Ludlow Massacre

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Ludlow Massacre
Ruins of Ludlow restored.jpg
Ruins of the Ludlow Colony in the aftermath of the massacre.
DateApril 20, 1914 (1914-04-20)
37°20′21″N 104°35′02″W / 37.33917°N 104.58389°W / 37.33917; -104.58389Coordinates: 37°20′21″N 104°35′02″W / 37.33917°N 104.58389°W / 37.33917; -104.58389
  1. Recognition of the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) in collective bargaining.
  2. Compensation for digging coal at a ton-rate based on 2,000 pounds (Previous ton-rates were of long-tons of 2,200 pounds)
  3. Enforcement of the eight-hour work-day law
  4. Payment for "dead work" (laying track, timbering, handling impurities, etc.)
  5. Weight-checkmen elected by workers.
  6. Right to use any store, and to choose their boarding houses and doctors
  7. Strict enforcement of Colorado's laws (such as mine safety rules, abolition of scrip), and an end to the company guard system
MethodsStrikes, protest, demonstrations
Resulted inLarge part of the Ludlow tent colony site destroyed by fire; UMWA organiser Louis Tikas assaulted and executed by gunshot; one bystander and five other males killed by gunshot; 2 women and 11 minor children killed by suffocation and/or fires set by militiamen. News of event cause of worldwide protest and condemnation.
Parties to the civil conflict
Lead figures
Louis Tikas (Organiser, UMWA) 
James Fyler (Financial Secretary, UMWA)
John R. Lawson
Arrests, etc
Deaths: 20 (12 children, 8 adults) includes 1 bystander[1]
Deaths: 1[2]-3[3]

The Ludlow Massacre was a domestic massacre resulting from strike-breaking. The Colorado National Guard and Colorado Fuel and Iron Company guards attacked a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families in Ludlow, Colorado, on April 20, 1914, with the National Guard using machine guns to fire into the colony. Approximately 21 people, including miners' wives and children, were killed. The chief owner of the mine, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., was widely excoriated for having orchestrated the massacre.[4][5]

The massacre, the seminal event of the Colorado Coal Wars, resulted in the deaths of an estimated 21 people; accounts vary.[6][5] Ludlow was the deadliest single incident in the southern Colorado Coal Strike, which lasted from September 1913 to December 1914. The strike was organized by the miners against coal mining companies in Colorado. The three largest companies involved were Colorado Fuel & Iron Company, owned by the powerful Rockefeller family; Rocky Mountain Fuel Company, and Victor-American Fuel Company.

In retaliation for the massacre at Ludlow, the miners armed themselves and attacked dozens of anti-union establishments over the next ten days, destroying property and engaging in several skirmishes with the Colorado National Guard along a 40-mile front from Trinidad to Walsenburg.[4] An estimated 69 to 199 deaths occurred during the strike. Historian Thomas G. Andrews has called it the "deadliest strike in the history of the United States",[7] and it is commonly known as the Colorado Coalfield War.

The Ludlow Massacre was a watershed moment in American labor relations. Historian Howard Zinn described it as "the culminating act of perhaps the most violent struggle between corporate power and laboring men in American history".[8] Congress responded to public outrage by directing the House Committee on Mines and Mining to investigate the events.[9] Its report, published in 1915, was influential in promoting child labor laws and an eight-hour work day.

The Ludlow site, 18 miles northwest of Trinidad, Colorado, is now a ghost town. The massacre site is owned by the United Mine Workers of America, which erected a granite monument in memory of those who died that day.[10] The Ludlow tent colony site was designated a National Historic Landmark on January 16, 2009, and dedicated on June 28, 2009.[10] Evidence from modern archeological investigation largely supports the strikers' reports of the event.[11]


The Ludlow tent colony prior to the massacre. The caption reads: "Ludlow, a canvas community of 900 souls, was riddled with machine guns shooting 400 bullets a minute. Then the tents were burned. The site is private property leased by the miners' union, which has supported the colony seven months."

