|Place of origin||German Empire|
|Used by||See Users|
|Unit cost||35 RM (1943)|
equivalent to €130 in 2017
|Mass||871 g (1 lb 15 oz)|
|Length||222 mm (8.74 in)|
|Action||Toggle-locked, short recoil|
|Rate of fire||116 rpm (semi-automatic)|
|Muzzle velocity||350–400 m/s (1148–1312 f/s) (9mm, 100 mm short barrel)|
|Effective firing range||50 m (55 yd) (9mm, 100 mm short barrel)|
|Feed system||8-round detachable box magazine, 32-round detachable drum|
The Pistole Parabellum—or Parabellum-Pistole (Pistol Parabellum), commonly known as just Luger or Luger P08—is a toggle-locked recoil-operated semi-automatic pistol. The Luger was produced in several models and by several nations from 1898 to 1948.
The design was first patented by Georg Luger. It was meant to be an improvement of the Borchardt C-93 pistol, and was initially produced as the Parabellum Automatic Pistol, Borchardt-Luger System by the German arms manufacturer Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken (DWM). The first production model was known as the Modell 1900 Parabellum. It was followed by the "Marinepistole 1904" for the Imperial German Navy.
The Luger was officially adopted by the Swiss military in 1901, the Imperial German Navy in 1906 and the German Army in 1908. The Luger was also the standard service pistol of Switzerland, Portugal, the Netherlands, Brazil, Bolivia, and Bulgaria. It was widely used in other countries as a military service pistol and by police forces. In the German Army service, it was adopted in a slightly modified form as the Pistole Modell 1908 (Pistole 08) in caliber 9×19mm Parabellum. The Model 08 was eventually succeeded by the Walther P38.
The Luger is well known from its wide use by Germany during World War I and World War II, along with the interwar Weimar Republic and the postwar East German Volkspolizei. The pistol is a common sight in fiction, especially in works set during World War II, but it has made appearances elsewhere.
The Luger is a toggle-lock action that uses a jointed arm to lock, as opposed to the slide actions of many other semi-automatic pistols, such as the M1911. After a round is fired, the barrel and toggle assembly travel roughly 13 mm (0.5 in) rearward due to recoil, both locked together at this point. The toggle strikes a cam built into the frame, causing the knee joint to hinge and the toggle and breech assembly to unlock. The barrel strikes the frame and stops its rearward movement, but the toggle assembly continues moving, bending the knee joint, extracting the spent casing from the chamber, and ejecting it. The toggle and breech assembly then travel forward under spring tension and the next round is loaded from the magazine into the chamber. The entire sequence occurs in a fraction of a second and contributes to the above average mud resistance of the pistol.
This mechanism works well for higher-pressure cartridges, but cartridges loaded to a lower pressure can cause the pistol to malfunction because they do not generate enough recoil to work the action fully. This results in the breech block either not clearing the top cartridge of the magazine or becoming jammed open on the cartridge's base. This malfunction with under-powered cartridges does occur with Browning-type and other pistol designs as well, but the Luger is sensitive to cartridges other than the brass-cased ammunition that it was designed to use.
Submachine guns were found to be effective in trench warfare during World War I, and experiments were conducted to convert various types of pistols to fully automatic machine pistols, including the P08. The Luger proved to have an excessive rate of fire in full-automatic mode, however, as did the Mauser C96. The 'snail drum' magazine for the MP 18, which was used by German Stormtroopers towards the end of the war, was originally designed for the Artillery Luger.
Luger pistols were manufactured in Germany and Switzerland to very close tolerances and exacting standards using the highest quality materials of the day, and original pistols were known for having a long service life. The design requires hand fitting of certain parts for proper operation. Assembling the gun using a sideplate from another pistol, for example, may prevent the sear from working, making the pistol inoperable. The Luger barrel, which was rigidly fixed to the barrel extension and carried the front sight, provided excellent accuracy. William B. "Bill" Ruger praised the Luger's 145° (55° for Americans) grip angle and duplicated it in his .22 LR pistol. Handgun author and enthusiast Elmer Keith observed that the Luger design had been unfairly criticized by gun writers over the years as unreliable, partly due to poor experiences with Lugers constructed from salvaged parts. Keith noted that the Luger was a "natural pointer", one of the most accurate of all autoloading pistols—particularly at long ranges—and reminded critics that the Luger was the choice of more nations as their military sidearm than any other contemporary pistol or revolver.
