Luhansk

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Luhansk
Луганськ
Lugansk
City
Park of the Heroes of the Great Patriotic War, Museum of local history, Academic Russian Drama Theatre, Radianska Street, and Luganskteplovoz steam locomotive
Flag of Luhansk
Coat of arms of Luhansk
Luhansk is located in Luhansk Oblast/LPR
Luhansk
Luhansk
Location of Luhansk
Luhansk is located in Ukraine
Luhansk
Luhansk
Luhansk (Ukraine)
Luhansk is located in Europe
Luhansk
Luhansk
Luhansk (Europe)
Coordinates: 48°34′0″N 39°20′0″E / 48.56667°N 39.33333°E / 48.56667; 39.33333Coordinates: 48°34′0″N 39°20′0″E / 48.56667°N 39.33333°E / 48.56667; 39.33333
Country Ukraine
Oblast (Ukraine) Luhansk Oblast
Raion (Ukraine)Luhansk Raion
Founded1795
Separatist control7 April 2014
Government
 • Mayor (LPR)Manolis Pilavov
Area
 • Total257 km2 (99 sq mi)
Elevation
105 m (344 ft)
Population
 (2021)
 • Total399,559
 • Density1,600/km2 (4,000/sq mi)
Postal code
91000
Area code(s)+380 642
ClimateDfa
Websitehttp://gorod-lugansk.com

Luhansk (UK: /lˈhænsk/, US: /-ˈhɑːnsk/; Ukrainian: Луганськ, pronounced [lʊˈɦɑnʲsʲk] (listen)), also known as Lugansk (UK: /-ˈɡænsk/, US: /-ˈɡɑːnsk/; Russian: Луганск, pronounced [lʊˈɡansk]), is a city in eastern Ukraine which is under the de facto administration of the Luhansk People's Republic (LPR). As of 2021, the population is estimated to be 399,559 (2021 est.)[1], making Luhansk the most populous city in Luhansk Oblast, and the 12th largest in Ukraine.

Until 2014, Luhansk was the capital and administrative center of Luhansk Oblast, but was captured and is currently serving as the capital of the LPR, and the Ukrainian government has since relocated the Oblast's administrative center to Sievierodonetsk, until its capture on the 25th of June 2022. On the 3rd of July 2022, Luhansk region was completely under Russian control.

Etymology[edit]

Lugansk was named after the Luhan River, which the city is situated around it. According to folk etymology, the name is also derived to the word "луг" (Ukrainian: lug), which means "meadow", referring to the floodplains around the river.

History[edit]

Historical affiliations

 Russian Empire 1778–1917
 Ukrainian People's Republic 1917–1918
autonomous part of the Russian Republic
Ukrainian State 1918
 Ukrainian People's Republic 1918–1920
 Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic 1920–1941
part of the Soviet Union from 1922
 Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic 1944–1991
part of the Soviet Union
 Ukraine 1991–present (de jure)
 Luhansk People's Republic 2014–present (de facto)

During World Wars 1 and 2 Luhansk was briefly taken by German Troops.

A monument to Charles Gascoigne next to the local museum
One of the Mk V tanks used by the Don Army during the Russian Civil War

The city traces its history to 1795 when the British industrialist Charles Gascoigne founded a metal factory near the Zaporizhian Cossacks settlement Kamianyi Brid. The settlement around the factory was known as Luganskiy Zavod. In 1882 the factory settlement Luganskiy Zavod was merged with the town of Kamianyi Brid into the city of Luhansk (also Luhanske, according to the Kharkiv orthography).

Located in the Donets Basin, Luhansk developed into an important industrial center of Eastern Europe, particularly as a home to the major locomotive-building company Luhanskteplovoz. The city was occupied by Nazi Germany between 14 July 1942 and 14 February 1943.

On 5 November 1935, the city was renamed Voroshilovgrad (Russian: Ворошиловград, romanizedVoroshilovgrad; Ukrainian: Ворошиловград, romanizedVoroshylovhrad) in honour of Soviet military commander and politician Kliment Voroshilov. On 5 March 1958, after Khrushchev's call to not name cities after living people, the old name was reinstated.[2][3]

On 5 January 1970, after the death of Voroshilov on 2 December 1969, the name changed again to Voroshilovgrad. On 4 May 1990, a decree of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR gave the city back its original name.