Areas of the Rocky Mountains have veins of coal close to the surface of the land, providing significant and relatively accessible reserves. In 1867 these coal deposits caught the attention of William Jackson Palmer, then leading a survey team planning the route of the Kansas Pacific Railway. The rapid expansion of rail transport in the United States made coal a highly valued commodity, and it was rapidly commercialized.

At its peak in 1910, the coal mining industry of Colorado employed 15,864 people, 10% of jobs in the state.[12] Colorado's coal industry was dominated by a handful of operators. Colorado Fuel and Iron was the largest coal operator in the west and one of the nation's most powerful corporations, at one point employing 7,050 people and controlling 71,837 acres (290.71 km2) of coal land.[13] John D. Rockefeller purchased the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company in 1902, and nine years later he turned over his controlling interest in the company to his son, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., who managed the company from his offices at 26 Broadway in New York.[14]

Mining was dangerous and difficult work. Colliers in Colorado were constantly threatened by explosions, suffocation, and collapsing mine walls. In 1912 the death rate in Colorado's mines was 7.055 per 1,000 employees, compared to a national rate of 3.15.[15] In 1914 the United States House Committee on Mines and Mining reported that

Colorado has good mining laws and such that ought to afford protection to the miners as to safety in the mine if they were enforced, yet in this State the percentage of fatalities is larger than any other, showing there is undoubtedly something wrong in reference to the management of its coal mines.[16]

Miners were generally paid according to tonnage of coal produced, while so-called "dead work", such as shoring up unstable roofs, was often unpaid.[16] The tonnage system drove many poor and ambitious colliers to gamble with their lives by neglecting precautions and taking on risk, with consequences that were often fatal.[17] Between 1884 and 1912 mining accidents claimed the lives of more than 1,700 in Colorado.[18] In 1913 alone 110 men died in mine-related accidents.[19]

Three women, wives of striking coal miners, and their children stand outside of a tent at the Ludlow colony.

Colliers had little opportunity to air their grievances. Many resided in company towns, in which all land, real estate, and amenities were owned by the mine operator, and which were expressly designed to inculcate loyalty and squelch dissent.[20] Welfare capitalists believed that anger and unrest among the workers could be placated by raising colliers' standard of living, while subsuming it under company management. Company towns indeed brought tangible improvements to many colliers' lives, including larger houses, better medical care, and broader access to education.[21] But owning the towns gave companies considerable control over all aspects of workers' lives, and they did not always use this power to augment public welfare. Historian Philip S. Foner has described company towns as "feudal domain[s], with the company acting as lord and master. ... The 'law' consisted of the company rules. Curfews were imposed. Company guards—brutal thugs armed with machine guns and rifles loaded with soft-point bullets—would not admit any 'suspicious' stranger into the camp and would not permit any miner to leave." Miners who came into conflict with the company were often summarily evicted from their homes.[22]

Frustrated by working conditions they found unsafe and unjust, colliers increasingly turned to unionism. Nationwide, organized mines boasted 40% fewer fatalities than nonunion mines.[23] Colorado miners repeatedly attempted to unionize after the state's first strike in 1883. The Western Federation of Miners organized primarily hard-rock miners in the gold and silver camps during the 1890s.

Beginning in 1900, the United Mine Workers of America began organizing coal miners in the western states, including southern Colorado. The union decided to focus on the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company because of its harsh management tactics under the conservative and distant Rockefellers and other investors. To break or prevent strikes, the coal companies hired strike breakers, mainly from Mexico and southern and eastern Europe. The Colorado Fuel & Iron Company mixed immigrants of different nationalities in the mines to discourage communication that might lead to organization.