Model 1900 and Swiss Luger
A number of countries purchased the Model 1900 Parabellum in 7.65×21 mm Parabellum (.30 Luger) caliber and issued the pistol on a limited basis to officers, non-commissioned officers and mounted troops, including Germany, Switzerland, and the United States. The Model 1900 or Pistole Modell 1900 was issued to German officers and likely first saw combat in China during intervention by German troops in the aftermath of the Boxer Rebellion of 1900. On April 16, 1901, following a successful preliminary test of the Model 1900 at the Springfield Armory, the U.S. Board of Ordnance purchased 1,000 Model 1900 Parabellum pistols with 4.75-inch barrels, marked with what appear to be standard U.S. ordnance bomb proofs, but are not, and "American Eagle" stamps over the chambers, and issued them to each troop of mounted cavalry of the U.S. Army for field testing, with the remainder to the light artillery and officers at West Point. In 1902, U.S. Army officials purchased another 50 Model 1902 Parabellum pistols with 4-inch barrels, again in 7.65mm Parabellum, for further testing and evaluation. This was followed by a third test of 50 so-called "cartridge counter" Parabellum pistols in 9x19mm by Springfield Armory in 1904. Other nations either tested the Model 1900 or purchased small numbers for limited field service, including Austria, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Russia, Norway, Sweden, and Portugal.
Commercial models of the Model 1900 were exported in quantity as well. In the U.S., Model 1900 pistols in 7.65 Parabellum caliber (aka .30 Luger in the U.S.) were first imported by Georg Luger, then by a DWM sales agent, Hans Tauscher, until World War I. Referred to at the time as the 'Borchardt-Luger' by U.S. authorities, Tauscher consistently referred to the pistol in his marketing and advertising materials as the 'Luger', after its inventor. Model 1900 pistols shipped to the U.S. were typically stamped with an American Eagle atop the barrel extensions. 'American Eagle' 7.65 Model 1900 pistols were used by a variety of buyers, including American lawmen such as Stringer Fenton, outlaws, and Texas Rangers.
After testing, the Swiss Army adopted the Model 1900 on April 4, 1901 in 7.65x21mm caliber as its standard sidearm, designated Pistole 1900. This model uses a 120 mm (4.7 in) barrel and incorporates a grip safety and leaf-type mainspring. A later Swiss military contract with DWM resulted in the latter supplying improved Model 1900/06 pattern pistols designated the Model 1906 or Pistole 1900/06. Commencing in 1918, these Model 1906 Parabellum pistols were manufactured and assembled at Waffenfabrik Bern, Switzerland.
In 1929, Swiss authorities adopted an improved version of the Modell 1900 designated the Modell 06/29 with improved sights, trigger and a stronger toggle link. Manufactured entirely at Waffenfabrik Bern, the 06/29 pistol served the Swiss Army until well after the adoption of the SIG Sauer P210 in 1949, and remained in limited service until the late 1960s.
In 1902 DWM introduced a slightly improved version of the Model 1900 Parabellum as the Model 1902. The Model 1902, with its shortened 4-inch barrel, was the first Parabellum pistol to be offered in 9x19mm Parabellum caliber, along with a change from four-groove to six-groove rifling.
The Luger pistol was accepted by the Imperial German Navy in 1904 in 9mm Parabellum as the Pistole 04 (P04). The navy model had a 150 mm (5.9 in) barrel and a two-position - 100 meters (110 yd) or 200 meters (220 yd) - rear sight. This version was also referred to as the "Marine Modell 1904" or, more colloquially in the US as the "navy Luger". The Pistole 04 was later updated with a coil mainspring to Model 1906 pattern as Luger continued to refine and improve his design.
Model 1906 (Neues Modell)
Georg Luger introduced a new version of the Parabellum pistol in 1906, which would become known as the Model 1906 or New Model (Neues Modell). This version of the Parabellum replaced the old flat laminated main spring with a more reliable coil design. As all models of the Luger built after 1906 have the coil mainspring, they are known as New Models. Older Parabellum pistols in German service were usually upgraded to the New Model specification.
1907 U.S. Pistol Trials
By 1906, the United States evaluated several domestic and foreign-made semi-automatic pistols, including the Colt M1900, Steyr Mannlicher M1894, and an entry from Mauser. Although Springfield Armory had previously purchased 7.65×21mm Parabellum pistols for two separate field trials in 1900 and 1902, U.S. authorities had rejected the 7.65x21mm cartridge as insufficiently powerful for military use. In 1904, a small number of Parabellum pistols were tested in the then-new, more powerful 9×19mm round, but U.S. authorities again rejected the pistol. By this time, numerous adverse combat reports of insufficient stopping power of the Army's Colt .38 caliber revolvers used in the 1899-1902 Philippine Insurrection and the published findings of U.S. Army personnel obtained from the Thompson–LaGarde Tests resulted in a requirement for a military handgun in .45 (11.25mm) caliber.
