Ludwigsburg Palace

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the Baroque palace complex. For the other two palaces on the grounds, see Monrepos and Schloss Favorite, Ludwigsburg. For the city, see Ludwigsburg. For the porcelain manufactory, see Ludwigsburg Porcelain Manufactory.
Ludwigsburg Palace
German: Residenzschloss Ludwigsburg
Ludwigsburg Palace and the Baroque Gardens from the south.
Ludwigsburg Palace and the Blooming Baroque gardens from the south.
Ludwigsburg Palace is located in Baden-Württemberg
Ludwigsburg Palace
Ludwigsburg Palace
Location in Baden-Württemberg, Germany
General information
Architectural style Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassical, Empire
Location Ludwigsburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Address Schlossstraße 30, 71634 Ludwigsburg
Coordinates 48°54′0″N 9°11′45″E / 48.90000°N 9.19583°E / 48.90000; 9.19583Coordinates: 48°54′0″N 9°11′45″E / 48.90000°N 9.19583°E / 48.90000; 9.19583
Affiliation Duchy of Württemberg
Kingdom of Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
Grounds 32 ha (79 acres)[1]
Design and construction
Architect Philipp Joseph Jenisch
Johann Friedrich Nette
Donato Giuseppe Frisoni
Philippe de La Guêpière
Friedrich Thouret
Website
www.schloss-ludwigsburg.de/en/home/

Ludwigsburg Palace (German: Residenzschloss Ludwigsburg) is a 452-room[2] Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassical, and Empire palace complex located in Ludwigsburg, Germany, about 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) from the Baden-Württemberg state capital of Stuttgart. Nicknamed the "Versailles of Swabia",[3] Ludwigsburg Palace is one of the largest palace complexes in Europe, and the only one from the Baroque period that was totally undamaged during the 20th century's wars.[4] Within its preserved rooms is one of the largest collections of Baroque art and furnishing on the continent. In 2016, the palace attracted some 330,000 visitors, and brought as many as 311,000 by October 2017.[5] Surrounding the castle on three sides is the massive, Blooming Baroque garden (German: Blühendes Barock), arranged in 1954 as it would have appeared in 1800 for the palace's 250th anniversary, and the ancillary residences of Monrepos and Schloss Favorite.

Construction on the main palace began in 1704 by order of Duke Eberhard Louis and lasted until 1733 under architects Philipp Joseph Jenisch, Johann Friedrich Nette, Donato Giuseppe Frisoni, Philippe de La Guêpière, and later Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret, who modified parts of the palace complex for King Frederick I of Württemberg. In totality, construction cost the Duchy of Württemberg 3,000,000 florins.[6] Eberhard Louis also built Schloss Favorite from 1717 to 1723 to serve the Residenzschloss's original function as a hunting retreat, and his later successor, Charles Eugene, constructed Schloss Monrepos from a pavilion Eberhard Louis erected by the Eglosheimer Lake. From 1758, the palace hosted a porcelain manufactory that produced a unique grey-brown colored porcelain, but it closed down in 1824.

By 2020, the State Agency for Palaces and Gardens hopes to have spent four million euros to source or restore some 500 paintings, 400 pieces of furniture, and 500 lamps, clocks, and sculptures so as to arrange the entire New Hauptbau to appear as it would have looked in the reign of King Frederick I.[5] Using inventory lists from the 19th century, palace staff are arranging the New Hauptbau to its Classical-era appearance and acquiring items from the palace that were present on location in the mid-19th century.[4] Around 500 paintings, 400 pieces of furniture, and 500 miscellaneous items (candlesticks, clocks, busts, etc.) will be acquired to decorate the 35 accessible rooms of the New Hauptbau.[7]

History[edit]

Old Hauptbau, looking south and east. Note the mansard roof and attic attached the top and center of this corps de logis.

Background[edit]

In the 17th century, the land that Ludwigsburg Palace now occupies was a hunting property with a lustschloss, equipped with a falconry, called the Erlachhof. In 1697,[8] the Erlachhof was razed by French troops during the Nine Years' War. In the spring of 1700, Duke Eberhard Louis tasked his then court architect Matthias Weiss, who was primarily experienced with the construction of fortresses, with the reconstruction of the Erlachhof. Construction of Weiss's new but simple three-story lodge was delayed by the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession, which the Duchy of Württemberg eventually entered and Eberhard Louis participated in the decisive Battle of Blenheim.[9] At a time when other German princes were constructing new Baroque palaces, Eberhard Louis, who had visited Louis XIV of France's court at the Palace of Versailles in the 1690s,[10] dreamed of an absolutist Württemberg and a palace to match,[11] and he found the excuse needed to build this palace with the need to replace the Erlachhof.[12] To this end, he tasked Philipp Joseph Jenisch to first study architecture abroad in 1703 and upon his return the following year appointed court architect. Jenisch, who had been given Weiss's plans so as to incorporate the work completed on his lustschloss,[9] was commissioned in 1704 to design and construct a new palace for Eberhard Louis, who himself laid the cornerstone of what would become the largest Baroque palace in Germany.[13] The next year, Eberhard Louis, in German Eberhard Ludwig, christened his new palace "Ludwigsburg,"[14] a name that the city around the palace inherited.[15]

Construction[edit]

German lithograph depicting the palace from 1896.

The ongoing War of the Spanish Succession put a strain on construction for Jenisch, who only managed to complete the ground floor and walls of Weiss's lustschloss, which became the East Caviliersbau, and some of the southern garden.[14][9] The writing on the wall for Jenisch came when, while staying at Nymphenburg Palace in Munich following the victories over the Bavarians in 1705, came to the conclusion that his court was unable to match the opulence of the Bavarian palaces. In early 1707, Eberhard Louis replaced Jenisch with the 23 year-old Johann Fredrich Nette of Berlin, whose task it now was to build a complete Baroque palace from Jenisch's lopsided wings and corps de logis, to which the wings were aligned at an 11° angle.[16]

Courtyard, looking north at the corps de logis of the Old Hauptbau.

Nette's work would be complicated by the angle of the corps de logis and struggle with the foreman of construction,[16] Johann Ulrich Heim, an ally of Jenisch who would be active in the palace's construction until 1714 and would oppose Nette and the growing number of Italian stucco artists at the palace.[17] Opposition the palace itself and its extreme cost was found in the Duchy of Württemberg's populace,[8] one pastor in nearby Oßweil saying of the palace, "May God spare our land the chastising that the Ludwigsburger brood of sinners conjure."[18] Nette completed his extensive plan for a three-wing palace in 1707, which he published two years later, under which he completed the Old Hauptbau's facade in 1708 and began the Ordensbau the next year.[16] Nette made trips to Prague in 1708 and 1709 to hire artisans for the work on the palace interiors, notable examples of whom are Donato Giuseppe Frisoni, Tommaso Soldati, Luca Antonio Colomba, and Johann Jakob Stevens von Steinfels.[19] The interiors of the Old Hauptbau were completed by Nette's artisans by 1711 and was followed in 1713 by the Riesenbau. To connect all three wings of the palace, Nette built the pavilions on the west and east sides of the Old Hauptbau and their connecting gallery arcades from 1707 to 1716.[16][14] In 1714, Nette fled to Paris from a fraudulent accusation of embezzlement made against him by Jenisch's allies. He was ordered back to Ludwigsburg by the Duke in short order, but died in Nancy of a stroke in early 1715, aged 41. At the time of his death, most of the then palace and northern garden was finished.[18][19]

Picture of structures Johann Fredrich Nette completed or started, looking northeast.

Following Nette's death, Jenisch sought to return as building director. Donato Frisoni,[20] an Italian plasterer from Laino who had worked at Ludwigsburg since his arrival there in 1709 as Tomasso Soldati's partner,[21][22] also submitted an application for the position. This was ignored by the building authority as it was aligned with Jenisch, but Duke Eberhard Louis overturned their decision in February 1715 and appointed Frisoni as building director of the palace and the city.[20] Ultimately, the Duke chose Frisoni, who enjoyed the support of Court Chamberlain Georg Friedrich Forstner,[23] in spite of Frisoni's lack of architectural training as he had been impressed by Frisoni's opulent stuccoes.[a][21] In the same year as his appointment, Frisoni completed his plans for Ludwigsburg,[20] which showed a massive expansion to the south. Where Nette had intended to build his own east and west wings, Frisoni constructed the Catholic (Schlosskirche) and Lutheran (Ordenskapelle) chapels and both Kavaliersbaue,[23] from 1715 to 1722,[14] to house the courtiers of Eberhard Louis's court. The completion of these two structures made it apparent to Frisoni now that he did not have the organization or local talent pool he needed to fulfill the Duke's desires for the palace and city.[23]

Beginning in 1704, Duke Eberhard Louis, mimicking Versailles and himself setting a trend in southwestern German courts (Karlsruhe, Rastatt),[12] decided to build a new township for his palace, as this would demonstrate the Duke's prestige and power.[15] However, as construction continued, it became obvious that the massive undertaking of the palace's construction necessitated the building of Ludwigsburg.[25] Rather than raising taxes or instituting new ones, Eberhard Louis saved costs by allowing the workers at the palace reside in the city from 1709,[2] and further incentive settling in Ludwigsburg by offering free land and building materials, total freedom of religion, and 15 years without taxation.[15][26][b] Construction and growth of the town stalled from its opening in 1709 until Eberhard Louis granted Ludwigsburg city status in 1718 and established it as the capital of the Duchy of Württemberg.[26]


Use and later history[edit]

View of the main palace from Schloss Favorite.