Despite attempts to suppress union activity, the United Mine Workers of America secretly continued its unionization efforts in the years leading up to 1913. Eventually, the union presented a list of seven demands:

Speakers at the Ludlow strike stand in an open top car and rally the striking workers.
  1. Recognition of the union as bargaining agent
  2. Compensation for digging coal at a ton rate based on 2,000 pounds[24] (previous ton rates were of long tons of 2,200 pounds)
  3. Enforcement of the eight-hour work-day law
  4. Payment for "dead work" (laying track, timbering, handling impurities, etc.)
  5. Weight checkmen elected by the workers (to keep company weightmen honest)
  6. Right to use any store, and to choose their boarding houses and doctors
  7. Strict enforcement of Colorado's laws (such as mine safety rules, abolition of scrip), and an end to the company guard system

The major coal companies rejected the demands. In September 1913 the United Mine Workers of America called a strike.[25] Those who went on strike were evicted from their company homes and moved to tent villages prepared by the union. The tents were built on wood platforms and furnished with cast-iron stoves on land the union had leased in preparation for a strike.

Baldwin–Felts armored car known as the "Death Special" with mounted M1895 machine gun.

When leasing the sites, the union had selected locations near the mouths of canyons that led to the coal camps in order to block any strikebreakers' traffic.[26] The company hired the Baldwin–Felts Detective Agency to protect the new workers and harass the strikers.

Baldwin–Felts had a reputation for aggressive strike breaking. Agents shone searchlights on the tent villages at night and fired bullets into the tents at random, occasionally killing and maiming people. They used an improvised armored car, mounted with a machine gun the union called the "Death Special", to patrol the camp's perimeters. The steel-covered car was built at the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company plant in Pueblo, Colorado, from the chassis of a large touring sedan. Confrontations between striking miners and working miners, whom the union called scabs, sometimes resulted in deaths. Frequent sniper attacks on the tent colonies drove the miners to dig pits beneath the tents to hide in. Armed battles also occurred between (mostly Greek) strikers and sheriffs recently deputized to suppress the strike: this was the Colorado Coalfield War.[27]

Lt. Karl Linderfelt and the Colorado state militia, ride in on horseback to suppress the strike.

As strike-related violence mounted, Colorado governor Elias M. Ammons called in the Colorado National Guard on October 28. At first, the Guard's appearance calmed the situation, but the Guard leaders' sympathies lay with company management. Guard Adjutant-General John Chase, who had served during the violent Cripple Creek strike 10 years earlier, imposed a harsh regime. On March 10, 1914, a replacement worker's body was found on the railroad tracks near Forbes, Colorado. The National Guard said the strikers had murdered the man.[28] In retaliation, Chase ordered the Forbes tent colony destroyed. The attack was launched while the residents were attending a funeral of two infants who had died a few days earlier. Photographer Lou Dold witnessed the attack, and his images of the destruction often appear in accounts of the strike.[28]

The strikers persevered until the spring of 1914. By then, according to historian Anthony DeStefanis, the National Guard had largely broken the strike by helping the mine operators bring in non-union workers. The state had also run out of money to maintain the Guard, and Ammons decided to recall them. He and the mining companies, fearing a breakdown in order, left one company of Guardsmen in southern Colorado. They formed a new company called "Troop A", which consisted largely of Colorado Fuel & Iron Company mine camp guards and mine guards hired by Baldwin–Felts, who were given National Guard uniforms.[28]


Sketch of the massacre from 1914, by Morris Hall Pancoast. Woman gasps for air while tents burn and Colorado state militiamen fire their rifles.