In 1906 and 1907, the U.S. Army held trials for a large-caliber semi-automatic pistol, which constituted the fourth and final evaluation of the Luger or Parabellum pistol design by U.S. authorities. At least two, and possibly three Parabellum Model 1902/1906 pattern pistols in enlarged form and chambered in .45 Luger caliber were brought to the U.S. by Georg Luger for the 1907 trials, each chambered in .45 ACP caliber. Prior to his arrival, the U.S. Frankford Arsenal had provided Luger with 5,000 rounds of .45 ammunition for experimentation and to serve as a guide for chambering measurements. Finding numerous defects in this prototype ammunition (U.S. authorities later were forced to produce new ammunition for the 1907 trials), Luger had DWM pull the bullets of these cartridges and had them re-loaded with a special faster-burning powder in new brass cases. Luger brought 746 rounds of this new ammunition to the March 1907 trials with his .45 Luger pistol. Two test .45 Luger pistols, bearing serial numbers 1 and 2 are known to have been used in the 1907 tests. Although the .45 Luger passed the firing tests, it was ranked below the Colt/Browning and Savage pistols in number of malfunctions and misfires, though Army officials conceded that the .45 Luger performed satisfactorily with the DWM-loaded ammunition. In the words of the testing commission: "The Luger automatic pistol, although it possesses manifest advantages in many particulars, is not recommended for service tests because its certainty of action, even with Luger ammunition, it is not considered satisfactory, because of the final seating of the cartridge is not by positive spring action, and because the powder stated by Mr. Luger to be necessary, for its satisfactory use is not now obtainable in this country.” DWM and Luger later rejected an invitation by Army officials to produce 200 pistols in caliber .45 for further competition against the Colt and Savage submissions, at which point DWM effectively withdrew from the U.S. trials.
The fate of the .45 Luger, serial number 1 is unknown, as it was not returned and is believed to have been destroyed during testing. The .45 Luger prototype serial number 2, believed to have been a back-up to Serial Number 1, survived the 1907 trials and is in private ownership. Its rarity gives its value of around US$1 million at the time the "Million Dollar Guns" episode of History Channel's "Tales of the Gun" was filmed, recheck by Guns & Ammo as of 1994. At least two caliber .45 Luger pistols were manufactured later for possible commercial or military sales; one is exhibited at the R. W. Norton Art Gallery, in Shreveport, Louisiana. The other was sold in 2010 and remains in a private collection. A single .45 Luger carbine is also known to exist.
Pistole Modell 1908 (P08) and World War I
In 1908, the German Army adopted the DWM Parabellum pistol as the Pistole Modell 1908 (P08) Parabellum to replace the Reichsrevolver in front-line service. The Pistole 08 (or P.08) had a 100 mm (3.9 in) barrel and was chambered in 9×19mm Parabellum. This version of Georg Luger's design reflected a number of improvements requested by German military authorities. The grip safety used on earlier versions was omitted, while a lug was attached to the heel of the pistol frame for attachment of a shoulder stock. The barrel was reduced in length to 4 inches (102mm), and the caliber was 9x19mm Parabellum, and the 9x19mm DWM cartridge (Catalog No. 278F) initially adopted by the German Army featured a 123-grain truncated-nose bullet design intended to increase wounding effect of the fully jacketed bullet. With slight modifications, notably the addition of a stock mounting lug and a hold-open latch, the P08 would serve as the German Army's principal sidearm during World War I, augmented by Mauser C96 and Model 1914 pistols. Over 2 million Luger pistols were used by German forces from 1914 to 1918.
Lange Pistole 08 (Artillery Luger)
The adoption of the Lange Pistole 08 or LP 08, known as the "Artillery Luger", was authorised by the Kaiser on 2 July 1913. This P08 variation was equipped with a 200 mm (7.9 in) barrel, an 8-position tangent rear sight (calibrated to 800 meters (870 yd)) and a board-type shoulder stock with an attached leather holster. In the event of close combat, the pistol was intended to be used as a carbine with the shoulder stock attached to a lug mounted on the heel of the pistol frame. When set for long range use the rear sight element visibly moves to the left to compensate for spin drift. While initially intended for use by German artillery units who could not be encumbered by the long and heavy K.98 rifle, the LP 08 was also used by Aviation units (prior to equipping aircraft with machine guns) as well as the infantry, primarily on the Western front during World War I. Stoßtruppen (stormtrooper infantry) units frequently employed the Artillery Luger equipped with a new large magazine, the 32-round Trommelmagazin or 'snail' magazine. Production of the LP 08 ended in 1918 with the end of the war. By that time, German troops had begun using the newly developed MP 18 submachine gun in place of the LP 08 for their stormtrooper assault companies. However, by this time enough LP 08 barrels had been manufactured and stockpiled to fill LP 08 export orders into the 1930s.