In the 1740s a New Palace was built in Stuttgart, and it was favored by the later dukes of Württemberg as their primary residence, but Ludwigsburg remained in use as well. However, under King William I of Württemberg, the palace and especially the gardens gradually decayed because William I, in contrast to his predecessors, showed no interest in Ludwigsburg. He favored his own palatial projects at Wilhelma (Moorish) and Rosenstein (Neoclassical) in Stuttgart.

Duke Charles Eugene moved the official residence of the Dukes from Stuttgart's Old Castle, the official residence of 15th century Dukes of Württemberg, decrying the castle as being "prison-like."[8] From 1757, Charles Eugene took a large apartment for himself on the second floor of the New Hauptbau, which he had remodeled in the Rococo style.[27]

Duke Carl Alexander, unloved by his subjects as he was Catholic, died suddenly at Ludwigsburg Palace on 12 March 1737 as he was preparing to leave for a military inspection of various fortresses in the duchy. His equally unpopular Jewish minister of the economy, Joseph Suss Oppenheimer, was at Ludwigsburg palace having arrived by coach.[28]

From the castle's construction to the death of Charles Eugene, Ludwigsburg served as the ducal palace and seat of power in Württemberg for a total of 28 years.[29] With Duke Eberhard Louis's death, ascension of his cousin Charles Alexander, and move of power back to Stuttgart by Duke Charles Alexander, the population of Ludwigsburg was reduced by half and did not return to its original size until Duke Charles Eugene moved the capital back to Ludwigsburg in 1764.[26]

King Frederick assembled 12 rooms west of the Marble Hall for his suite, where he resided from 1802 to 1811, starting with an antechamber adjoining the Marble Hall. He resided in the six rooms to the north for his residence and the six to the south for formalities,[27] which was entirely remodeled for him by Friedrich von Thouret in the Neoclassical style from 1803 to 1814. In addition to his own apartment, Frederick I also had the Marble Hall, Ordensbau, and Theater remodeled in Neoclassical.[30]

Charlotte, Princess Royal of the United Kingdom and daughter of King George III, married Frederick, Elector, Duke and then King of Württemberg, 18 May 1797 at St James's Palace in Westminster.[31] In 1800, the peaceful atmosphere of the court in Stuttgart was disturbed by Napoleon Bonaparte marching an army into Württemberg, prompting the Duke and Duchess to flee to Vienna even as French soldiers entered Stuttgart.[32] The ducal couple was able to return to Württemberg and Frederick was given land and even made an Elector in the Holy Roman Empire and then a king in his own right by Napoleon in exchange for military support rendered to Napoleon.[32] George III, in a bout of his infamous mental illness, refused to recognize his daughter as Queen of Württemberg even when Frederick returned to the British fold in 1813,[31] nor when the couple's status as monarchs was confirmed at the Congress of Vienna in 1814.[32] When Frederick died three years later, Charlotte received many notable visitors from across Europe at Ludwigsburg Palace, among them some of her siblings.[33] The Dowager Queen died 5 October 1828 following a bout of illness[31] and she was interred in the Württemberg family vault.

Later history[edit]

Borkum Island Massacre trial, 1946. Pictured is the defense addressing the court.

On 6 February 1946, the trial (United States v. Kurt Goebell et al.) of 15 of the 23 perpetrators of the Borkum Island Massacre took place in the palace[34] and lasted until 22 March 1946.[35]

Some scenes of Stanley Kubrick's 1975 film Barry Lyndon were shot inside the palace.[36]

On 16 August 2016, Minister of Finance for the state of Baden-Württemberg, Edith Sitzmann, visited Ludwigsburg Palace and Schloss Favorite as part of her "castle trip."[37]

An exhibit showcasing the LEGO creations of the group Ulm Klötzlebauer ended on 22 May 2016, which drew over 18,000 visitors to the Old Hauptbau of the palace.[38] They would again exhibit at Ludwigsburg Palace the next year from 7 December to 18 February for Kinderreich, complete with a scale model of the Old Hauptbau.[39][40]

In November 2017, a painting of Frederick the Great on display at Ludwigsburg Palace previously attributed to Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff was found to have actually been painted by his teacher, Antoine Pesne, when the signature on the bottom right edge of the painting was discovered to be Pesne's. According to acting director of the State Agency for Palaces and Gardens Michael Hörrmann, the painting of Frederick, of which there was officially one made, may have been a gift to Duke Charles Eugene (who was educated during his minority in Frederick's court). Because of the rarity of portraits of Frederick the Great and the demand for Pesne's work, Hörrmann valued the painting at a minimum of one million euros.[5] Editz Sitzmann visited the palace to see the painting and restored piece of King Frederick I's furniture and to attend a press conference, speaking about the cultural important of Ludwigsburg Palace.[7] Also in November, on the nights of the 16th and 17th, the New Hauptbau was illuminated in purple light for World Pancreatic Cancer Day and World Prematurity Day respectively.[41][42]

Music at Ludwigsburg[edit]

Revolverheld performing in the court of honor.

As the 18th century continued, the celebration of Duke Eberhard Louis's hunting order was to become one of the most important festivities of court life, and serenatas and other performances would be held for these celebrations at Ludwigsburg Palace.[43] While no music or librettos from these performances remain, a document detailing accommodation for this event in 1715 sheds light on the parties involved.[44] Then senior concert master (German: Oberkapellmeister) Johann Christoph Pez would be lodged in the Old Hauptbau, with all of the musicians gathered in one large room, the Ducal comödianten divided into married members, housed in the orangery, and single members, housed at a nearby inn. These performances also likely involved two horn players, appointed and composed for by Pez in 1713.[45]

In 1918, following the close of the First World War, the palace was opened to the public. Four years later in 1922, the palace hosted its first musical performance since 1853: Händel's Rodelinda with guest performance by the Württemberg State Theatre as part of a meeting for the preservation of public heritage monuments. In 1931, Wilhelm Krämer founded the Ludwigsburger Mozartgemeinde, which then organized the Ludwigsburg Palace Concerts in 1932 that today continue to fill the rooms of the palace with music of all genres each summer.[46] From its beginning in the early 1930s to its final performed in 1939, numerous concerts[c] were held in the Order Hall, Order Chapel, and the palace courtyard. Concerts and other festivities resumed two years after Second World War and in great number until, in 1980, Baden-Württemberg made the festival a state event and gave it a new name: the Ludwigsburg Festival.[47]

The palace theater, the oldest preserved palace theatre in Europe, was built during the reign of Duke Eberhard Louis but received its machinery in 1758, during the reign of Duke Charles Eugene. The single central axle underneath the stage, designed by Johann Christian Keim, allowed a single person to control the entire stage set, allowing for very speedy transitions that astounded visitors. The theater had its first performance on 23 May 1758.[48]

German rock band performed in courtyard on 6 August 2016 for the KSK Music Open that year.[49] On 27 July 2018, the Scorpions are to hold a concert at Ludwigsburg Palace as one of the last shows of their Crazy World Tour.[50][51]

Porcelain manufactory[edit]

An example of the Ludwigsburg Porcelain Manufactory work.