In 1994 a referendum took place in the Donetsk Oblast and the Luhansk Oblast, with around 90% supporting the Russian language gaining status of an official language alongside Ukrainian, and for the Russian language to be an official language on a regional level. The referendum was annulled by the Ukrainian government.[4]

Pro-Russian unrest in Luhansk, April 2014

During the war in Donbas, separatists seized governmental buildings in the region, proclaiming the Luhansk People's Republic. An independence referendum, unconstitutional under Ukrainian law, was held on 11 May 2014. This referendum was not recognized as legitimate by any government except South Ossetia.[5][6] Ukraine does not recognize the referendum, while the EU and US said the referendums were illegal.[7]

On 25 June 2014, by the separatist government of the Luhansk People's Republic declared Luhansk the capital.[8]

In August 2014, Ukrainian government forces completely surrounded rebel-held Luhansk.[9] Heavy shelling caused civilian casualties in the city.[10][11][12] On 17 August, Ukrainian soldiers entered the rebel-controlled Luhansk and for a time had control over a police station.[13]

After the Ilovaisk counteroffensive, LPR forces regained Lutuhyne and other Luhansk suburbs. Ukrainian forces withdrew from the Luhansk International Airport on 1 September 2014, after heavy fighting.[14]

Luhansk became the capital and the administrative center of the rebel state of the Luhansk People's Republic. The administration of the Luhansk Oblast was moved to Sievierodonetsk by the government of Ukraine.

Raions in the city (City districts)[edit]

  • Artemivskyi Raion
    • city of Oleksandrivsk
    • urban-type settlement Yuvileine
  • Kamiano-Bridskyi Raion
  • Zhovtnevyi Raion
  • Leninskyi Raion

Higher education[edit]

Some of the more prestigious universities in Ukraine have their home in Luhansk. Luhansk is the location of the main campus of the Taras Shevchenko National University of Luhansk, East Ukrainian Volodymyr Dahl National University and of Luhansk State Medical University.

Demographics[edit]

A map of the Raions of Luhansk

In the Ukrainian Census of 2001,[15] 49.6% of the inhabitants declared themselves as ethnically Ukrainians and 47% as Russians. 85.3% of the population spoke Russian as their native language, while 13.7% spoke Ukrainian, 0.2% Armenian and 0.1% Belarusian.

Sport[edit]

Luhansk is home to Zorya Luhansk which now plays in the Ukrainian Premier League annual football championship and plays at the Avanhard Stadium. The club won the 1972 Soviet Top League.

The other football team was Dynamo Luhansk.

Merheleva Ridge[edit]

On 7 September 2006, archaeologists in Ukraine announced that an ancient structure had been discovered near Luhansk, which the press reported as a pyramid antedating those in Egypt by at least 300 years. The stone foundations of the structure were said to resemble Aztec and Mayan pyramids in Mesoamerica. It was later concluded that the site in question was not a pyramid but was still of great interest.

Gallery[edit]

During 2014 and 2015, Luhansk has been the scene of intense fighting and most of these buildings are damaged to some extent. Some may be destroyed.

Climate[edit]

Luhansk has a hot summer humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa). Luhansk has both the highest and lowest temperature recorded in Ukraine. A record high of 42.0 °C (107.6 °F) was recorded on 12 August 2010, which is the highest temperature to have ever been recorded in Ukraine.[16][17] A record low of −41.9 °C (−43.4 °F) was recorded on 8 January 1935.[18]

Climate data for Luhansk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.8
(55.0)
17.3
(63.1)
23.1
(73.6)
31.8
(89.2)
36.6
(97.9)
39.4
(102.9)
40.5
(104.9)
42.0
(107.6)
36.8
(98.2)
31.2
(88.2)
22.8
(73.0)
15.6
(60.1)
42.0
(107.6)
Average high °C (°F) −1.0
(30.2)
−0.4
(31.3)
5.7
(42.3)
15.6
(60.1)
22.2
(72.0)
26.4
(79.5)
28.7
(83.7)
28.2
(82.8)
21.8
(71.2)
13.9
(57.0)
5.2
(41.4)
0.1
(32.2)
13.9
(57.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.0
(24.8)
−4.1
(24.6)
1.4
(34.5)
9.7
(49.5)
15.8
(60.4)
20.1
(68.2)
22.3
(72.1)
21.2
(70.2)
15.3
(59.5)
8.6
(47.5)
1.8
(35.2)
−2.7
(27.1)
8.8
(47.8)
Average low °C (°F) −6.8
(19.8)
−7.4
(18.7)
−2.4
(27.7)
4.2
(39.6)
9.4
(48.9)
13.8
(56.8)
16.0
(60.8)
14.5
(58.1)
9.4
(48.9)
4.0
(39.2)
−1.3
(29.7)
−5.5
(22.1)
4.0
(39.2)
Record low °C (°F) −41.9
(−43.4)
−36.9
(−34.4)
−27.3
(−17.1)
−12.1
(10.2)
−8.2
(17.2)
−1.8
(28.8)
5.2
(41.4)
−0.4
(31.3)
−7.2
(19.0)
−16.3
(2.7)
−26.3
(−15.3)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−41.9
(−43.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 36.0
(1.42)
35.7
(1.41)
31.8
(1.25)
31.4
(1.24)
46.3
(1.82)
63.3
(2.49)
64.2
(2.53)
36.3
(1.43)
45.3
(1.78)
34.8
(1.37)
39.2
(1.54)
39.7
(1.56)
504.0
(19.84)
Average rainy days 10 8 11 14 13 14 12 8 11 11 13 10 135
Average snowy days 17 16 10 1 0.1 0.03 0 0 0.1 1 7 16 68
Average relative humidity (%) 83.2 80.3 75.2 64.0 61.6 63.8 63.7 61.3 67.8 74.9 83.3 84.4 72.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 47.2 73.8 131.1 177.6 274.9 287.4 305.5 291.4 210.6 135.4 59.4 39.0 2,033.3
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[19]
Source 2: World Meteorological Organization (precipitation, humidity, and sun)[20]