On the morning of April 20, the day after some in the tent colony celebrated Orthodox Easter, three Guardsmen appeared at the camp ordering the release of a man they claimed was being held against his will. The camp leader, Louis Tikas, left to meet with a local militia commander at the train station in Ludlow village, a half mile (0.8 km) from the colony. While this meeting was progressing, two militias installed a machine gun on a ridge near the camp and took positions along a rail route about half a mile south of Ludlow. Anticipating trouble, Tikas ran back to the camp. The miners set out to flank the militia positions and a gunfight soon broke out. When two of the militias' dynamite explosions alerted the Ludlow tent colony, the miners took up positions at the bottom of the hill. When the militia opened fire, hundreds of miners and their families ran for cover.[29]

The fighting raged for the entire day. The militia was reinforced by non-uniformed mine guards later in the afternoon. At dusk a passing freight train stopped on the tracks in front of the Guards' machine-gun placements, allowing many of the miners and their families to escape to an outcrop of hills to the east called the Black Hills. By 7 p.m., the camp was in flames, and the militia descended on it and began to search and loot it. Tikas had remained in the camp the entire day and was still there when the fire started. He and two other men were captured by the militia. Tikas and Lt. Karl Linderfelt, commander of one of two Guard companies, had confronted each other several times in the previous months. While two militiamen held Tikas, Linderfelt broke a rifle butt over his head. Tikas and the other two captured miners were later found shot dead. Tikas had been shot in the back.[30][31] Their bodies lay along the Colorado and Southern Railway tracks for three days in full view of passing trains.[32] The militia officers refused to allow them to be moved until a local of a railway union demanded they be taken away for burial.

During the battle, four women and 11 children hid in a pit beneath one tent, where they were trapped when the tent above them was set on fire. Two of the women and all the children suffocated. These deaths became a rallying cry for the United Mine Workers of America, who called the incident the Ludlow Massacre.[33]

Julia May Courtney reported different numbers in her contemporaneous article "Remember Ludlow!" for the magazine Mother Earth. She said that, in addition to men who were killed, a total of 55 women and children had died in the massacre. According to her account, the militia:

Underground shelter in which women and children died during a fire set by the Colorado National Guard.
fired the two largest buildings—the strikers' stores—and going from tent to tent, poured oil on the flimsy structures, setting fire to them. From the blazing tents rushed the women and children, only to be beaten back into the fire by the rain of bullets from the militia. The men rushed to the assistance of their families; and as they did so, they were dropped as the whirring messengers of death sped surely to the mark ... into the cellars—the pits of hell under their blazing tents—crept the women and children, less fearful of the smoke and flames than of the nameless horror of the spitting bullets. One man counted the bodies of nine little children, taken from one ashy pit, their tiny fingers burned away as they held to the edge in their struggle to escape ... thugs in State uniform hacked at the lifeless forms, in some instances nearly cutting off heads and limbs to show their contempt for the strikers. Fifty-five women and children perished in the fire of the Ludlow tent colony. Relief parties carrying the Red Cross flag were driven back by the gunmen, and for twenty-four hours the bodies lay crisping in the ashes, while rescuers vainly tried to cross the firing line.[34][35]

A board of Colorado military officers described the events as beginning with the killing of Tikas and other strikers in custody, with gunfire largely emanating from the southwestern corner of the Ludlow Colony. Guardsmen stationed on "Water Tank Hill"—the name for the machine gun position—fired into the camp. The Guardsmen reported having seen women and children withdrawing the morning before the battle and said they thought the strikers would not have begun firing if they had women still with them. The board's official report commended the "truly heroic behavior" of Linderfelt, the guardsmen, and the militia during the battle and blamed the strikers for any civilian casualties during the engagement.[36] The report also blamed the looting that occurred afterward on "Troop 'A'", a unit comprised largely of nonuniform mine guards who had been integrated into the Guard.

In addition to the miners' associated victims, three company guards and one militiaman were killed in the day's fighting.[37]


In the aftermath of the massacre came the Ten Day War, part of the wider Colorado Coalfield War.[38] As news of the deaths of women and children spread, the leaders of organized labor issued a call to arms. They urged union members to get "all the arms and ammunition legally available". Subsequently, the coal miners began a large-scale guerrilla war against the mine guards and facilities throughout Colorado's southern coalfields. In the town of Trinidad, the United Mine Workers of America openly and officially distributed arms and ammunition to strikers at union headquarters.[39] Over the next ten days, 700 to 1,000 strikers "attacked mine after mine, driving off or killing the guards and setting fire to the buildings." At least 50 people, including those at Ludlow, were killed during the ten days of fighting between the guards and miners. Hundreds of state militia reinforcements were rushed to the coalfields to regain control of the situation.[40] The fighting ended only after President Woodrow Wilson sent in federal troops.[41] The troops disarmed both sides, displacing and often arresting the militia in the process.[citation needed] The Colorado Coalfield War produced a total death toll of approximately 75.[42]

