|District of Punjab|
|• Total||3,767 km2 (1,454 sq mi)|
|• Density||975/km2 (2,530/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Vehicle registration||PB-10, PB-91(LUDHIANA PURVI)|
|Sex ratio||1000/869 ♂/♀|
|Lok Sabha constituency||1|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||14|
^ ‡: Population increase (2001–2011): 15%|
Ludhiana District is one of the 22 districts in the state of Punjab in northwest India. Ludhiana city, the district headquarters, is the hub of industry in Punjab.[original research?] The main industries are bicycle parts and hosiery. Ludhiana is the biggest city of the state. It has eight tehsils, seven sub-tehsils and twelve development blocks.
Ludhiana gets its name from the Lodhi Dynasty, which is believed to have founded the city in 1480. During the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar the area formed part of the Sarkar of Sirhind. Chakar, Talwandi Rai in 1478 AD, Raikot in 1648 AD and Jagraon in 1688 AD were founded by the Rai family of Raikot.
In the latter period of Mughal rule the western part of the district was leased to the Rais of Raikot. By the early eighteenth century they had become semi independent of the Mughals. The villages in Ludhiana district remained independent and under the rule of local powerful village Sikh chieftains, from 1707 to 1835. In 1747 Ahmad Shah Durrani invaded and battled the imperial army near Khanna. Although the Mughals were able to stop Ahmad Shah, his subsequent invasions weakened the Mughals, which allowed the Rais to take control of Ludhiana town in 1760.
During the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Ludhiana became an important British cantonment. Initially, in 1805, Ranjit Singh occupied Ludhiana. However, in 1809, the British decided to curb his advance eastward and sent troops to confront him. Ranjit Singh was forced to sign the treaty of 'perpetual friendship' with the British, which confined his activities to the right bank of the Sutlej. British troops were permanently stationed in Ludhiana and the Cis-Sutlej states came under British protection.
According to the 1901 census, Hindus numbered 269,076, or 40% of the total; Muslims, 235,937, or 35%; and Sikhs, 164,919, or 24%. In 1947 due to violence and strife between the communities, the most of the Muslim population left for Pakistan.
Sikh Chieftains of 1860, who held great influence and local power
- Bhagwant Singh of Bhadaur village, Sidhu Jatt (Phulkian Sikh Misl descendents)
- Badan Singh of Malaudh village, Sidhu Jatt (Phulkian Sikh Misl descendents)
- Bhai Arjan Singh of Bagrian village, Ramgarhia Sikh
- Bahadur Ragbhir Singh of Ladhran village, Guron Jatt (Nishanawali misl descendents)
- Satguru Ram Singh Ji of Bhaini Sahib, Ramgarhia Sikh
- Ganda Singh of Dhiru Mazra village, Jatt
- Sardar Shaheed Chuhar Singh Dhaliwal of Leel Pakhowal village
- Harnam Singh of Bhari village, Bhangu Jatt (descendant of Bhai Mehtab Singh (d. 1740), a Sikh warrior and martyr, who belonged to the village Mirankot, in Amritsar District (Majha region) of Punjab; later his son Rai Singh Bhangu, who in 1764, with a large Sikh force, crossed the Sutlej river, captured present day Bhari village (Ludhiana District), and established his headquarters there. His son was the famous Sikh historian Bhai Rattan Singh Bhangu (d. 1846), ancestors of the Bhari chieftains.)
Ludhiana is the most centrally located district in the Malwa region of the state of Punjab. For administrative purposes it has been placed in the Patiala Division. It lies between north latitude 30°-34' and 31°-01' and east longitude 75°-18' and 76°-20'.
It is bounded on the north by the Satluj River, which separates it from Jalandhar district. The river forms its northern boundary with Hoshiarpur district. On other sides it shares common boundaries with Rupnagar district in the east, Moga district in the west, and Barnala, Sangrur and Patiala districts in the south and southeast, respectively.
The topography of the district is typical representative of an alluvial plain. It owes its origin to the aggravation work of the Satluj River. The alluvium deposited by the river has been worked over by the wind, which gave rise to a number of small dunes and sand mounds. Most of these dunes have been leveled by farmers.
The district can be divided into the flood plain of the Satluj and the upland plain.
The climate is characterized by dryness except a brief spell of monsoon season, a very hot summer and a bracing winter. The cold season is from mid-November to the early part of March. The succeeding period until the end of June is the hot season. July, August and half of September constitute the southwest monsoon. The period of mid-September to about the middle of November may be termed as post-monsoon or transitional period.
June is generally the hottest month. Hot and scorching dust-laden winds blow during summer season. December and January are the coldest months.
|Climate data for Ludhiana|
|Average high °C (°F)||19
|Average low °C (°F)||7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||20.3
The rainfall in the district increases from the southwest toward the northeast. About 70% of the rainfall is received during the period of July through September. The rainfall between December and March accounts for 16% of the rainfall; the remaining 14% rainfall is received in the other months.
Rivers and drains
- Sutlej River
- originates from Lake Manasarovar in Tibet. After flowing through Himachal Pradesh, it debouches from the Shivaliks. Just about Rupnagar, 32 km east of the boundary of Samrala Tehsil, it flows due west along the top of the district for 96 km and turns, as it leaves Jagraon Tehsil, slightly north toward its junction with the Beas at Harike. It maintains an east-west direction. It can be devastating during floods. The Sutlej has experienced a westward drift during recent times. Old towns and villages, such as Bahlulpur, Machhiwara, and Kum Kalan, were built on its banks. The river has since been dammed at Bhakhra, which has considerably checked its flooding menace in the district.
- Buddha Nala
- It runs parallel to the Satluj on its south for a fairly large section of its course in the district and ultimately joins the Satluj at Gorsian Kadar Baksh in the northwestern corner of the district. It floods during the rainy season, but in the dry season it can be crossed on foot at certain points. Ludhiana and Machhiwara are to the south of the Buddha Nala. The water of the stream is polluted after it enters Ludhiana City.
Ludhiana West Tehsil is a tehsil in Ludhiana district. It has 125 villages.
Ludhiana East Tehsil is a tehsil in Ludhiana district. It has 181 villages.
According to the 2011 census, Ludhiana district has a population of 3,498,739 roughly equal to the nation of Panama or the US state of Connecticut. This gives it a ranking of 87th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 978 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,530/sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 15 percent. Ludhianahas a sex ratio of 873 females for every 1,000 males, and a literacy rate of 82.2 percent.
The number of workers in the district is 12.85 lakh, which means a work participation rate of 36.7%. Out of the total workforce of the district, 18.7% are engaged in agriculture sector, 5.6% are working in household industry, and the rest are employed in other sectors/industries.
Places of interest
- Hardy's World (Amusement park)
- Katana Sahib
- Kila Raipur
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh War Museum
- Nehru Rose Garden
- Serai Lashkari Khan
- "Administrative Set-Up". District official website. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- "Ludhiana : Census 2011". Indian census 2011. Census2011. 30 November 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2012. External link in
- Ludhiana Dist. Gazetteer 1888-89 & 1904. Chiefs of Punjab 1890, 1909 & 1940
- Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 200.
- Ludhiāna District - Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 202
- Violence, Displacement and the Issue of Identity — 1947[permanent dead link]
- "Average Weather for Ludhiana - Temperature and Precipitation". The Weather Channel. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01.
Panama 3,460,462 July 2011 est.
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- Population of Ludhiana