Luganville

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Luganville
Kanal
Santo
Town
Luganville main street Boulevard Higinson
Luganville main street Boulevard Higinson
Luganville is located in Vanuatu
Luganville
Luganville
Location in Vanuatu
Coordinates: 15°32′S 167°10′E / 15.533°S 167.167°E / -15.533; 167.167Coordinates: 15°32′S 167°10′E / 15.533°S 167.167°E / -15.533; 167.167
Country Vanuatu
ProvinceSanma Province
IslandEspiritu Santo
Government
 • MayorPetter Patty (2019—present)[1][2]
Area
 • Total8.32 km2 (3.21 sq mi)
Elevation
8 m (26 ft)
Population
 (2020 census)[3]
 • Total18,062
 • Density2,200/km2 (5,600/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+11 (VUT)

Luganville is the second largest city in Vanuatu after the capital Port Vila; it is located on the island of Espiritu Santo and has a population of 18,062 as of the 2020 census.[3] Those on Vanuatu's northern islands who regard Luganville as their big city, particularly indigenous populations, call it Santo; rural residents of Espiritu Santo call it Kanal (from French "second canal").[4] Luganville served as a major base of operations for American troops during World War II.[5]

Boulevard Higinson, the main street that runs through Luganville, contains mainly tourist boutiques and general stores.[6] During WWII, the Americans used the Espiritu Santo as a military base; as a result of the occupation, Boulevard Higinson is unusually wide, as a base commander insisted that four tanks should be able to drive along the road simultaneously.[7] At one end of Higinson is the port, one of two main ports for the island.[5]

History[edit]

World War II[edit]

During World War II, the American military erected two bases on two islands of what is now Vanuatu (a British-French colony known then as New Hebrides), one of which being Espiritu Santo.[8] A village of small, spaced-out communities was established into one city: Luganville.[9] Base Button is the largest U.S. base in the South Pacific, covering 38 miles, and was used mainly for maintenance and supply storage.[8][10][5] Luganville was a major part of preparing American units for the Guadalcanal campaign.[11] Four airfields were built; Palikulo Bay Airfield, Turtle Bay Airfield, and Luganville Airfield no longer exist, but the Bomber 3 was turned into Santo-Pekoa International Airport.[5][10][11] Other facilities built were five military hospitals, Luganville Seaplane Base, Pontoon Wharf, a floating drydeck, and thousands of Quonset huts.[5][11]

The flags of Vanuatu and Luganville flying outside the French colonial city hall.

Independence[edit]

By the second half of the 20th century, Luganville was largely French-speaking and initially resisted the attempts to gain independence leading up to its declaration on July 30, 1980.[12] French troops initially attempted to quash the flag-raising in Luganville, but returned to France in August instead.[13] Some unrest arose between political parties vying for power, but has since been largely peaceful.[14][15][16]

Population[edit]

As of the 2016 census, 98.7% of Luganville was of Melanesian and/or Ni-Vanuatu descent.[17] Those of non-Melanesian descent are a minority and are European, other Pacific Islander, and Asian peoples.[18]

Part of the city is formed by squatted informal settlements such as La Milice, Mango, Pepsi, Rowok, Sarakata and St Michel. Mango was first settled by Vietnamese migrants who constructed shelters out of scrap metal left behind by the United States Army. The Vietnamese were repatriated in the 1960s and it was then occupied by Ni-Vanuatu migrants.[19]

Economy and infrastructure[edit]

Luganville's economy suffered after Vanuatu declared independence in 1980.[12] It has a strong tourist industry, namely in the areas of World War II artifacts and scuba diving (SS President Coolidge is a popular site as are the coral reefs), and is a destination for many cruise lines.[16] Its other main industries are agriculture, cattle, and offshore financial services.[20] The market along Boulevard Higinson is popular for its inexpensive food.[21]

Northern Provincial Hospital is one of two main referring hospitals on Espiritu Santo and serves people from other northern islands in Vanuatu as well as its own residents.[22] Luganville is home to Vanuatu Health Training Institute, one of the two medical training schools on the island, but there are not enough graduates to prevent a shortage of medical professionals.[23] Though medical expenses make up 50% of the government's budget, the hospital still relies heavily on donations.[23][24]

There are six main banking organizations in Luganville: Reserve Bank of Vanuatu, Wanfuteng Bank, the National Bank of Vanuatu, Bank South Pacific, BRED Bank, and ANZ Bank.[25][26][27][28][29]

Broadband internet was not available in Luganville until late 2006.[21]

Transportation[edit]

Luganville is one of Vanuatu's busiest ports, especially as a transshipment point for copra, coconut oil, and cacao.[30][21] Canal du Segond, the body of water separating the main island and Luganville from Aore Island, provides the town with an excellent sheltered harbour.[30] The town is served by Santo-Pekoa International Airport, the second largest airport in Vanuatu.[31] The city is also serviced by a number of taxis, buses, and public transport trucks.[21]

Climate[edit]

Luganville features a tropical rainforest climate (Af) under the Köppen climate classification. The town features relatively constant temperatures year-round, with average temperature hovering around 25 °C or 77 °F. Average precipitation is roughly 2,920 millimetres or 110 inches annually.[32]