The United Mine Workers of America finally ran out of money, and called off the strike on December 10, 1914.[42] In the end, the strikers' demands were not met, the union did not obtain recognition, and many striking workers were replaced.[43] 408 strikers were arrested, 332 of whom were indicted for murder.[44] Only John R. Lawson, leader of the strike, was convicted of murder, and the Colorado Supreme Court eventually overturned the conviction.[42] Twenty-two National Guardsmen, including 10 officers, were court martialed.[44] All were acquitted except Linderfelt, who was found guilty of assault for his attack on Tikas but received only a light reprimand.[45]

Reverend John O. Ferris pastored the local church in Trinidad, Colorado. He was one of the few pastors in Trinidad permitted to search and provide Christian burials to the deceased victims of the Ludlow Massacre.[46]


External video
The Ludlow Massacre Memorial, April 20th, 1914, Colorado Massacre on Coal Miners Beverly on Flickr.jpg
Children of Ludlow , C-SPAN, 15:14[47]
Name[5][48] Also reported as Age (years) Cause of death
Cardelima Costa Fedelina/Cedilano Costa 27 asphyxiation, fire, or both
Charles Costa Charlie Costa 31 shot
Cloriva Pedregone Gloria/Clovine Pedregon[e] 0.33 asphyxiation, fire, or both
Elvira Valdez 0.25 asphyxiation, fire, or both
Eulala Valdez Eulalia Valdez 8 asphyxiation, fire, or both
Frank Bartolotti Frank Bartoloti/Bartalato Unknown shot
Frank Petrucci 0.5 asphyxiation, fire, or both
Frank Rubino 23 shot
Frank Snyder 11 shot
James Fyler 43 shot
Joseph "Joe" Petrucci 4 asphyxiation, fire, or both
Louis Tikas Elias Anastasiou Spantidakis,

Ηλίας Αναστασίου Σπαντιδάκης,

29 shot
Lucy Costa 4 asphyxiation, fire, or both
Lucy Petrucci 2.5 asphyxiation, fire, or both
Mary Valdez 7 asphyxiation, fire, or both
Onafrio Costa Oragio Costa 6 asphyxiation, fire, or both
Patria Valdez Patricia/Petra Valdez 37 asphyxiation, fire, or both
Primo Larese (bystander) Presno Larce Unknown shot
Rodgerlo Pedregone Roderlo/Rogaro Pedregon[e] 6 asphyxiation, fire, or both
Rudolph Valdez Rodolso Valdez 9 asphyxiation, fire, or both


Ludlow Monument was erected by the United Mine Workers of America.

Although the UMWA failed to win recognition from the company, the strike had a lasting effect both on conditions at the Colorado mines and on labor relations nationally. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. engaged W. L. Mackenzie King, a labor relations expert and future Canadian Prime Minister, to help him develop reforms for the mines and towns. Improvements included paved roads and recreational facilities, as well as worker representation on committees dealing with working conditions, safety, health, and recreation. He prohibited discrimination against workers who had belonged to unions and ordered the establishment of a company union. The miners voted to accept the Rockefeller plan.