Carbine versions of the LP 08 were also produced commercially, with yet longer barrels. The firm Armeria Belga of Santiago (Chile) also manufactured a detachable stock, the Benke Thiemann stock, that could fold out from the grip section.
In the early 1920s, carbine production was restarted, with barrels up to 600 mm (24 in) long. Under a small contract, LP 08 or Artillery P08s were assembled in the 1930s to fill an order from the Shah of Iran for his artillery troops, with some of these weapons ending up with Thai police forces. Existing LP 08 pistols that had remained in storage were re-issued in WWII with new-production board stocks for some German units such as artillerymen and Waffen-SS units, and these continued in use until the end of the war in 1945.
Luger Rifle M1906
The M1906 was an attempt to make a full-powered semi-automatic rifle using the same toggle-bolt action of the pistol. A single rifle, serial number 4, was found and put on auction and was said to be made by Georg Luger. The description mentioned a German patent No. 4126 of 1906, the patent applied specifically to serial number 4. The rifle was chambered in 7.92x57mm Mauser, and the stock resembled the later K98k style.
Interwar years and commercial production
From 1919 on, DWM rebuilt P08 frames with new parts or existing parts (including barrels) into complete pistols for sales to the civilian and export markets. These sales helped restore DWM to solvency after the Armistice. Most of these commercial pistols were in 7.65 Parabellum (.30 Luger) caliber, although a number of pistols were also rebarrelled to 9mm Parabellum (9x19mm). The new component parts were stamped with serial numbers to match the frame to ensure that all the fitted parts stayed together. Many thousands of these pistols were thought to have been assembled and sold between 1919 and 1923. Some of these pistols were fitted with new barrels of different lengths by the importer upon customer request. Many so-called 1919 and 1920 Commercial Lugers were imported to the United States by such firms as Abercrombie & Fitch, Pacific Arms Co., and A.F. Stoeger Inc. The latter importer sought and registered the name Luger in 1929 in the United States.
In 1923, A.F. Stoeger Inc., the predecessor to Stoeger, Inc. began importing commercial pistols from DWM stamped A.F.Stoeger Inc. – New York. and "Germany". These pistols were exported to the United States in both 7.65 Parabellum (.30 Luger) and 9mm calibers, with barrel lengths from 75 mm to 600 mm. These imported Parabellums were also the first pistols to bear the name "Luger", roll stamped on the right side of the receiver. That same year, DWM also signed contracts to supply small numbers of P08 pistols to the armed forces of Finland (8,000 pistols, designated m/23), the Netherlands, and Sweden.
Until 1930, DWM continued to export both P08 and commercial Parabellum pistols to nations in Europe and to overseas markets, including the United States and the Far East. Although never officially adopted by Nationalist forces, all variants of the Parabellum or Luger pistol were highly sought after by both Chinese Nationalist officers and irregular guerrilla forces. In 1924, just before the outbreak of the Chinese Civil War, a review of Chinese Nationalist small arms reported that "Among officers, bodyguards, and police, the German Parabellum (Luger) 9-mm automatic pistol was the weapon of choice...".
In 1930, Mauser took over manufacture of the P.08 from DWM. Additional P08s were produced by Simson and later Krieghoff. Many P04 and P08 pistols would continue in service with German army and navy personnel throughout World War II. Towards the end of 1937 (beginning with 't' & 'u' block pistols) Mauser phased out rust blue process and "straw finishing" small parts and levers on the P08, choosing to salt blue all parts of the weapon at one time. In 1941 some of these pistols were fitted with inexpensive black Bakelite grip panels to cut production time and expense. Years after the war, these pistols would be given the name "Black Widow" by a postwar US arms dealer as a marketing ploy.
