Ludonarrative dissonance

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Ludonarrative dissonance is the conflict between a video game's narrative told through the story and the narrative told through the gameplay.[1][2][3] Ludonarrative, a compound of ludology and narrative, refers to the intersection in a video game of ludic elements (gameplay) and narrative elements.[1]


The term was coined by Clint Hocking, a former creative director at LucasArts (then at Ubisoft), on his blog in October 2007.[2][4] Hocking coined the term in response to the game BioShock, which according to him promotes the theme of self-interest through its gameplay while promoting the opposing theme of selflessness through its narrative, creating a violation of aesthetic distance that often pulls the player out of the game.[4] Jonathan Blow also used BioShock as an example in his 2008 talk.[5] Writer Tom Bissell, in his book Extra Lives: Why Video Games Matter (2010), notes the example of Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare, where a player can all but kill their digital partner during gameplay without upsetting the built-in narrative of the game.[3]

Jeffrey Matulef of Eurogamer used the term when referencing the Uncharted series, saying "Uncharted has often been mocked for being about a supposedly likable rogue who just so happens to recklessly slaughter hundreds of people", and commended developer Naughty Dog for their self-awareness with Uncharted 4: A Thief's End's trophy "Ludonarrative Dissonance", which is awarded to the player for killing 1,000 enemies.[6] In an interview with Naughty Dog's creative director Neil Druckmann (who directed the game alongside Bruce Straley), Glixel's Chris Suellentrop noted that the trophy was "a reference to the criticism that Nathan Drake doesn't respond emotionally to all the killing he does"; Druckmann replied: "I told all the people on the team, 'This is my proudest moment, the fact that I came up with this trophy on this project.' We were conscious to have fewer fights, but it came more from a desire to have a different kind of pacing than to answer the 'ludonarrative dissonance' argument. Because we don't buy into it."[7]

In 2016, Frédéric Seraphine, semiotician and researcher specialized in game design at the University of Tokyo wrote a literature review about the notion of ludonarrative dissonance. In this article, developing on debates sparked by Hocking's blog post, Seraphine identifies the reason of ludonarrative dissonance as an opposition between "Incentives" and "directives" within the "ludic structure [the gameplay]" and the "narrative structure [the story]".[8]

Debates on the potential positive use of the notion[edit]

Some game scholars and writers are challenging the supposedly negative nature of ludonarrative dissonance. Nick Ballantyne, managing editor ar GameCloud Australia, in an article from 2015, argues:

"What if it could be used to a dev’s advantage? Video games can force players into uncomfortable situations, and ludonarrative dissonance can help foster that uncomfortableness. Faux glitches have been used as ludo/narrative tools before [in games such as Eternal Darkness: Sanity's Requiem and Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty], so why is ludonarrative dissonance avoided so much? If your intent is to unsettle or confuse a player, then ludonarrative dissonance seems perfect, but this relies heavily on the player."[9]

While acknowledging the potential of ludonarrative dissonance to create what he calls "emersion", defined as opposed to "immersion" as the "sensation of being pulled out of the play experience", Seraphine agrees with Ballantyne on the possibility to purposefully use ludonarrative dissonance as a storytelling device. Seraphine concludes his article with: "It seems that more games in the near future might use ludonarrative dissonance as a way to tell more compelling stories. In essence, stories are about characters and the most interesting stories are often told with dissonant characters; as it is the surprise, the disturbance, the accident, the sacrosanct disruptive element, that justifies the very act of telling a story."[8]

In a 2013 Game Developers Conference talk, Spec Ops: The Line writer Walt Williams argued that embracing ludonarrative dissonance allows the developer to portray the character as a hypocrite and force the character to rationalize their actions.[10]

Ludonarrative consistency[edit]

The Dead Space series is noted for having a consistent ludonarrative. Brett Makedonski of Destructoid states of the series, "The gameplay aptly conveys the sense of sheer terror and loneliness that the narrative expertly strives to establish."[4]


  1. ^ a b Swain, Eric (August 25, 2010). "In Defense of Ludonarrative Dissonance". The Game Critique.
  2. ^ a b Hocking, Clint (October 7, 2007). "Ludonarrative Dissonance in Bioshock". Click Nothing – via TypePad.
  3. ^ a b Bissell, Tom (2010). Extra Lives: Why Video Games Matter. Pantheon Books, New York. pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-0-307-37870-5.
  4. ^ a b c Makedonski, Brett (September 26, 2012). "Ludonarrative dissonance: The roadblock to realism". Destructoid. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
  5. ^ Blow, Jonathan. "Fundamental Conflicts in Contemporary Game Design".
  6. ^ Matulef, Jeffrey (May 11, 2016). "Uncharted 4's really meta hidden Trophies revealed". Eurogamer. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
  7. ^ Suellentrop, Chris (May 24, 2016). "'Uncharted 4' Director Neil Druckmann on Nathan Drake, Sexism in Games". Rolling Stone. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
  8. ^ a b Seraphine, Frédéric (September 2, 2016). "Ludonarrative Dissonance: Is Storytelling About Reaching Harmony?". Retrieved September 23, 2016 – via
  9. ^ Ballantyne, Nick (February 15, 2015). "The What, Why & WTF: Ludonarrative Dissonance". GameCloud. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
  10. ^ "We Are Not Heroes: Contextualizing Violence Through Narrative".

Further reading[edit]