Rockefeller also brought in pioneer public relations expert Ivy Lee, who warned that the Rockefellers were losing public support and developed a strategy that Junior followed to repair it. Junior had to overcome his shyness, go to Colorado to meet the miners and their families, inspect the homes and the factories, attend social events, and listen closely to the grievances. This was novel advice, and attracted widespread media attention. The Rockefellers were able both to resolve the conflict, and present a more humanized versions of their leaders.[49]

Over time, Ludlow has assumed "a striking centrality in the interpretation of the nation's history developed by several of the most important left-leaning thinkers of the 20th century."[50] Historian Howard Zinn wrote his master's thesis and several book chapters on Ludlow. Historian, United States Senator and Democratic presidential nominee George McGovern wrote his doctoral dissertation on the subject, later published in book form as The Great Coalfield War.

A United States Commission on Industrial Relations (CIR), headed by labor lawyer Frank Walsh, conducted hearings in Washington, DC, collecting information and taking testimony from all the principals, including Rockefeller, Sr., who testified that, even after knowing that guards in his pay had committed atrocities against the strikers, he "would have taken no action" to prevent his hirelings from attacking them.[51] The commission's report endorsed many of the reforms the unions sought, and provided support for bills establishing a national eight-hour workday and a ban on child labor.

In 1916, the United Mine Workers of America bought the site of the Ludlow tent colony. Two years later, they erected the Ludlow Monument to commemorate those who died during the strike. The monument was damaged in May 2003 by unknown vandals. The repaired monument was unveiled on June 5, 2005, with slightly altered faces on the statues.[52] On January 16, 2009, the Ludlow tent colony site was declared a U.S. National Historic Landmark. The citation describes the Ludlow Massacre as "a pivotal event in American history" and notes that its site is the first of its kind to be investigated by archeologists.[53]

The last survivor of the Ludlow Massacre, Ermenia "Marie" Padilla Daley, was 3 months old during the event. Her father was a miner and she was born in the camp. Her mother took her and her siblings away as violence escalated; they traveled by train to Trinidad, Colorado. The evacuation resulted in the family having to split up afterward. Daley was cared for by various families and also placed for a time in orphanages in Pueblo and Denver. She worked as a housekeeper, then married a consultant whose work allowed them to travel the world.[54] Daley died on March 14, 2019, at age 105.[55]

Representation in other media[edit]

Several popular songs have been written and recorded about the events at Ludlow. Among them are American folk singer Woody Guthrie's "Ludlow Massacre",[56] Texas country singer Jason Boland's "Ludlow",[57] and Irish musician Andy Irvine's "The Monument (Lest We Forget)".[58]

Upton Sinclair's novel King Coal is loosely based on the origin and aftermath of the Ludlow Massacre.[59] Thomas Pynchon's 2006 novel Against the Day contains a chapter on the massacre.[60]

American writer and Colorado Poet Laureate David Mason wrote what he calls a verse-novel, Ludlow (2007), inspired by the labor dispute.[61] Composer Lori Laitman's opera Ludlow is based on Mason's book. The University of Colorado's New Opera Works presented Act I of the opera in June 2012, directed by Beth Greenberg.[62]

Centennial recognition[edit]

On April 19, 2013, Colorado Governor John Hickenlooper signed an executive order to create the Ludlow Centennial Commemoration Commission.[63] The group worked to develop programming in the state, such as lectures and exhibits, to commemorate the Ludlow workers' struggle and raise awareness of the massacre. It worked with Colorado museums, historical societies, churches and art galleries, and supplied programming in 2014.[64]

Historical investigation[edit]