In 1729, Duke Eberhard Louis received an offer from a mirror-maker named Elias Vater to found a porcelain manufactory, but the Duke turned down his offer, thinking it ridiculous. Eberhard Louis's successor, Charles Alexander, heard of the proposal and in 1736 set aside 2000 gulden for experimenting with the production of porcelain under one Johann Philipp Weißbrodt, which were failures and ceased entirely when Charles Alexander died. Charles Eugene succeeded the throne following a regency and in 1751 passed a decree allowing the Calwer Handelscompagnie von Zahn und Dörtenbach to utilize all the duchy's previous research to again attempt to manufacture porcelain, a right they possessed until its transferal to Bonifatius Christoph Häcker in 1857. Charles Eugene officially founded the Ludwigsburger Porzellan-Fabrik on 5 April 1758 to place pressure on the Handelscompagnie, but both parties would fail because of setbacks and insufficient funding. Early progress was hindered by poor handling of raw material and debate over production. Charles Eugene hired Joseph Jakob Ringler, who had worked previously in Vienna, Nymphenburg, and Höchst, on 16 February 1759 as head of the Ludwigsburg Porcelain Manufactory. He held this position for 40 years.[52][53]

Ringler turned the company around, almost immediately beginning production of Ludwigsburg's signature grey-brown porcelain, and by March 1758 had 21 employees under him. Over his long career in porcelain, Ringler had learned the proper mixture and technique for making porcelain, but had also made connections to artisans in the business, which allowed him to convince Duke Charles Eugene to hire master painter Gottlieb Friedrich Riedel, who worked at the Ludwigsburg Porcelain Manufactory for 20 years, of Meissen's manufactory, and the sculptor Johann Christian Wilhelm Beyer.[52][53] The manufactory's first years were very successful and was one of the biggest producers of porcelain wares in Europe from 1760 to 1775. Despite this success, the company regularly spent more than its income, forcing Charles Eugene to support it himself even after he moved the Ducal residence back to Stuttgart from the palace complex in 1775,[52] though he curtailed his support of the company in 1771.[53] Charles Eugene was succeeded in 1793 by Louis Eugene, and he put the manufactory's affairs in order. However, the repaying of its debts and further support of the company by Frederick II Eugene from 1797 could not stall the manufactory's decline. Since 1780, designs had begun moving from the Rococo to the Louis XVI style, but Riedel and thus his department of painters would not change with the demand.[52] The company enjoyed a brief renaissance in the reign of King Frederick I, who renamed the company to the Herzoglich-Königliche Porzellan-Manufaktur Ludwigsburg in 1805, but it went into rapid decline on the King's death in 1816. King William I was not interested in propping up the failing company, and it finally closed in 1824 when no buyer or leaseholder was found.[54] There are 27 examples of the manufactory's wares in the collection of the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.[55]

Burials in the Schlosskapelle[edit]

One of the 18 buildings of the residential palace is the Schlosskapelle (German: Castle chapel). The interior of the final resting place of several members of the House of Württemberg was decorated by Diego Carlone with his unique style of stucco sculpture.[56]

Architecture[edit]

Ludwigsburg floor plan. 1: Old Hauptbau. 2 & 3: Hunting and Pleasure Pavilions. 4: Ordensbau. 5: Riesenbau. 6: Ordenskapelle. 7: Schlosskirche. 8 & 9: West and East Kavaliersbaue. 10: Festinbau. 11: Schlosstheater. 12: Picture Gallery. 13: Ahnengalerie. 14: New Hauptbau. 15: Kitchens (not visible). 16: West Forecourt. 17: Central Courtyard. 18: East Forecourt. 19: Friedrich Garden. 20: Mathilde Garden. Note: this plan does not feature the angle at which the Old Hauptbau (north) meets the east and west wings.
Aerial view of Ludwigsburg palace and surrounding city from 2010.

Ethos[edit]

Despite the efforts of such architects as Elias Holl and a few theorists like Joseph Furttenbach the Elder, the spread of the Baroque style into the Holy Roman Empire had been halted in the mid-17th century by the ravages of the Thirty Years War, with the period shortly thereafter being the time for the Baroque bloom in Germany. The construction of the Palace of Versailles by King Louis XIV revolutionized palace construction in Europe. A new, French style of palace became fashionable in Europe even as the political power of France diminished and was replaced by the Habsburg Empire. In Austria, an up-and-coming architect named Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach began the construction of Schönbrunn Palace in 1695, and his work blazed a trail for a new era of Versailles-inspired palaces across the Holy Roman Empire that many palaces, Ludwigsburg included, would follow in.[d] Later German Baroque architects such as Balthasar Neumann, Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann, and Christoph Dientzenhofer set to work building new Baroque masterpieces throughout Germany such as the world-famous Würzburg Residence, which incorporated features of the preceding Austro-Italian as well as French Baroque styles into a masterful new palace.

Ludwigsburg Palace is built in a French Baroque model in the style of Versailles. Like many other German princes,[25] Eberhard Louis decided to abandon the traditional seat of his power (in his case the aging Old Castle in Stuttgart) build a new baroque palace in Versaille's image to reflect his own dreams of an absolutist Württemberg,[11] but he was unable to attract all the aristocracy to this new palace as Louis XIV had when he fled from the possibility of another Fronde.[12] As was typical in Württemberg, the French influence on the palace is obvious, visible for example in the many mansard roofs of the palace.[61] However, while the model for the palace was, initially, Versailles, there are differences in the two palaces, such as the simple ornamentation of the Palace's windows,[62] which can be largely attributed to the Bohemian-trained hand of Donato Frisoni (who also hired a large staff largely composed of Italians).[21] The exteriors were designed by Germans Philipp Jenisch and Friedrich Nette and the interior by Italians Donato Frisoni, Diego and Carlo Carlone, Giuseppe Baroffio, Pietro Scotti and Luca Antonio Columba.[63] A result of this is that the palace bears much resemblance to late 17th century works in Prague and Vienna.[64] Of the three major undertakings of 18th century secular Swabian architecture (the other two being Rastatt and Karlsruhe Palaces), Ludwigsburg, the largest Baroque palace in Germany, is the most architecturally and historically significant.[65][11]

Design[edit]

A design for a salon in Schloss Favorite by Donato Frisoni from 1718, signed by Frisoni and Duke Eberhard Louis.[22]

The first designs for the structure to replace the Erlachhof were for an unadorned three-story lustschloss by Duke Eberhard Louis's court architect at the time, a fortress engineer named Matthias Weiss. However, he was replaced by Philipp Joseph Jenisch in 1704, and though the foundation of Weiss's lodge was built, it would be Jenisch to begin construction in earnest.[9] His design was for a three-winged Baroque palace, which showed clear Bohemian Baroque influence, included Weiss's lodge as the East Caviliersbau as an unattached wing, as a consequence requiring both east and west wings to be joined to the Old Hauptbau at an 11° angle, and a double staircase identical to the one at Rastatt Palace.[17][18] By the time Jenisch was replaced by Nette, the Old Hauptbau's ground floor was completed and much of the southern garden had been terraced.[17]

In 1706 the young and talented court architect Johann Friedrich Nette had already created a design for an elaborate U-shaped three-winged palace in the French Baroque style. Beginning in 1707, the Old Hauptbau and its flanking pavilions, the Hunting and Pleasure pavilions, and the first two buildings of the East and West wings, connected to the north wing by the arcades, were constructed by Nette until his death in Nancy in 1714. Nette traveled twice to Prague in 1708 and in 1709 to recruit experienced artisans just before work on the interiors of the Old Hauptbau began. By the time Nette died in 1714, his eight years on the site saw the completion of the north garden and much of Ludwigsburg Palace north of the galleries.[9][e]

Among the experienced craftsmen Nette hired in Prague was an Italian stuccoist named Donato Giuseppe Frisoni who arrived at Ludwigsburg in 1709.[66] Already in 1709 had Duke Eberhard Louis entrusted the design of the city of Ludwigsburg to Frisoni. When Johann Friedrich Nette died in 1715, he became the lead architect working on the palace of Ludwigsburg against the will of the building commission.[21] His designs for the separation of the palace and the city as well as the equal prominence of the Protestant and Catholic churches in Ludwigsburg show progressive attitudes even as he continued the work Nette started before him at the palace.[67] However, Frisoni made the addition of the two chapels on either side of the palace. On the orders of Duke Eberhard Louis, Frisoni put into motion his plans for the final wing of the palace, the corps de logis on the southern edge of the courtyard. This new wing, large enough for the duke's ceremonies, was constructed from 1724 to 1733.[14]

Interiors[edit]

A photo of the palace interior, 2006.