World War II production
The P08 was technically replaced in service in 1938 by the Walther P38, but ever-growing wartime demands for handguns resulted in continued P08 production by Mauser until December 1943. Mauser production was supplemented by a small contract for Luger pistols given to Heinrich Krieghoff & Son of Suhl in 1935 to produce a Luger variant for the Luftwaffe; a second contract for 15,000 pistols was only partially completed when Krieghoff ceased Luger production in 1944. The German Army took their last delivery of 1,000 Mauser-made pistols in November 1943. A further 4,000 pistols assembled by Mauser in December of that same year were sold to Portugal, which renamed them the Model 943. German military authorities refused to take any more Luger pistols, leaving a large stock of parts at the factory in Oberndorf.
Captured Lugers were much prized by Allied soldiers during both of the world wars as war trophies. However, during World War II, German soldiers were known to sometimes use a discarded Luger pistol to lure unsuspecting trophy hunters, rigging it to detonate land mines or hidden booby traps when disturbed. Word also spread of accidental discharges and deaths of Allied troops by users unfamiliar with the P08 and its safety mechanisms, as well as stories circulating that American soldiers were being executed if captured in possession of German weapons.
Soviet forces captured tens of thousands of Lugers but they were never issued to their own troops, only kept in storage.
Post-WWII production and assembly
Although Mauser P08 production terminated in 1943, the P08 re-appeared in postwar form because of the continuing demand for handguns for military and police requirements. In 1945, Mauser restarted Luger production under the control of the French occupation authority to supply the French military and occupation police forces. Assembly commenced under French control from June 1945 until mid-1946. In the second half of 1946, tooling and some Mauser personnel moved from Oberndorf to Chatellerault in France, the location of MAC (Manufacture d’Armes de Chatellerault) to continue assembly from existing parts stocks. About 4,000 Luger 'parts' pistols, including a few LP 08 models, are thought to have been assembled for French forces, a sufficient number to justify the production of new-manufacture Luger magazines in France for several years. Surviving examples of Lugers assembled under French supervision are sometimes found with a distinct, gray parkerized finish. A few early French control pistols bear a five-pointed star proof mark known to have been used by French Occupation authorities. Later pistols assembled in France often carry a French arsenal/manufacturer name, such as Manufacture Francaise d’Armes & Cycles de St. Etienne (Manufrance). Surviving French Control Lugers were retained in French storage depots of the paramilitary National Gendarmerie as late as 1970.
Pistols were also assembled under the direction of Soviet (and later, East German) authorities to arm military and MP units, as well as the Volkspolizei. During the immediate postwar period, complete Luger pistols were also assembled from rejected or salvaged parts with different serial numbers, then sold as souvenirs to occupation forces in Germany. Thousands of original Luger pistols were taken home by returning Allied soldiers after both world wars. Other Luger pistols were later assembled in the United States by gunsmiths of varying aptitude using secondhand, rejected, or salvaged parts imported from Germany and other countries. These pistols and their construction quality (or lack of it) would contribute to criticism of the Luger as a finicky and unreliable weapon. However, a well-maintained Luger with new springs and suitable cartridges is a very reliable weapon.
The Swiss Parabellum 06/29 continued in production until 1946. In 1969, after purchasing the Swiss 06/29 tooling, Mauser Werke in Oberndorf restarted Parabellum production, which ceased in 1986 when the last commemorative model was produced. While new Mauser Luger production ended at this time, pistols continued to be assembled and sold from parts on hand until the 1990s.
The Luger pistol is still sought after by collectors both for its sleek design and accuracy, and for its connection to Imperial and Nazi Germany. It is one of the most collected pieces of militaria, with collectors purchasing them for prices ranging from $34,500, and $1,000,000.
Aaron Davis, writing in The Standard Catalog of the Luger, claimed that "From its adoption, the Luger was synonymous with the German military through the end of World War II" and "Ask any World War II vet of the [European Theater of Operations] what the most prized war souvenir was and the answer will invariably come back, 'a Luger'." Colonel David Hackworth mentions in his autobiography that it was still a sought-after sidearm in the Vietnam War. Vietnamese gunsmiths even copied the basic Luger design, producing a few crude 'Luger' pistols with which to arm Viet Cong and other irregular forces.
- Algeria: used by the National Liberation Army, bought from Yugoslavia or Czechoslovakia
- Australia: Used captured examples in the North African campaign of World War II
- Austria: Armed forces used Lugers after 1945, supplied from the French-controlled Mauser factory
- Bolivia: delivered from 1912 and used during the Chaco War
- Kingdom of Bulgaria
- Republic of China: Used by Chang Tso-lin's warlord army.
- Democratic Republic of Georgia: Mainly issued to officers.
- Empire of Japan: Used Luger pistols in a semi-official capacity taken from disarmed Dutch forces in Indonesia.