Notable people[edit]

Sport[edit]

International relations[edit]

Luhansk is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2021 / Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2021 (PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine.
  2. ^ 'Военная Литература' – Биографии – С.Н. Хрущёв ['Military Literature' – Biographies – S. N. Khrushchev] (in Russian). Militera.lib.ru. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  3. ^ "Записки из Якирова Посада – Луганск-Ворошиловград-Луганск". Shusek.livejournal.com. 2 November 2009. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  4. ^ Донбасс: забытый референдум-1994 [Donbas: the forgotten referendum-1994] (in Russian). Thekievtimes.ua. 14 May 2014. Archived from the original on 5 February 2021. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  5. ^ "Ukraine's Eastern Region Of Luhansk May Now Hold Referendum On Joining Russia". Business Insider. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  6. ^ "South Ossetia recognises independence of Donetsk People's Republic". Information Telegraph Agency of Russia. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
  7. ^ "Ukraine rebels seek to join Russia". 12 May 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
  8. ^ ЗАКОН 'О системе исполнительных органов государственной власти Луганской Народной Республики' [LAW 'On the system of executive bodies of state power of the Lugansk People's Republic'] (in Russian). lugansk-online.info. 2014. Archived from the original on 15 September 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  9. ^ "East Ukraine city of Luhansk dying under siege, residents say". The Denver Post. 5 August 2014.
  10. ^ "Ukraine conflict: Under siege in Luhansk". Bbc.com. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  11. ^ "In Shell-Torn Luhansk, Food and Water Is Scarce: 'Welcome to Hell!'". Newsweek. 15 August 2014.
  12. ^ Magnay, Diana; Lister, Tim (3 June 2014). "Air attack on pro-Russian separatists in Luhansk kills 8, stuns city". CNN. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  13. ^ "Ukraine troops claim breakthrough in battle for rebel city Luhansk". The Guardian. Reuters. 17 August 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
  14. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Troops abandon Luhansk airport after clashes". Bbc.com. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  15. ^ "All-Ukrainian Population Census '2001". State Statistics Committee of Ukraine.
  16. ^ Кліматичні рекорди (in Ukrainian). Central Observatory for Geophysics. Archived from the original on 4 August 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
  17. ^ Masters, Jeff. "Bolivia ties its all-time heat record". Weather Underground. Dr. Jeff Masters' WunderBlog. Archived from the original on 24 November 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2010.
  18. ^ "Кліматичні рекорди" (in Ukrainian). Central Observatory for Geophysics. Archived from the original on 4 August 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
  19. ^ Погода и климат [Weather and climate] (in Russian). pogodaiklimat.ru. Archived from the original on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  20. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1981–2010". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  21. ^ "Cardiff's twin cities". Cardiff Council. 15 June 2010. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2010.
  22. ^ a b c d e f "History of Luhansk". Official site of Luhansk City Council. 15 October 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  23. ^ "Miasta Partnerskie Lublina" [Partner Cities of Lublin]. Lublin.eu (in Polish). Lublin. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
  24. ^ "Partnervárosok Névsora Partner és Testvérvárosok Névsora" [Partner and Twin Cities List]. City of Székesfehérvár (in Hungarian). Archived from the original on 8 December 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  25. ^ "大庆市与乌克兰卢甘斯克市的往来纪实". 大庆市外事侨务网站. Archived from the original on 11 May 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  26. ^ Sue Bridger; Frances Pine (11 January 2013). Surviving Post-Socialism: Local Strategies and Regional Responses in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. Routledge. p. 190. ISBN 978-1-135-10715-4. Retrieved 9 June 2015.

External links[edit]