Climate data for Luganville
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29
(85)
30
(86)
29
(85)
29
(84)
28
(83)
28
(82)
27
(80)
27
(81)
28
(82)
29
(84)
29
(85)
30
(86)
28
(83)
Average low °C (°F) 26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(78)
24
(76)
24
(75)
23
(74)
23
(73)
23
(74)
24
(75)
24
(76)
26
(78)
24
(76)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 370
(14.4)
370
(14.4)
360
(14.1)
260
(10.3)
170
(6.5)
150
(5.8)
79
(3.1)
64
(2.5)
110
(4.2)
130
(5.3)
200
(8.0)
240
(9.4)
2,503
(98)
Source: Meteoblue[33]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Luganville is twinned with:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Ayong, Steve (2021-06-10). "Renovation of historic Luganville town hall almost complete". VBTC. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  2. ^ Ligo, Godwin (2019-10-07). "New Mayor Outlines Priorities". Daily Post. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  3. ^ a b "Vanuatu 2020 National Population and Housing Census Preliminary Results has been released on Wednesday 30th June 2021". Vanuatu National Statistics Office. 2021-06-30. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  4. ^ "Luganville". Famous Wonders. n.d. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  5. ^ a b c d e Stone, Peter (1997). The Lady and the President: The Life and Loss of the S.S. President Coolidge. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  6. ^ "Shopping: Vanuatu". Arrival Guides. n.d. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  7. ^ "Luganville – Espirito [sic] Santo". Norwegian Cruise Lines. n.d. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  8. ^ a b Johnson, Tambrie (2021-03-31). "The South Pacific's Premier World War II Museum". HistoryNet. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  9. ^ "Espiritu Santo & WWII". Santo Travel. n.d. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  10. ^ a b Kosmidis, Pierre (n.d.). "The South Pacific's WW2 forgotten base". World War 2 Wrecks. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  11. ^ a b c "Santo Bases". South Pacific WW2 Museum. n.d. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  12. ^ a b Stanley, David (1989). South Pacific Handbook. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  13. ^ "Vanuatu - a brief history". RNZ. n.d. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  14. ^ MacClancy, J.V. (1984). "Vanuatu since Independence: 1980-83". The Journal of Pacific History. 19 (2): 100–112. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  15. ^ Westoby, Peter; Brown, M. Anne (2007). "Peaceful Community Development in Vanuatu: A Reflection on the Vanuatu Kastom Governance Partnership". Journal of Peacebuilding and Development. 3 (3): 77–81. doi:10.1080/15423166.2007.390449351269. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  16. ^ a b Munk Klint, Louise; Jiang, Min; Law, Alexandra; Delacy, Terry; Filep, Sebastian; Calgaro, Emma; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Harrison, David (2012). "Dive Tourism in Luganville, Vanuatu: Shocks, Stressors, and Vulnerability to Climate Change" (PDF). Tourism in Marine Environments. 8 (1/2): 91–109. doi:10.3727/154427312X13262430524225. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-07-19. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  17. ^ "Luganville". City Population. n.d. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  18. ^ "Vanuatu (12/03)". US Department of State. n.d. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  19. ^ Hill, David; Chung, Margaret (2020). "Urban informal settlements in Vanuatu: Challenge for equitable development" (PDF). Report prepared for Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat and UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Pacific Operation Centre. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  20. ^ Illsley, C.L. (2019-11-14). "What Are The Biggest Industries In Vanuatu?". World Atlas. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  21. ^ a b c d "Luganville" (PDF). Luganville Youth Council. n.d. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  22. ^ "Northern Provincial Hospital". Doctors Assisting in South-Pacific Islands. n.d. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  23. ^ a b World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Western Pacific (2013). Human resources for health country profiles : Republic of Vanuatu (Report). Manila: WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  24. ^ "NORTHERN PROVINCIAL HOSPITAL". Vanuatu Ministry of Health. 2017. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  25. ^ "Bank of South Pacific takes over Westpac Operations in Vanuatu". Daily Post. 2016-07-05. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  26. ^ "Opening of Wanfuteng Bank's New Branch in Santo a Success". Daily Post. 2021-05-01. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  27. ^ Garae, Len (2020-03-14). "Grassroots partner with National Bank". Daily Post. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  28. ^ Willie, Glenda (2019-08-23). "BRED Bank Expands Services". Daily Post. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  29. ^ Garae, Len (2016-12-08). "Governor applauds ANZ". Daily Post. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  30. ^ a b "Initial Environmental Examination" (PDF). Ministry of Infrastructure and Public Utilities for Asian Development Bank. 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  31. ^ "The 27 largest airports and airlines in Vanuatu". World Data. n.d. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  32. ^ "LUGANVILLE, VANUATU". weatherbase. n.d. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  33. ^ "Climate Luganville". Meteoblue. n.d. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  34. ^ "Government of Republic of Vanuatu chooses KK as its main office in Malaysia". New Sabah Times. 5 May 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-10-19. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
  35. ^ "Sister city agreement reaping rewards". Vanuatu Daily Post. 6 May 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  36. ^ "Luganville and Honiara establish sister city relations". Vanuatu Daily Post. 21 March 2013. Archived from the original on 14 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  37. ^ "Port Vila strengthens sister agreement with Luganville". Vanuatu Daily Post. 26 September 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  38. ^ "EXTENDING AN INVITATION TO ESTABLISH A SISTER CITY RELATIONSHIP WITH THE CITY OF LUGANVILLE, VANUATU" (PDF). Government of Honolulu. 2003-08-13. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  39. ^ Ligo, Godwin (2019-07-10). "Luganville signs Sister City Agreement with Chinese counterpart". Daily Post. Retrieved 2021-07-16.

External links[edit]