- France: The French occupied and operated the Mauser factory 1945–46, then seized remaining Mauser parts stocks to assemble approximately 4,000 Luger pistols for French forces
- Indonesia: Almost 14,000 Dutch KNIL M.11 Lugers were in Indonesia before the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies. As such, the Luger was widely used during the Indonesian National Revolution. General Sudirman is known to have personally carried an M.11.
- Imperial State of Iran
- Latvia: Purchased less than 1,000 between 1936 and 1939.
- Netherlands: Dutch arms factories made Lugers in 1912 for use by the Dutch East Indies Army. Other contracts were completed for the Dutch Navy commencing in 1923, and the Dutch Air Force in 1928
- New Zealand: Captured Lugers issued to RNZAF ADS officers 1942-45.
- Norway: In use from 1945 and phased out in 1987.
- Palestine: the Palestine Liberation Organization received P08s from East Germany
- Soviet Union: stored captured P08s but never used in combat
- Switzerland: The Swiss Army was the first to adopt the Luger. 1900-1950
- United Kingdom: used by Special Operations Executive
- United States The U.S. Ordnance Board purchased 1,000 Model 1900 7.65mm pistols under an official military contract order and issued them to active duty cavalry troops for field testing.
- Irish Republican Army
- Lebanese Forces
- Organisation armée secrète
- Yugoslav Partisans
- Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army
The Luger is most commonly associated with Nazi Germany, and as such the majority of the Luger's fictional appearances are set during the Second World War, appearing in films including The Great Escape, Kelly's Heroes and Raiders of the Lost Ark, and TV shows including Combat!, The Rat Patrol and Hogan's Heroes. More modern depictions of the pistol include Michael Collins, The Blues Brothers, The Assassination Bureau, Barnaby Jones, and For Your Eyes Only where they are typically used by neo-Nazi and/or German criminal organizations. Napoleon Solo used a Luger in The Man from U.N.C.L.E..
- Borchardt C-93
- Mauser C96
- Lahti L-35
- Walther P38
- Stoeger Luger
- Nambu pistol
- Table of handgun and rifle cartridges
- Wizards (film)
- Datig, Fred A., The Luger Pistol, Gun Digest, 1957 ed., Chicago Illinois: Edward Keogh Co. Inc. (1956) pp. 164-165
- Jowett, Philip; Snodgrass, Brent (5 July 2006). Finland at War 1939–45. Elite 141. Osprey Publishing. p. 46. ISBN 9781841769691.
- Grant 2018, p. 57.
- Grant 2018, p. 4.
- German Infantry Weapons. United States War Department. 25 May 1943. p. 5.
- Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute, Annapolis MD, Vol. 27, No. 1 (March 1901) p. 436
- Fitzsimons, Bernard, ed. (1977). "Luger". The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Weapons and Warfare. 16. London, UK: Phoebus. p. 1778.
- "DWM Luger P-08 Pistol". chuckhawks.com. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
- Farwell, Byron (2001). The Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Land Warfare: An Illustrated World View. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-04770-9.
- "7.65 X 22: DWM; 7.65 mm Parabellum & DWM 471". iwm.com. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
- Mud Test: WW1 & WW2 P08 Luger, retrieved 6 August 2019
- Hogg, Ian; Weeks, John (2000). Military Small Arms of the 20th Century (7th ed.). Iola, Wisconsin: Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-824-7.
- Dunlap, Roy, Ordnance Went Up Front, Stackpole Books (1948), p. 104
- Bishop, Chris, ed. (1998). "MP 18 and MP28". The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II. Orbis publishing. p. 258. ISBN 1586637622.
- Keith, Elmer, Sixguns, Ravenio Books (1961)
- Walter, John (2001). The Luger Story. Greenhill Books. p. 127. ISBN 1-85367-436-2.
- Cohen, Paul A. History In Three Keys: The Boxers As Event, Experience, and Myth, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0231106505 (1997), pp. 185-185
- U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, Vol. 27 No. 1 (March 1901), p. 436: "The Board...has recommended that $15,000 be appropriated for the purchase of $1,000 of the Luger automatic pistols, which recently made such a wonderful record in the tests at Springfield Armory. The sum allotted—for the recommendation of the Board was instantly approved by the Secretary of War—is sufficient to furnish five of these pistols for each Troop of Cavalry in the service..."
