districts in the south and southeast, respectively.
The topography of the district is a typical representative of an alluvial plain. It owes its origin to the aggravation work of the Satluj River. The alluvium deposited by the river has been worked over by the wind, which gave rise to a number of small dunes and sand mounds. Most of these dunes have been leveled by farmers.
The district can be divided into the flood plain of the Satluj and the upland plain.
Ludhiana features a semi-arid climate under the Köppen climate classification, with three defined seasons; summer, monsoon, and winter. This climate is characterized by dryness except for a brief spell of monsoon season, a very hot summer, and a bracing winter. The cold season is from mid-November to the early part of March. The succeeding period until the end of June is the hot season. July, August and half of September constitute the southwest monsoon. The period of mid-September to about the middle of November may be termed as a post-monsoon or transitional period.
June is generally the hottest month. Hot and scorching dust-laden winds blow during the summer season. December and January are the coldest months. Ludhiana on average sees roughly 809.3 millimetres (31.86 in) of precipitation annually. The official weather station for the city is in the compound of the Civil Surgeon's Office to the west of Ludhiana. Weather records here data back to 1 August 1868.
|Climate data for Ludhiana (1981-2010 normals, extremes 1868-present; relative humidity 1961-1990)|
|Record high °C (°F)||29
|Mean maximum °C (°F)||23.8
|Average high °C (°F)||18.6
|Average low °C (°F)||5.6
|Mean minimum °C (°F)||1.2
|Record low °C (°F)||−1.7
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||28.3
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||2.2||2.7||2.4||1.7||2||4.3||8.4||8.6||5||1||0.6||1||39.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||74||66||62||44||39||49||71||76||68||61||68||74||63|
|Source: Ludhiana Climatological Table, 1981-2010 "Ludhiana Climatological Table, 1981-2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 2 April 2020.</ref>|
The rainfall in the district increases from the southwest toward the northeast. About 70% of the rainfall is received during the period of July through September. The rainfall between December and March accounts for 16% of the rainfall; the remaining 14% rainfall is received in the other months.
Ludhiana has one of the worst air pollution problems in India, with particulate matter being over six times the World Health Organization recommended standard, making it the 13th most polluted city in the world. Industrial water pollution is also of significant concern in portions of Ludhiana, notably along the Budha Dariya.
Rivers and drains
- Sutlej River
- originates from Lake Manasarovar in Tibet. After flowing through Himachal Pradesh, it debouches from the Shivaliks. Just about Rupnagar, 32 km east of the boundary of Samrala Tehsil, it flows due west along the top of the district for 96 km and turns, as it leaves Jagraon Tehsil, slightly north toward its junction with the Beas at Harike. It maintains an east-west direction. It can be devastating during floods. The Sutlej has experienced a westward drift during recent times. Old towns and villages, such as Bahlulpur, Machhiwara, and Kum Kalan, were built on its banks. The river has since been dammed at Bhakhra, which has considerably checked its flooding menace in the district.
- Buddha Nala
- It runs parallel to the Satluj on its south for a fairly large section of its course in the district and ultimately joins the Satluj at Gorsian Kadar Baksh in the northwestern corner of the district. It floods during the rainy season, but in the dry season, it can be crossed on foot at certain points. Ludhiana and Machhiwara are to the south of the Buddha Nala. The water of the stream is polluted after it enters Ludhiana City.
Ludhiana West Tehsil is a tehsil in Ludhiana district. It has 125 villages.
Ludhiana East Tehsil is a tehsil in Ludhiana district. It has 181 villages.
Places of interest
- Katana Sahib
- Kila Raipur
- Serai Lashkari Khan
- "Census of India: Ludhiana district". www.censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- "United Nations HDI report - Punjab".
- "Administrative Set-Up". District official website. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- "Punjab". UNDP in India. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
- Ludhiana Dist. Gazetteer 1888-89 & 1904. Chiefs of Punjab 1890, 1909 & 1940
- "Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 16, page 200 -- Imperial Gazetteer of India -- Digital South Asia Library". dsal.uchicago.edu.
- "Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 16, page 202 -- Imperial Gazetteer of India -- Digital South Asia Library". dsal.uchicago.edu.
- "Violence, Displacement and the Issue of Identity - 1947". 9 March 2005. Archived from the original on 9 March 2005.
- "C-1 Population By Religious Community Data - Census 2011 - Ludhiana district, Punjab". censusindia.gov.in.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011.
Panama 3,460,462 July 2011 est.
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- "Population of Ludhiana, Ludhiana Population 2018". www.punjabdata.com.
- Majeed, Shariq (26 March 2014). "Ludhiana worries over its PM". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014.
- Preet, Jatinder (16 October 2011). "Ludhiana fourth most polluted city in the world". The Sunday Guardian. Delhi, India. Archived from the original on 12 April 2014.
- "How air and water pollution plagues Indian cities". Hindustan Times. 1 December 2013. Archived from the original on 29 January 2014.