The decoration and architectural design of Ludwigsburg Palace denote its function as a center of entertainment, an idea initially inherited from the Palace of Versailles. From there, however, there is an obvious departure from Versailles in the design and decor of Ludwigsburg Palace - its exteriors were designed by Germans (Philipp Jenisch, Friedrich Nette) and its interiors by Italians (Riccardo Retti, Andreas Quittainer, Donato Giuseppe Frisoni, Diego and Carlo Carlone, Giuseppe Baaroffio, Pietro Scotti, and Luca Antonio Columba), as opposed to the all-French contingent responsible for Versailles.[63] The distinctive features of the palace themselves are not French, but Italian, which can be observed in the elevation of the buildings of the palace, as seen in later 17th century works in Prague or Vienna. But it is in the interiors that we see a complete uniqueness from Versailles. Stylistically, the interiors are very Italian, decorated with stones and stucco. This is very noticeable, for instance, in the Mirror Gallery, where the stucco is matched with a suite of mirrors.[64]

As Ludwigsburg was intended and, until 1775, used as a summer residence only, heating was either nonexistent or poor in the castle. Duke Eberhard Louis in the winters resided at the Old Castle in Stuttgart, but Duke Charles Eugene decided to reside at Ludwigsburg all-year in 1775 and would be followed by Charlotte, Princess Royal and widow of King Frederick I, in year-round residence. To heat rooms in the absence of adequate insulation, stoves were used for heating, but only the noble rooms at Ludwigsburg had stoves, which were required to be fed by a vast amount of firewood that came from as far away as the Black Forest. The servant's quarters were very cold, but the attic enjoyed some heating via ducts connected to the stoves below. Other means of keeping the palace interiors warm in the winter included additional windows to cover the windows and replacing the wallpapers with furs.[68]

Over the course of the whole palace's use as a residence, the elaborate wooden parquet floors had to be replaced repeatedly as the servant staff did not have access to proper equipment for cleaning the floors. Fortunately, examples of original flooring still exist in the Hunting pavilion.[69]

North wing[edit]

A mirror in the Spiegelkabinett, Duke Eberhard Louis's apartment.

The Old Hauptbau is the oldest structure of the palace, originally built as a lustschloss to house the apartments of Duke Eberhard Louis and his daughter-in-law, princess Henrietta Maria of Brandenburg-Schwedt. These apartments follow the 17th-century French Baroque model, possessing a living room, audience chamber, and bedroom. The Ducal Apartment is made unique by the additions of the Spiegelkabinett, a hall of mirrors decorated with stucco by Donato Frisoni joined to the ducal bedroom by the removal of the wall between these two spaces in 1721, and a hidden staircase into the room of Eberhard Louis's mistress, Wilhelmine von Grävenitz. Present in the Ducal Apartment is Eberhard Louis's original writing desk, a work attributed to local carpenter Johann Jakob Meyer dated to 1730.[70] The two pavilions to the east and west of the Old Hauptbau, the Pleasure and Hunting pavilions respectively, are joined to the corps de logis by an arcade that closes off the northern edge of the courtyard.[14] In 1719, Donato Frisoni augmented the roof of the Old Hauptbau with a mansard roof to prevent further damage to the roof caused by standing water. In 1809, King Frederick I placed a preserved piece of clockwork taken from Zwiefalten Abbey in the attic of Frisoni's roof.[61]

The Jagdpavilion's Marmorsaletta, 2007.

At the center of the Jagdpavillon is the Marmorsaletta, the marble hall decorated in stucco and painted by Giacomo Antonio Corbellini,[71] that feature depictions of the Ducal hunting grounds and horns, the monogram of Duke Eberhard Louis,[72] and the stucco and fresco work of Swiss artist Luca Antonio Colomba on the ceiling.[73] Attached are three rooms complete with stucco patterns mimicking Turkish carpets or Chinese paintings, at that time popular with European rulers against black backgrounds.[72] The Pleasure pavilion (German: Speilpavillon) is comparatively less complex, possessing a marble rotunda with three large windows looking out into the surrounding gardens as its central feature, capped with a dome with stucco by Diego Carlone and paintings by Luca Antonio Colomba and Emanuel Wohlhaupter depicting the four seasons via the zodiac signs.[74] The four corners of the pavilion, bizarre scenes painted in a style imitating Delftware, are an example of Baroque exoticism.[75]

East wing[edit]

The Ahnengalerie, in the New Hauptbau.

Between the Riesenbau and the East Kavalierbau is the Schlosskapelle, or castle chapel, designed and constructed in 1716 by Donato Frisoni in a classical Italian style as a rotunda. The Ducal family would enter their private box on the second floor from their living quarters, while their court took seats in the side galleries. The chapel had been built as a Protestant church, but would switch denomination according to the ruling duke until King Frederick I established the Schlosskapelle for Protestantism, but today is Catholic. However, the pulpit and organ were moved into the Ordensbau by King Frederick I. Underneath the Schlosskapelle is a tomb that holds the remains of many members of the House of Württemberg.[58] Beneath the Riesenbau are the barrel cellars that may actually predate the palace sitting above it. The barrels lie beyond the vestibule, where a state of Bacchus awaits and may sometimes spray visitors with water. The most notable of these is the Great Barrel, a barrel made from ten oak trees for Duke Eberhard Louis that held 90,000 liters (20,000 imp gal) of wine, and could dispense both red or white wine as needed. Although most of the wine was consumed by the Duke's court, it could also an alternate form of payment for servant staff and part of the salary of officials at the palace.[76]

Attached to the back of the East Kavalierbau and to the Schlosskapelle is Europe's oldest preserved palace theater, constructed for Duke Eberhard Louis from 1729 to 1733. Duke Charles Eugene, through court architect Philippe de La Guêpière, later added the theater's stage technology and auditorium interior and King Frederick I later tasked Friedrich von Thouret with the conversion to the Neoclassical interior as seen today in 1811.[48]

The southernmost part of the East wing is the Ahnengalerie, an ahnentafel in architectural form, built in 1729 to connect the older structures of Johann Friedrich Nette and Donato Frisoni to the New Hauptbau. Frisoni had originally envisioned a plain white hall, but Duke Eberhard Louis desired otherwise and received an ornate hall adorned with portraits of members of the House of Württemberg and one of the largest frescoes in the palace complex. Friedrich von Thouret remodeled the hall into Neoclassical for King Fredrick I in 1806, removing the original Baroque decor and replaced with marble paneling and stucco embellishment. Frederick I also had the portraits standardized to a specific size and framing. Today, the portraits trace the Württemberg lineage from Eberhard I the Bearded, first Duke of Württemberg, to Wilhelm II, the last King of Württemberg, as well as all the mothers of the Dukes and Kings of Württemberg.[77]

West wing[edit]

Throne of King Frederick I in the Ordensbau.

The Ordensbau dates from the later half of the 1710s but today appears as King Frederick I had painted. The hall was first built to give Duke Eberhard Louis more room for his hunting order, but under Frederick it was remodeled according to his taste in the Neoclassical style. The Baroque stuccoes were stripped and replaced with columns and the massive fresco,[78] by Pietro Scotti and Giuseppe Baroffio,[64] painted over, but it was revealed in 1939 and remains as it appeared originally. This hall, the largest room in the palace until the addition of the Marble Hall, served as Frederick's throne room and as the meeting hall for the Order of the Golden Eagle. Later, it was the site of the ratification of the constitutions of the Kingdom and then Free State of Württemberg in 1819 and 1919 respectively. Friedrich von Thouret also remodeled the attached Protestant chapel (German: Ordenskapelle) for use by the illustrious order of aristocrats that included the kings of Bavaria, Prussia, and even Napoleon. Preserved to this day are the seats that members of the Teutonic Knights sat under the Ordenskapelle's gilded shield.[78]

Connecting the Western Caviliersbau to the southern wing is the Picture gallery (German: Bildergalerie), built from 1730 to 1732, the personal art gallery of the rulers of Württemberg that today exhibits the art in the collection of the palace. The whole length of the gallery's ceiling is decorated by stucco a massive fresco depicting the Trojan War painted by Pietro Scotti by request of Duke Eberhard Louis. Beginning in 1803, future King Frederick I (then still Duke of Württemberg) began the conversion of the Gallery into the Neoclassical style, which included the filling in of windows with bricks into ovals to open up more room for artwork and in one instance a lavish fireplace adorned with an oval medallion depicting Frederick I, designed and built by Philipp Jakob Scheffauer.[79]

Detached from the rest of the residential palace and located west of and parallel to the Ordensbau is the two-story Kitchen building, called the Küchenbau. The Küchenbau's separation from the rest of the palace prevented smoke and odors from disturbing the palace proper, and significantly reduced the likelihood of an errant kitchen fire resulting in a palace-wide inferno. Inside the Küchenbau are seven hearths, a bakery, a butcher's shop, and several pantries, such as the cellar vault where apples were kept. Quarters for the kitchen staff can be found on the first floor and in the attic of the Küchenbau. Most of the food eaten by the palace was sourced locally, due to the difficulty in transport of resources. For example, the seafood and chickens (eggs) consumed by the court were raised in the two buildings north of the Küchenbau, and much of the game eaten by the court was supplied by the Dukes and Kings and the court itself. An 1816 invoice states that 31 types of fish (cod, kippers, anchovies, eels, tuna, as well as oysters and crabs) were kept at the palace, and in April of that year, the kitchen processed 2,770 red deer, 302 wild boar, and five hares.[80]

South wing[edit]

The New Hauptbau's corps de logis from the court of honor.