- Annual Report of the Chief of Ordnance, United States, Army Ordnance Dept., 28 October 1902, p. 258
- 1900 Luger U.S. Test Trials, by Michael Reese II, 1976, pages 1,7
- Davis, Aaron, The Standard Catalog of Luger, Gun Digest Books, ISBN 9780896894112 (2006) p. 6
- Tells Of Taking Bandit M'Curdy, Tulsa Daily World, 15 October 1911, p. 18
- Skelton, Bart, For The Love Of Lugers, Shooting Times, 4 October 2010, retrieved 12 December 2017
- Dolan, Samuel K., Cowboys and Gangsters: Stories of an Untamed Southwest, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 9781442246690 (2006), p. xx (Introd.)
- Farris, David, The Last Of The Old Time Outlaws, Edmond Life & Leisure 29 Dec 2016, retrieved 14 Dec 2017
- Datig, Fred A. (20 April 2009). "The Luger Pistol | Gun Digest". Gun Digest. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Stephenson, Jan, The Parabellum Story, Part I and II, Gun Facts Magazine (July 1969) pp. 10-15, 35-37
- American Rifleman, The 1907 Pistol Trials,, (Feb 2001) www.nramuseum.com/media/940450/1907%20pistol%20trials.pdf
- Appendix, U.S. Army Annual Report for the Fiscal Year ending June 30, 1907 (1907), p. 89
- "Tales of the Gun: Million Dollar Guns". History Channel – via YouTube.
- James, Garry (October 2010). "Would you Shoot the Million Dollar Luger". Guns & Ammo. InterMedia Outdoors. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013.
- "Investment Firearm – .45 Luger Carbine". rennlist.com. Archived from the original on 15 November 2004.
- Huard, Paul Richard (6 March 2015). "The Nazis' Handgun". War Is Boring. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Kinard, Jeff, Pistols: An Illustrated History of Their Impact, Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO Publishing, ISBN 1851094709, p. 178
- Grant 2018, p. 28.
- "German Luger rifle". Forgotten Weapons. 17 December 2010. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
- Davis, Aaron, Standard Catalog of Luger, p. 25: In 1922 DWM became part of a holding company, Berlin-Karlsruher Industrie-Werke (BKIW).
- Waldron, Arthur, From War to Nationalism: China's Turning Point, 1924-25, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521472385 (1995), p. 57
- Bishop, Chris, ed. (2002). The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II. Metrobooks. p. 228. ISBN 1-58663-762-2. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- Rottman p.49
- Rottman p.32
- Grant 2018, p. 59.
- Grant 2018, p. 58.
- InRangeTV (18 April 2016), Mud Test: WW1 & WW2 P08 Luger, retrieved 12 February 2019
- Bishop, Chris, ed. (1998). The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II. New York: Orbis Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-7607-1022-8..
- Suciu, Peter. "Hitler Loved Them: These Are the Best Axis Handguns of World War II". National Interest.
- Suciu, Peter. "This Old Gun Sold for $1,000,000 Back in 1989. Here's Why". National Interest.
- Hackworth, David H. (1990). About Face: The Odyssey of an American Warrior. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-67169-534-7.
- McCollum, Ian (27 January 2016). "Viet Cong Handmade Luger Lookalike". ForgottenWeapons.com. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- Rottman, Gordon (2013). The Big Book of Gun Trivia: Everything You Want to Know, Don't Want to Know, and Don't Know You Need to Know. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 32.
- Walter, John (1991). Luger Book: The Encyclopedia of the Borchardt and Borchardt-Luger Handguns, 1885–1985. London, UK: Arms & Armour. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-85368-886-0.
- Alejandro de Quesada (20 November 2011). The Chaco War 1932-35: South America's greatest modern conflict. Osprey Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-84908-901-2.
- Miller, David (2007). Fighting Men of World War II, Volume I: Axis Forces — Uniforms, Equipment, and Weapons. Stackpole Books. p. 369. ISBN 978-0-8117-0277-5.
- Jowett, Philip (2010). Chinese Warlord Armies 1911–30. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing Ltd. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-84908-402-4.
- "მსუბუქი შეიარაღება". history.mod.gov.ge. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
- Cormack, A.J.R. (1972). The Luger. Profile Publications Ltd. p. 57.
- Davis, Aaron (2006). Standard Catalog of Luger (2nd ed.). Gun Digest Books. ISBN 0-89689-411-8.
- Miller, David (2001). The Illustrated Directory of 20th Century Guns. Salamander Books Ltd. ISBN 1-84065-245-4.
- KNIL-wapens in Indonesische musea (KNIL weapons in Indonesian museums), D.W. Staat, SAM Wapenmagazine 85, p.51 (In Dutch)
- Davis, Aaron, The Standard Catalog of Luger, Gun Digest Books, ISBN 9780896894112 (2006) p. 182
- Grey Tiger (2015). "World Infantry Weapons: Libya". WorldInventory. Retrieved 13 December 2017 – via Google Sites.