In 1996, the 1913–1914 Colorado Coalfield War Project began under the leadership of Randall H. McGuire of Binghamton University, Dean Saitta of University of Denver, and Philip Duke of Fort Lewis College, who later formed the Ludlow Collective. Their team conducted excavations of the territory of the former tent colony and surrounding areas.[65]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ R. Laurie Simmons; Thomas H. Simmons; Charles Haecker; Erika Martin Siebert (May 2008). National Historic Landmark Nomination: Ludlow Tent Colony (PDF). National Park Service. pp. 41, 45.
  2. ^ R. Laurie Simmons; Thomas H. Simmons; Charles Haecker; Erika Martin Siebert (May 2008). National Historic Landmark Nomination: Ludlow Tent Colony (PDF). National Park Service. pp. 41, 45.
  3. ^ Walker, Mark (2003). "The Ludlow Massacre: Class, Warfare, and Historical Memory in Southern Colorado". Historical Archaeology. Springer. 37 (3): 66–80. JSTOR 25617081. Retrieved Oct 29, 2019.
  4. ^ a b "Ludlow Massacre", Denver University
  5. ^ a b c R. Laurie Simmons; Thomas H. Simmons; Charles Haecker; Erika Martin Siebert (May 2008). National Historic Landmark Nomination: Ludlow Tent Colony (PDF). National Park Service. pp. 41, 45.
  6. ^ "The Invention of Public Relations".
  7. ^ Andrews 2008, 1
  8. ^ 1922-2010., Zinn, Howard (1970). The politics of history. Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press. p. 79. ISBN 080705450X. OCLC 67649.
  9. ^ House Report
  10. ^ a b McPhee, Mike. "Mining Strike Site in Ludlow Gets Feds' Nod." Denver Post. June 28, 2009.
  11. ^ R. Laurie Simmons; Thomas H. Simmons; Charles Haecker; Erika Martin Siebert (May 2008). National Historic Landmark Nomination: Ludlow Tent Colony (PDF). National Park Service.
  12. ^ Andrews 2008, p. 96.
  13. ^ Andrews 2008, p. 183.
  14. ^ Zinn 1990, p. 81.
  15. ^ Andrews 2008, p. 18.
  16. ^ a b Martelle 2008, p. 19
  17. ^ Andrews 2008, p. 138–139
  18. ^ Campbell 2008, p. 221
  19. ^ Andrews 2008, p. 236–237
  20. ^ Andrews 2008, p. 197
  21. ^ Andrews 2008, p. 199
  22. ^ Foner 1990, p. 198.
  23. ^ Martelle 2008, pg. 19
  24. ^ [1]
  25. ^ Zinn, Howard (1997). The Zinn Reader. Seven Stories Press. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-583229-46-0.
  26. ^ Lowry, Sam. "1914: The Ludlow massacre" (PDF). Retrieved June 6, 2014.
  27. ^ Anthony R. DeStefanis, "The Road to Ludlow: Breaking the 1913-14 Southern Colorado Coal Strike," Journal of the Historical Society, 12 no. 2 (September 2012): 341-390.
  28. ^ a b c DeStefanis, "The Road to Ludlow."
  29. ^ R. Laurie Simmons; Thomas H. Simmons; Charles Haecker; Erika Martin Siebert (May 2008). National Historic Landmark Nomination: Ludlow Tent Colony (PDF). National Park Service. pp. 41–42.
  30. ^ Andrews 2008, p. 272
  31. ^ Fink, Walter H. (1914). The Ludlow Massacre. Denver, Williamson-Haffner.
  32. ^ Fink, Walter H. (1914). The Ludlow Massacre. Denver, Williamson-Haffner, printers. p. 16.
  33. ^ Zinn, H. "The Ludlow Massacre", Excerpt from A People's History of the United States. pgs 346–349.
  34. ^ Zinn, Howard; Arnove, Anthony (2004). Voices of a People's History of the United States. Seven Stories Press. pp. 280–282. ISBN 9781583226285.
  35. ^ Julia, Courtney (May 1914). Mother Earth. p. 73.
  36. ^ Edward J. Boughton (2 May 1914). Ludlow, Being the report of the special board of officers appointed by the governor of Colorado to investigate and determine the facts with reference to the armed conflict between the Colorado National Guard and certain persons engaged in the coal mining strike at Ludlow, Colo., April 20, 1914 (Report). Denver: Williamson-Haffner Co.
  37. ^ Fink, Walter H. (1914). The Ludlow Massacre. University of California Libraries. Denver, Williamson-Haffner, printers. p. 25.