Making up the entire southern wing of Ludwigsburg Palace is the New Hauptbau, designed and constructed by Donato Frisoni for Duke Eberhard Louis when the old corps de logis proved too small for the functions of his court.[14] It is today made up by the apartments of Duke Charles Eugene and the first King and Queen of Württemberg, Frederick I and Charlotte Mathilde, and the Marble Hall. The New Hauptbau is two stories hall, split east and west by the Marble Hall (German: Marmorsaal), connected by two staircases to either half of the New Hauptbau, and these played an important role in the ceremonial reception of guests to the palace.[27] Hidden inside the building are the various secret halls, quarters, and even the two courtyards at either end of the building designed by Donato Frisoni used by the servant staff and for drainage that remain preserved today.[81]

Duke Charles Eugene took up residence in a large portion of the second floor in 1750, and had the suite renovated in the Rococo by Philippe de La Guêpière from 1750 to 1757.[27] The ornate suite of Charles Eugene feature stucco by plasters by Giovanni Pietro Brilli and Ludovico Bossi, frescoes by Matthäus Günther, and the illustrations above every doorway and window by Adolf Friedrich Harper. In every room are paintings of Charles Eugene and his bride Elisabeth Fredericka Sophie, sister of Frederick the Great, by Antoine Pesne, and original furniture that Charles Eugene purchased from Parisian masters such as Jacques-Philippe Carel. One notable state room is the Assembléezimmer, where the Duke met and spoke with confidants as well as held small-scale concerts, which can be attested to by the illustrations of musical instruments on the wallpaper.[82] Olga, Queen of Württemberg, took up residence in Charles Eugene's suite in 1901 with her two children, and today is remembered in the suite by the Princess Olga Cabinet Exhibit, which records the life of Olga and her family.[83]

King Frederick I used Ludwigsburg Palace as his summer residence starting 1802, taking a suite of twelve rooms starting with an antechamber attached to the Marble Hall, which he split in half by north and south according to their function.[27] Beginning in 1803 and finally ending in 1814, he remodeled his suite and a few other parts of the place in the Neoclassical style through his court architect, Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret.[30] One of the six rooms to the south is the throne room whose aesthetic channels Ancient Egypt in its decorative patterns, furnishings and red velvet wallpapers, with the exception of the throne, a chair seized from a monastery during the secularization of Frederick's reign.[84] The Royal Bedroom, in the northern half of the suite where Frederick I resided,[27] visitors can see the light blue silk (originally turquoise) drapery above the King's massive bed, built in 1811, and the ornate bronze-decorated mahogany furniture of David Roentgen and his pupil Johannes Klinckerfuss. Immediately to the right is Frederick I's conference room, which contains the original filing cabinets of the King, is more Neoclassical decor and Renaissance artwork on damask-lined walls all principally dominated by the colors yellow and blue, picked by Friedrich von Thouret as he started renovating the area in 1803.[84]

To the east of the Marble Hall is the apartment of Queen Charlotte Mathilde, where she lived from 1802 until her death in 1828.[27] The suite appears today in the Neoclassical arrangement that Friedrich von Thouret devised,[85] but before 1816 all but three rooms retained their original Baroque arrangement and furnishing.[27] One of those three rooms was the Queen's audience chamber, arranged in 1806 by von Thouret to reassemble the King's own audience and throne room, but with red silk damask and the stand on which her throne sits, which stands one step higher than the King's own. Her favorite room, her study, is fairly unusual for Neoclassical architecture as it is designed to resemble a hall of mirrors by the Queen's request in 1818 by von Thouret, who also decorated the yellow-clad walls with green marble columns and golden pilaster. On the north side of the suite is the summer workroom, furnished in the Biedermeier style and with embroidery on the chairs and sofa by Queen Charlotte herself. One notable item in this room is the kidney-shaped reading table in one of the corners, made by Johannes Klinckerfuss around 1800. The last room in Charlotte's suite to be renovated was the bedroom, in 1824, with more green marble columns and golden pilasters, red silk damask and canopy over a gilded bed.[85]

In 1815, King Frederick I ordained Friedrich von Thouret with the remodeling of the Marble Hall into Neoclassical, and replaced the previous ceiling with a domed one, complete with a massive fresco of an evening sky. So complete was the renovation of the old Baroque ballroom that only its ovular shape was retained.[86] Above the Marble Hall is the feat of engineering that is its roof, whose design was made difficult by the shape of the Marble Hall below and the great weight of the roof. The resulting roof, whose every section had to be carefully planned, has no visible supports as it is cantilevered upon the entablatures at the top the walls of the Marble Hall.[61]

Grounds and gardens[edit]

The Blooming Baroque garden around Ludwigsburg Palace.
Statue of the storyteller in the Fairy-Tale garden.

Surrounding the palace on nearly all sides is the massive, 32 hectares (0.32 km2) Blooming Baroque garden, or in German, Blühendes Barock. Although the history of the garden is as long as that of the palace it graces, the current incarnation of the garden was completed in 1954]] for the palace's 250th birthday according to how it might have looked in 1800. This garden was only intended to last six months, but soon became a permanent fixture of the palace and is today looked after by the city of Ludwigsburg.[87] In today's garden, open from March to November, visitors will find many different designs and arrangements from various styles and cultures. Notable landmarks of this ever-changing garden are the Japanese and Sardinian gardens,[88] baroque Parterre, aviaries containing native as well as exotic birds in the northern garden, the "Valley of Birdsong," and the Emichsburg folly,[89] where tourists savvy in German can entice Rapunzel into lowering her hair.[90] The gardens, which annually host a large variety of events that can be easily charted via the calendar available on the Blooming Baroque's website (in German),[91] today brings more than 520,000 visitors annually.[92]

A potted plant vase located in the baroque gardens surrounding Ludwigsburg Palace.

One entirely unique area of the gardens is the Fairy-Tale garden, German: Märchengarten, shown on the figure below, which contains some thirty depictions from several fairy tales including but not limited to the Rübezahl, Sindbad, Max and Moritz, The Frog Prince, Ali Baba, Sleeping Beauty, Aladdin, Rapunzel,[93] Pinocchio, Snow White, Hansel and Gretel, Little Red Riding Hood, and Rumpelstiltskin.[94]

When the first plans for a garden were laid, Duke Eberhard Louis favored creating a steep slope on the north side of the palace in the Italian style complete with terraces and water falls. However, when the castle began to expand, he turned his attention the south side of the palace and there laid out a symmetrical French baroque garden.[95] Duke Charles Eugene modified the gardens beginning 1750 in the South garden by removing some retaining walls and replacing them with an orangerie and a bosquet. However, 20 years later, the Duke began renting parts of the garden as his interest had left the gardens.[96] Then-Duke Frederick I ordered, in 1798, a redesign of the garden in a style more to his taste. The South garden was laid out simply, with a large canal with oval basin and four new compartments each with a vase by Antonio Isopi. In addition to the expansion of the gardens with the Eastern gardens, two private gardens were added specifically for the King and his wife, Queen Charlotte of England.[95][f] The Emichsburg located in today's Fairy-tale garden was built in 1802 on a large rock in the area of an English garden located between Schloss Favorite and Monrepos and a park with carousels made for the amusement of guests to Ludwigsburg Palace.[95] The garden again fell out of favor in the reign of Frederick's son and successor, William I, who moved completely out of the palace for Rosenstein Palace in Stuttgart.[97] William I opened the garden to the public in 1828, planted an orchard on the southern parterre, filled in the basin and canal,[96] and began breeding Kashmir and Angora goats in Frederick's forest park.[98] After the dissolution of the Kingdom, the gardens largely became an orchard and potatoes were planted in the South garden and the palatial gardens remained in this state of disrepair for years.[97]

The Old Hauptbau from the northern garden.