- Görtz, Joachim. The Borchardt & Luger Automatic Pistols: A Technical History for Collectors from C93 to P.08. p. 537.
- Osborne, John. "NZ Arms Register". ArmsRegister.com. Missing or empty
- Hæren etter Annen verdenskrig: 1945–1990 [The Army of the Second World War: 1945–1990] (in Norwegian). Oslo: Fabritius. 1990. p. 563. ISBN 8290545169.
- Telo, António José; Álvares, Mário (2004). Armamento do Exército Português, Vol.I – Armamento Ligeiro [Armament of the Portuguese Army, Vol.I - Light Armament] (in Portuguese). Lisbon: Prefácio. pp. 100–103. ISBN 972-8816-43-X.
- Arnold, David W. (11 November 2010). "Classic Handguns of the 20th Century: The P.08 German Luger". Handguns. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
- Grant 2018, p. 69.
- "The Weapons: Semi-auto Pistols". lebaneseforces.com. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- Perez, Jean-Claude (March 1992). "Les armes de l'O.A.S." Gazette des Armes (in French). No. 220. pp. 28–30.
- Scarlata, Paul (1 October 2017). "Yugoslav Part II: World War II small arms: an assortment of small arms from friends and foe alike". Firearms News.
- Stewart, Major Michael P. "Art of War Papers" (PDF). Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- Bishop, Chris (2002). The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 978-1-58663-762-0.
- Rottman, Gordon (2011). World War II Axis Booby Traps and Sabotage Tactics. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1780961439. OCLC 650113182.
- Grant, Neil (20 September 2018). The Luger. Weapon 64. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781472819734.
- The Borchardt & Luger Automatic Pistols by Joachim Gortz and Dr. Geoffrey Sturgess (Simpson Ltd, 2012)
- Imperial Lugers by Jan C. Still (Still's Books, 1994)
- Third Reich Lugers by Jan C. Still (Still's Books, 1988)
- Weimar Lugers by Jan C. Still (Still's Books, 1993)
- Lugers at Random by Charles Kenyon (Hand Gun Press, 1990)
- Simson Lugers by Edward B. Tinker and Graham K. Johnson (Simpson Ltd, 2007)
- La Luger Artiglieria by Mauro Baudino (Editoriale Olimpia, 2004)
- Luger Book: The Encyclopedia of the Borchardt and Borchardt-Luger Handguns, 1885–1985 by J. Walter (Arms & Armour, 1991)
- The Parabellum is Back! 1945–2000 by Mauro Baudino and Gerben van Vlimmeren (Simpson Ltd, 2010)
- Imperial Lugers Ян С. Тем не менее (Стилла Книги, 1994)
- Рейх Lugers Яна С. Тем не менее (Стилла Книги, 1988)
- Веймар Lugers Ян С. Тем не менее (Стилла Книги, 1993)
- Lugers наугад Чарльз Кеньон (Hand Gun Пресс, 1990)
- La Люгер Artiglieria Мауро Baudino (Editoriale Олимпия, 2004)
- Luger Книга: Энциклопедия Борхардт и Борхардт-Luger пистолетов, 1885-1985 Дж. Уолтера (Arms & Armour, 1991)
- Парабеллум вернулся! 1945–2000 by Mauro Baudino and Gerben van Vlimmeren (Simpson Ltd, 2010)
- The Mauser Parabellum 1930–1946: Analysis of a Million Luger Pistols by Don R. Hallock & Joop van den Kant (HaKa Arms Publications C0, 2010) 1945-2000 Мауро Baudino и Gerben ван Vlimmeren (Симпсон Ltd, 2010)
- Маузер Парабеллум 1930-1946: Анализ Million Luger Pistols Дон Р. Халлок & Joop Van Den Кант (Хака Руки Публикации С0, 2010)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to P08 Parabellum.|
- Artillery Luger and Mauser Parabellum
- Mauser Parabellum (INTERARMS) Certification Service from the Original Mauser Production Ledgers.
- Luger 08 in parts
- Bulgarian Luger 08 on GunsTribune
- A Luger-related searchable database with hundreds of photos and values
- Maßtafeln zur Pistole 08 und langen Pistole 08
- Luger Pistol M1900 Blueprints
- Luger Pistol M1904 Blueprints
- Luger Pistol M1906 Blueprints
- YouTube animation showing mechanism of Luger P08
- How does it work: Toggle Actions Forgotten Weapons