  38. ^ Newton-Matza, Mitchell (2014-03-26). Disasters and Tragic Events: An Encyclopedia of Catastrophes in American History [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 223. ISBN 9781610691666.
  39. ^ Norwood, Stephen H. (2003-04-03). Strikebreaking and Intimidation: Mercenaries and Masculinity in Twentieth-Century America. Univ of North Carolina Press. p. 148. ISBN 9780807860465.
  40. ^ Norwood 2002, p. 148
  41. ^ Danver, Steven Laurence (2011). Revolts, Protests, Demonstrations, and Rebellions in American History: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 710. ISBN 9781598842210.
  42. ^ a b c Johnson, Marilynn S. (2014-06-05). Violence in the West: The Johnson County Range War and the Ludlow Massacre—A Brief History with Documents. Waveland Press. p. 28. ISBN 9781478623045.
  43. ^ Zinn, Howard; Frank, Dana; Kelley, Robin D. G. (2002). Three Strikes: Miners, Musicians, Salesgirls, and the Fighting Spirit of Labor's Last Century. Beacon Press. p. 53. ISBN 9780807050132.
  44. ^ a b Weir, Robert E. (2013). Workers in America: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 153. ISBN 9781598847185.
  45. ^ Zinn, Howard; Frank, Dana; Kelley, Robin D. G. (2002). Three Strikes: Miners, Musicians, Salesgirls, and the Fighting Spirit of Labor's Last Century. Beacon Press. p. 52. ISBN 9780807050132.
  46. ^ yongli (2016-09-21). "Rev. John O. Ferris". Retrieved 2018-11-14.
  47. ^ "Children of Ludlow". C-SPAN. July 11, 2016. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
  48. ^ "Cheyenne Record May 7, 1914 — Colorado Historic Newspapers Collection". Retrieved 2018-11-17.
  49. ^ Robert L. Heath, ed.. Encyclopedia of Public Relations (2005) 1:485
  50. ^ Andrews 2008, p. 6
  51. ^ Beverly Gage, The Day Wall Street Exploded, Oxford University Press, 2009, p. 94.
  52. ^ Picture of Ludlow Monument
  53. ^ News Release: Interior Secretary Kempthorne Designates 9 National Historic Landmarks in 9 States (01/16/2009)
  54. ^ [2]
  55. ^ "E. Marie Daley Obituary". Dignity Memorial. United States: SCI Shared Resources, LLC. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  56. ^ Lloyd, Carol V. "Song Lyrics as Texts to Develop Critical Literacy". Archived from the original on July 15, 2007. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
  57. ^ Addison, Darryl (August 23, 2013). "GAC Album Review: Jason Boland & The Stragglers' Dark & Dirty Mile". WRHI. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  58. ^ Sleeve notes from Andy Irvine – Rain on the Roof, Andy Irvine AK-1, 1996.
  59. ^ Suggs Jr., George G. (1978). "Book Review – The Coal War: A Sequel to "King Coal" by Upton Sinclair". The Western Historical Quarterly. 9 (2): 233. doi:10.2307/966845. JSTOR 966845.
  60. ^ Narkunas, J. Paul (February 24, 2011). "Representing Ethnic Wars in Against the Day". In Severs, Jeffrey; Leise, Christopher (eds.). Pynchon's Against the Day: A Corrupted Pilgrim's Guide. Lexington Books. p. 258. ISBN 9781611490657.
  61. ^ Kooser, Ted. "Mason succeeds in telling story of Ludlow Massacre through pages of poetry". Lincoln Journal Star. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  62. ^ Hansen, Kelly Dean (May 27, 2012). "Ludlow Massacre gets opera treatment". Daily Camera. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  63. ^ "Gov. Hickenlooper creates Ludlow Centennial Commemoration Commission". Colorado: The Official State Web Portal. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
  64. ^ Saitta, Dean (30 August 2013). "Deadly Ludlow strike resonates 100 years later". Denver Post. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
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