In 1947, Ludwigsburg's gardens were assigned to the care of Albert Schöchle, director of the State Agency of Plants and Gardens (German: Staatliche Anlagen und Gärten).[99] The disrepair of the gardens was such that in the South garden, no path was visible and parts of the garden had become impassible on foot. While attending the Federal Garden Show of 1951 in Hanover, Schöchle became of the opinion that a superior garden show could be had at the sizable historical gardens of Ludwigsburg Palace. He was able to get his plans approved and construction underway by 23 March 1953, 13 months before the opening of the garden. Enormous amounts of earth had to be moved for the arrangement of the garden and laying of paths to begin and, by the autumn of 1953, much of the gardens had been laid out and hundreds of thousands of flowers planted.[97] On 23 April 1954,[100] the gardens finally opened to about 500,000 visitors by May of that year, among them Theodor Heuss. When the show ended a year later, not only was the event itself completely reimbursed by the proceeds, but the gardens could safely afford to become a permanent landmark of Ludwigsburg.[97] While on a business trip to Holland in 1957, Schöchle visited the fairy-tale garden near Tilburg, Holland, and was inspired. At the time, he was worried that without a new attraction, the Blooming Baroque gardens would again fail, but this time his superiors were not initially enthusiastic. After a period of convincing them of his vision, the design and construction of the new Fairy-tale garden, or Märchengarten, was opened to great acclaim.[101] The success of the new park and garden astounded even Schöchle – by 1960, proceeds from the Fairy tale garden in 1961 were tenfold what they were when it opened the previous year.[102]

Map of the palatial grounds
Ludwigsburg residential palace
Residential palace
 
The South garden
South garden
 
The North garden
North garden
 
The Lower-east garden
Lower-east garden
 
The Upper-east garden
Upper-east garden
 
The Fairy-Tale garden
Fairy-Tale garden
 
Figure: Map

Schloss Favorite[edit]

Schloss Favorite in the winter. Note the four pillars on the first floor entrance, which are Baroque embellishments that symbolize the elements of earth, fire, water, and air.[103]

Originally, Ludwigsburg Palace had been planned to be a lustschloss on the site of an earlier structure, the "Erlachhof," which had been razed by French troops.[8] Construction began in 1704, but by 1710 Eberhard Louis, Duke of Württemberg had decided to use Ludwigsburg Palace as his main residence rather than just a hunting lodge, and charged Donato Giuseppe Frisoni with the construction of a three-winged palace in the image of the Palace of Versailles. Ludwigsburg Palace had been built on the ducal hunting property north of Stuttgart,[104] and the Duke still desired a hunting retreat. In 1717, inspired by a garden palace he had seen in Vienna, the Duke tasked Frisoni with the design of a new Rococo palace, which he dubbed "Favorite" (French: Darling), located on a hill to the north of the main palace.[105] Schloss Favorite was not intended for long stays,[98] lacking any facilities to facilitate living,[106] but it was perfectly outfitted for formal functions of court, especially balls.[105] Eberhard Louis would organize an annual religious festival on Hubertustag, complete with parties and banquets, although food had to be hauled from the residential palace for every feast.[106] Schloss Favorite was used as the backdrop to a firework display for Eberhard Louis's wedding to Elisabeth Frederika Sophie in 1748.[107] This would not be the first time Charles Eugene would alter the palace's function for his wife. For Fredericka's eighteenth birthday, the Duke had Favorite transformed into an opera house for a showing of Carl Heinrich Graun's Artaserse, whose premiere Eberhard Louis had been a guest to in 1743 in Berlin.[108]

Frisoni laid out the grounds of Schloss Favorite in the shape of a six-pointed star, with four pavilions and six avenues that would run through the surrounding forest,[103] originally planted for one enormous pheasant farm.[109] These plans did not come to fruition, and today only two of these avenues exist today, one connecting Favorite to the main palace, and the other to Monrepos.[103] Frisoni set to work on Favorite in 1717 and by the next year was constructing the roof.[104] From this flat terrace, which was difficult to construct and is prone to water damage, the Duke and his honored guests could take in the extensive views of the palace grounds and shoot at passing game.[110][111] As with the primary palace, the influence of the Bohemian Baroque can be found in Schloss Favorite, and the Italian stucco work is of high quality and can be reimagined even after later modifications because of Frisoni's remaining artworks.[104] In the southwest corner of the building, the original baroque stucco and fresco remains.[112]

In 1800, the interiors of the lustschloss were remodeled by court architect Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret for King Frederick in the Neoclassical style as the baroque interiors of the palace were by then passé and not of his taste.[103] Three years prior, in 1797, Frederick I had von Thouret redesign the main hall, called the Festaal, and neighboring rooms in the Neoclassical style.[113] Today, only one room, in the western half of the building, retains its original baroque appearance.[114] When Frederick was appointed an Elector in 1803 and made a King in 1806, he chose both times to celebrate the occasion at Schloss Favorite.[106] The resort palace fell into disrepair in the 20th century, but it was restored true to form from 1972 to 1982. Today, Favorite is known for being the backdrop of the SWR Fernsehen talkshow Nachtcafé.[115] The palace is currently closed until 2019 for renovation work.[116]

Monrepos[edit]

Monrepos upon its artificial lake

Along one of the two surviving roads from Frisoni's designs for Schloss Favorite, Charles Eugene, Duke of Württemberg, decided to erect a new Rococo-Empire style palace on the site of a pavilion Eberhard Louis had built in 1714. So it was that Duke Charles transformed the area around Schloss Favorite and started construction of Schloss Monrepos on the north shore of Lake Eglosheimer so that he could climb into Venetian gondolas from the palace and enjoy the lake. Construction would last from 1764 to 1768 and cost the Duchy of Württemberg a sum of at least 300,000 florins.[6] Unfortunately for Duke Charles, the architect he charged with the construction of his new palace, Philippe de La Guêpière, could not overcome the dampening of his construction material. Once again, it was the interest of the first King of Württemberg, Frederick I, that would save the palace. In his reign, the simple solution of lowering the water level of the lake to make construction possible was discovered, allowing the palace could be completed.[98] Frederick also had the palace redecorated in the Neoclassical style and today it hosts an annual summer firework display as part of the Ludwigsburg Palace Festival.[117] During the summertime Ludwigsburg Palace Festival, Monrepos hosts open-air concerts,[118] firework displays and the Gärtner-Duo's chamber concerts.[119]

Tourism[edit]

From opening time at 10 AM to 5 PM CET, a 90-minute-long guided tour in German begins every half-hour. A tour in English is offered at 1:30 PM.[90]

Venetian festival[edit]

The city and palace of Ludwigsburg are home to an annual Venetian festival that has its origins in a trip Duke Charles Eugene made to Venice in 1767 for about six months. Charles Eugene became so enamored with the festivals of the city that he created the Venetian festival in January 1768, which was held annually until the Duke's death in 1793. At the festivals, all attendees would arrive en masque on the command of the Duke and Ludwigsburg's central square turned into a market for Venetian goods.[120] The festival was reintroduced in 1993, offering visitors a glimpse back into the reign of Charles Eugene with a procession through the city, a market featuring hand crafted goods such as masks, beads, jewelry, and Murano glass, and gondola rides in the Egolsheimer lake.[121] In 2018, Ludwigsburg will celebrate the 250th anniversary of the Venetian Festivals.[122]

Museums[edit]

Idyllic Roman Landscape by Adolf Friedrich Harper, 1790. It is on display at the Barockgalerie

The Baroque Gallery (German: Barockgalerie) on the second floor of the Old Hauptbau is a branch of the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart,[123] opened in 2004 for the 300th anniversary of the palace's construction,[124] that houses historical works by numerous German and Italian artists such as Johann Heinrich Schönfeld.[125] Inside the 680 square meters (7,300 sq ft) space occupied by the museum,[124] visitors can see over 120 paintings in the collection of the Stuttgart Staatsgalerie that includes a portrait of Prussian ambassador to Vienna, Gustav Adolf von Gotter, by Viennese court painter Martin van Meytens,[123] by Memminger Johann Heiss, Carl Andreas Ruthart, and even some works formerly belonging to Cosimo III, Duke of Tuscany.[126]

The Picture Gallery opposite the Ahnengalerie, featuring fresco work by Carlo Carlone.

There are two museums at Ludwigsburg that are part of the larger Landesmuseum Württemberg, both opened in 2004. The first is the Ceramics Museum (German: Keramiksmuseum) that occupies a 2,000 square meters (22,000 sq ft) space on the second floor of the southern wing with a large collection of some 4500 individual exhibits of porcelains and ceramics, making it the second largest such collection in Germany.[127] It displays majolica, faience, pottery, and the histories thereof from the Middle Ages to the present day. The main focus of the museum is European porcelain of the 18th and 19th centuries, and the museum features pieces made in the major porcelain manufacturies such as those in Meissen and Vienna. Though the Ludwigsburg manufacturer was an initiative begun by Duke Charles Eugene to compete with other European courts, the current collection has its origins in 1950.[128] Of the museum's large collection, some 800 pieces of rare and colorful Italian maiolica from the personal collection of Charles Eugene are on display in their own exhibit in the museum.[127] The other is the Fashion museum (German: Modemuseum) that displays about 700 various pieces of fashion and accessories from the rococo period to the second half of the 20th century. The museum is inside of the Festinbau and features works by Worth, Poiret, Dior, and Miyake,[129] as well as a silk nightgown that belonged to the Margrave of Baden. Multiple multi-lingual audio guides and screens at each exhibit complete with annotated accompanying video are available for use by visitors to this museum.[130]

Ludwigsburg maintains a lapidarium that houses statuary from the palace's past for their preservation on the ground floor of the New Hauptbau in the former Silver Room. The sandstone statues in the collection, depictions of mythological creatures, heroes, kings, and pagan deities typical to the Baroque period, had been adversely affected by over two centuries of erosion by the weather had have been replaced. The originals, still preserved and presented today, are by Andreas Philipp Quittainer, Carlo and Giorgio Feretti, Christian Friedrich Wilhelm Beyer and Pierre François Lejeune.[131] On the second floor of the New Hauptbau is the Princess Olga Cabinet Exhibition, exploring the life and times of the royal family of Württemberg in the 20th century though historical photographs taken inside the palace.[132]

For children aged four and beyond, there is an interactive museum called Kinderreich, that aims to teach children about life in the court of the Duke of Württemberg via hands-on methods that include the wearing of period dress. Children are led through the exhibit by Frederico, the "Royal Palace Eagle," through the dressing room with its many garments and accessories to a mock courtroom that hosts several stations that educate children on an aspect of court life at Ludwigsburg.[133][134] The Young Stage (German: Junge Bühne) is yet another facet of Kinderreich wherein children learn about Baroque stage performance.[135]

Schlosstheater[edit]

In the Palace Theater are about 140 preserved original set pieces and props from the 18th and 19th centuries discovered during restoration work on the Theater, such as oil lamps used for stage lighting. These items were extensively restored to their original condition from 1987 until 1995 and, since 1995, one of the original stage pieces has been used for the Children's Stage (German: Junge Bühne). The Theater Museum also allows visitors to use reconstructed noise props used during Baroque plays to recreate the sound of thunder, wind, and rain.[136]

Private events[edit]

Ludwigsburg Palace hosts for a fee four types of private events on the palace grounds,[137] leased by guests in a variety of rooms in the palace proper and in the courtyard.[138] Wedding services and baptisms are offered in either of the palace's denominational churches, civil service in the Pleasure Pavilion, and are available at receptions at Schloss Favorite.[139] The hosting of birthday parties in the rooms listed for lease on the Palace website (in German) are available for persons starting at age nine and for children aged four to eight,[140] Kinderreich also hosts birthday parties for groups of 12 at largest (ten children and two accompanying adults).[141]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ In the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City are ten designs attributed to Donato Frisoni,[24] one of which is for a salon in Schloss Favorite that was signed by Frisoni and Duke Eberhard Louis in 1718.[22]
  2. ^ The sources used here use different figures. Samantha Owens writes in Music at German Courts, 1715-1760 that settlers in Ludwigsburg had 20 years without taxation,[25] while the official websites for the city of Ludwigsburg and that of its museum of history state 15 years.[15][26]
  3. ^ The Ludwigsburg Festival's website notes six to ten concerts.[47]
  4. ^ A Global History of Architecture lists Schönbrunn Palace, Branicki Palace in Białystok, Zwinger Palace in Dresden, Ludwigsburg Palace, the Augustusburg, The Belvedere, Torre Tagle Palace, Winter Palace, Amalienborg Palace, Stockholm Palace, and the Palace of Orodea as "Post-Versailles Baroque Buildings."[60]
  5. ^ An engraving made by Nette while on a trip to Augsburg shows his designs for the three-winged palace and much of the northern garden that he had largely completed by 1714.[19]
  6. ^ Allegedly, Frederick designed this garden himself. An artist's rendition of this garden is available for viewing at the top of the History page on the Blooming Baroque's website.[96]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "Ludwigsburg palace". stuttgart-tourist.de/en. Region Stuttgart. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  2. ^ a b Charles & Carl 2010, p. 141.
  3. ^ Dorling 2001, p. 292.
  4. ^ a b Laibacher, Ludwig (2 February 2017). "Als die Fürsten begannen, Emotionen zu zeigen". Stuttgarter Nachrichten (in German). Retrieved 7 December 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c Binkowski, Rafael (17 November 2017). "Rokoko-Meisterwerk ist eine Million Wert". Stuttgart Nachrichten (in German). Retrieved 7 December 2017. 
  6. ^ a b Wilson 1995, p. 36.
  7. ^ a b "Finanzministerin besucht Residenzschloss Ludwigsburg". fm.baden-wuerttemberg.de (in German). Baden-Württemberg Ministry of Finance. Retrieved 8 January 2018. 
  8. ^ a b c d Rough Guide 2015.
  9. ^ a b c d e Bieri, Pius. "Ludwigsburg - Erste Bauetappe". sueddeutscher-barock.ch (in German). Süddeutscher Barock. Retrieved 20 December 2017. 
  10. ^ Owens 2011, p. 166.
  11. ^ a b c Kerner 2015, p. xx.
  12. ^ a b c Kaufmann 1995, p. 320.
  13. ^ Bieri, Pius. "Philipp Joseph Jenisch". sueddeutscher-barock.ch (in German). Süddeutscher Barock. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g "Die Gebäude". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  15. ^ a b c d "History of Ludwigsburg". ludwigsburg.de. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  16. ^ a b c d Bieri, Pius. "Ludwigsburg - Zweite Bauetappe". sueddeutscher-barock.ch (in German). Suddeutscher Barock. Retrieved 20 December 2017. 
  17. ^ a b c Bieri, Pius. "Philipp Joseph Jenisch". sueddeutscher-barock.ch (in German). Süddeutscher Barock. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  18. ^ a b c Pius, Bieri. "Anmerkungen". sueddeutscher-barock.ch (in German). Süddeutscher Barock. Retrieved 24 December 2017. 
  19. ^ a b c Bieri, Pius. "Johann Friedrich Nette". sueddeutscher-barock.ch (in German). Süddeutscher Barock. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  20. ^ a b c "Donato Giuseppe Frisoni". sueddeutscher-barock.ch (in German). Sueddeutscher Barock. Retrieved 19 January 2018. 
  21. ^ a b c d "Donato Giuseppe Frisoni". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  22. ^ a b c "Design for the Salon of the Pleasure Pavilion, Favorita, at Ludwigsburg, 1718". metmuseum.org. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 31 December 2017. 
  23. ^ a b c Bieri, Pius. "Ludwigsburg - Dritte Bauetappe". sueddeutscher-barock.ch (in German). Suddeutscher Barock. Retrieved 30 December 2017. 
  24. ^ "Collection: Donato Giuseppe Frisoni". metmuseum.org/. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 31 December 2017. 
  25. ^ a b c Owens 2011, p. 175.
  26. ^ a b c d "Ideal city". ludwigsburgmuseum.de. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h "Der Neue Hauptbau". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  28. ^ Tegel 2011, p. 29.
  29. ^ "Good prince". ludwigsburgmuseum.de. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  30. ^ a b "Friedrich I. von Württemberg". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 16 December 2017. 
  31. ^ a b c Panton 2011, p. 103.
  32. ^ a b c Curzon 2016, p. 70.
  33. ^ Curzon 2016, pp. 70-1.
  34. ^ Weingartner 2011, p. 49.
  35. ^ Sliedregt 2012, p. 183.
  36. ^ "Und ewig locken die barocken Kulissen - Stuttgarter Zeitung" (in German). Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  37. ^ "Schlösserreise nach Ludwigsburg und Stuttgart". fm.baden-wuerttemberg.de (in German). Baden-Württemberg Ministry of Finance. Retrieved 8 January 2018. 
  38. ^ Binkowski, Rafael (22 April 2016). "Lego-Ausstellung in historischer Kulisse". Retrieved 7 December 2017. 
  39. ^ "Faszination LEGO – Stadt – Land – Zoo: Die LEGO-Stadt Klötzingen". stuttgart-tourist.de (in German). Region Stuttgart. Retrieved 7 December 2017. 
  40. ^ "Ufos, Märchen und Laternen". Stuttgarter Nachrichten (in German). 6 December 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017. 
  41. ^ "Das Schloss erstrahlt lila". Stuttgarter Nachrichten (in German). 16 November 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017. 
  42. ^ "Laternenumzug vor lila Schloss". Stuttgarter Nachrichten (in German). 17 November 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017. 
  43. ^ Owens 2011, p. 170.
  44. ^ Owens 2011, pp. 170-71.
  45. ^ Owens 2011, p. 171.
  46. ^ "Ludwigsburger Schlossfestspiele". ludwigsburg.de (in German). City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  47. ^ a b "Chronicle". schlessfestspiele.de/en. Ludwigsburg Festival. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  48. ^ a b "The Palace Theatre". schloss-ludwigsburg.de/en. Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  49. ^ Szczegulski, Gabriele (10 August 2016). "KSK Music Open in Ludwigsburg werden zur Marke". Bietigherim Zeitung (in German). Südwest Presse. Retrieved 16 December 2017. 
  50. ^ "SCORPIONS will be bringing their Crazy World Tour to Vivero, Spain and Ludwigsburg, Germany in 2018". the-scorpions.com. The Scorpions. Retrieved 7 December 2017. 
  51. ^ "Scorpions kommen nach Ludwigsburg". Stuttgarter Nachrichten (in German). 20 November 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017. 
  52. ^ a b c d Marshall, Christopher S. "Ludwigsburg - [1]: Ludwigsburger Porzellan-Fabrik (1758 until 1805)". porcelainmarksandmore.com. Porcelain Marks and More. Retrieved 9 December 2017. 
  53. ^ a b c "Die Porzellanmanufaktur". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 9 December 2017. 
  54. ^ Marshall, Christopher S. "Ludwigsburg - [2] : Herzoglich-Königliche Porzellan-Manufaktur Ludwigsburg (1805 until 1824)". porcelainmarksandmore.com. Porcelain Marks and More. Retrieved 9 December 2017. 
  55. ^ "Ludwigsburg Porcelain Manufactory". metmuseum.org. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 9 December 2017. 
  56. ^ Placzek1 1982, p. 381.
  57. ^ Lorenz, Mertens & Press 1997.
  58. ^ a b c d "Die Schlosskapelle". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  59. ^ Weir 2011, p. 288.
  60. ^ Jarzombek & Prakash 2011.
  61. ^ a b c "Die Dächer". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  62. ^ MyersXII, p. 265.
  63. ^ a b Kaufmann 1995, p. 321.
  64. ^ a b c Kaufmann 1995, p. 322.
  65. ^ MyersVI, p. 189.
  66. ^ Baumgart, Fritz. "Frisoni, Donato Giuseppe". treccani.it (in Italian). Enciclopedia Italiana. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  67. ^ Placzek2 1982, p. 118.
  68. ^ "Heizen im Schloss". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 11 December 2017. 
  69. ^ "Putzwütige Mägde". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 12 December 2017. 
  70. ^ "Der Alte Hauptbau". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  71. ^ "CORBELLINI, Giacomo Antonio". treccani.it (in Italian). Enciclopedia Italiana. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  72. ^ a b "Der Jagdpavillon". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  73. ^ "COLOMBO, Luca Antonio". treccani.it (in Italian). Enciclopedia Italiana. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  74. ^ "Wohlhaupter, Emanuel Johann K". altemeister.museum-kassel.de. 
  75. ^ "Der Spielpavillon". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  76. ^ "Der Fasskeller". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  77. ^ "Die Ahnengalerie". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 17 December 2017. 
  78. ^ a b "Ordensbau und Ordenskapelle". schloss-ludwigsburg.de/en (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  79. ^ "Die Bildergalerie". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 18 December 2017. 
  80. ^ "Der Küchenbau". schloss-ludwigsburg.dee (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 20 January 2018. 
  81. ^ "Die Dienerschaftszimmer". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  82. ^ "Das Appartement von Herzog Carl Eugene". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 14 December 2017. 
  83. ^ "Die Kabinettausstellung Prinzessin Olga". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 14 December 2017. 
  84. ^ a b "Das Appartement des Königs". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 16 December 2017. 
  85. ^ a b "Das Appartement der Königin". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 17 December 2017. 
  86. ^ "Der Marmorsaal". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 14 December 2017. 
  87. ^ "Entdecken Sie das Blühende Barock". blueba.de (in German). City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  88. ^ "The Garden Show Blooming Baroque and the Fairy-Tale Garden". ludwigsburg.de. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  89. ^ "Blühendes Barock Ludwigsburg (Baroque in Bloom)". stuttgart-tourist.de/en. Region Stuttgart. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  90. ^ a b Christiani 2015, p. 317.
  91. ^ "Im Blühenden Barock ist immer was los". blueba.de (in German). City of Ludwigsburg. 
  92. ^ "Besuchen Sie das Blühende Barock und den Märchengarten". blueba.de (in German). City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  93. ^ "Der Märchengarten im Blühenden Barock". blueba.de (in German). City of Ludwigsburg. 
  94. ^ "Rundgang Märchen". blueba.de (in German). City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  95. ^ a b c "Der Garten". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  96. ^ a b c "Die Geschichte der Ludwigsburger Schlossgärten". blueba.de (in German). City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  97. ^ a b c d "Albert Schöchle hatte die Idee zum Blühenden Barock". blueba.de. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  98. ^ a b c "Der Garten". schloss-favorite-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  99. ^ "Albert Schöchle - Vater des Blühenden Barock". blueba.de. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  100. ^ "Albert Schöchle hatte es geschafft". blueba.de. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  101. ^ "Wie Albert Schöchle die Idee zum Märchengarten hatte". blueba.de (in German). City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  102. ^ "Albert Schöchle hatte es wieder einmal geschafft!". blueba.de (in German). City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  103. ^ a b c d "Das Gebäude". schloss-favorite-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  104. ^ a b c Bieri, Pius (2011). "Favorite Ludwigsburg". sueddeutscher-barock.ch (in German). Suddeutscher Barock. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  105. ^ a b "Das Schloss und der Garten". schloss-favorite-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  106. ^ a b c "Meilensteine". schloss-favorite-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  107. ^ "Elisabeth Friederike Sophie von Brandenburg-Bayreuth". schloss-favorite-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  108. ^ Heartz 2003, p. 445.
  109. ^ "Home". www.schloss-favorite-ludwigsburg.de/en. Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  110. ^ Wilson 1995, p. 127.
  111. ^ "Dachterrasse". schloss-favorite-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  112. ^ "Stilgesichichte". schloss-favorite-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  113. ^ "Der Festsaal". schloss-favorite-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. 
  114. ^ "Die westlichen Zimmer". schloss-favorite-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  115. ^ "Ludwigsburg Schloss Favorite". schloss-favorite-ludwigsburg.de/en. Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 7 December 2017. 
  116. ^ "Visitor Information". schloss-favorite-ludwigsburg.de/en. Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 7 December 2017. 
  117. ^ "Seeschloss Monrepos". stuttgart-tourist.com. Region Stuttgart. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  118. ^ "DiscoverSeeschloss Monrepos". stuttgart-tourist.de/en. Region Stuttgart. Retrieved 16 December 2017. 
  119. ^ "Monrepos Lakeside Palace". ludwigsburg.de. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  120. ^ "Die Venezianische Messe". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 11 December 2017. 
  121. ^ "Venetian Fair Ludwigsburg". ludwigsburg.de. City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  122. ^ "Join the 250th Anniversary of the Ludwigsburg Venetian Fair". Travel Pulse. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017. 
  123. ^ a b "Die Barockgalerie". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  124. ^ a b Bühler, Dr. Christoph. "Barockgalerie in Schloss Ludwigsburg". zum.de (in German). Landeskunde online. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  125. ^ "Johann Heinrich Schönfeld". staatsgalerie.de/en (in German). Stuttgart State Gallery. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  126. ^ Bühler, Dr. Christoph. "Barockgalerie in Schloss Ludwigsburg". zum.de (in German). Landeskunde online. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  127. ^ a b "Das Keramikmuseum". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  128. ^ "Keramiksmuseum". landesmuseum-stuttgart.de (in German). Landesmuseum Württemberg. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  129. ^ "Das Modemuseum". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  130. ^ "Modemuseum". landesmuseum-stuttgart.de (in German). Landesmuseum Württemberg. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  131. ^ "Das Lapidarium". schloss-ludwigsburg (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  132. ^ "Die Kabinettausstellung Prinzession Olga". schloss-ludwigsburg.dde (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  133. ^ "Kinderreich Schloss Ludwigsburg". ludwigsburg.de (in German). City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  134. ^ "Das Kinderreich". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  135. ^ "Junge Bühne". ludwigsburg.de (in German). City of Ludwigsburg. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  136. ^ "Das Schlosstheater". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  137. ^ "Conferences and Parties in Royal Surroundings". schloss-ludwigsburg.de. Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 8 December 2017. 
  138. ^ "Feste im Schloss". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 8 December 2017. 
  139. ^ "Hochzeit im Schloss". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 8 December 2017. 
  140. ^ "Geburtstag im Schloss". schloss-ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 8 December 2017. 
  141. ^ "Kindergeburtstag im Schloss". schloss--ludwigsburg.de (in German). Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. Retrieved 8 December 2017. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]