Luis Antonio Tagle

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His Eminence
Luis Antonio Tagle
D.D., S.Th.D.
Cardinal, Archbishop of Manila
Luis Antonio Cardinal Tagle 11 Feb 2013.jpg
Tagle in 2013
Province Manila
See Manila
Appointed October 13, 2011
Installed December 12, 2011
Predecessor Gaudencio Rosales
Other posts Cardinal-Priest of San Felice da Cantalice a Centocelle
President of Caritas Internationalis
President of Catholic Biblical Federation
Ordination 27 February 1982
by Félix Paz Pérez
Consecration 12 December 2001
by Jaime Sin
Created Cardinal 24 November 2012
by Pope Benedict XVI
Rank Cardinal-Priest
Personal details
Birth name Luis Antonio Gokim Tagle
Born (1957-06-21) June 21, 1957 (age 58)
Manila, Philippines
Nationality Filipino
Denomination Roman Catholic
Residence Manila, Cavite
  • Manuel Tagle
  • Milagros Tagle née Gokim
Previous post Roman Catholic Bishop of Imus (2001–2011)
Alma mater Ateneo de Manila University
Catholic University of America
Motto "Dominus Est! (It is the Lord!)" – John 21:7
Signature {{{signature_alt}}}
Coat of arms

Luis Antonio Gokim Tagle (born June 21, 1957) is a Roman Catholic Filipino cardinal, the 32nd Archbishop of Manila, Cardinal-Priest of the titular church of San Felice da Cantalice a Centocelle,[1][2] and the current President of Caritas International. He was appointed by Pope Benedict XVI to succeed Cardinal Gaudencio Rosales.

Tagle is the Professor of Dogmatic Synthesis at the Graduate School of Theology of San Carlos Seminary, the archdiocesan major seminary of Manila, and an Associate Professor of Systematic Theology at the Loyola School of Theology of Ateneo de Manila University.[3] He also taught at the school of theology of the Divine Word Seminary in Tagaytay City. Tagle has become involved in many social issues in the Philippines with emphasis on helping the poor and the needy while maintaining opposition against practical atheism,[4] abortion,[5] contraception,[6] and the Reproductive Health Bill,[3] although he took a more moderate stance on the bill than other Philippine bishops, refusing to excommunicate politicians who supported it and to distribute posters condemning it in Manila parishes.[7] At the same time, Cardinal Tagle has repeatedly expressed his openness to allowing divorced and remarried Catholics receive communion, has criticized the Catholic Church for using "harsh language" to describe LGBT and divorced and remarried Catholics,[8] and is often considered to be a representative of the Church's progressive wing.[9][10][11][12][13] He currently wields strong religious and political influence as the capital's archbishop, with an estimated 2.8 million professed Roman Catholics in his Archdiocese.[14] Tagle speaks fluent Italian and English in addition to his native Tagalog, and is also proficient in reading Spanish,[15] French and Latin.[16]

Tagle was installed on the Feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe and as of 2013 was the head of the Metropolitan See of Manila and its mother church, the Cathedral-Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, as both its metropolitan archbishop and archpriest.[17]

Tagle was made a cardinal by Pope Benedict XVI in a papal consistory on November 24, 2012 at Saint Peter's Basilica in Vatican City.[18][19]

Early life[edit]

Tagle was born to devout Catholic parents, Manuel Topacio Tagle and Milagros Gokim, who previously worked for Equitable PCI Bank. Tagle's paternal grandfather, Florencio, came from Imus, Cavite; the Tagle family were part of the Principalía, the country's lowland, hispanic, Christian aristocracy in the era before the 1896 Philippine Revolution.[20] Florencio was once injured by a bomb explosion during the Second World War, whist Tagle's grandmother made a living by running a carindería (local eatery or diner).

The firstborn child, Tagle had already been able to recite the Holy Rosary by age three. After attending elementary and secondary school at Saint Andrew's School in Parañaque (valedictorian in both elementary and high school), he was influenced by priestly friends to enter the Jesuit San José Seminary, which gained him automatic entrance to Ateneo de Manila University.

Further studies[edit]

Tagle earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Pre-Divinity from Ateneo in 1977 and later, a Master of Arts in Theology at Loyola School of Theology.[3] Tagle then gained his Doctorate in Sacred Theology at the Catholic University of America from 1987 to 1991, Summa cum Laude. He wrote his dissertation under the direction of Joseph Komonchak on the notion of episcopal collegiality as it was developed at the Second Vatican Council and the influence of Pope Paul VI on this development.[21] In addition to this, Tagle also attended doctrinal courses at the Institute of Pope Paul VI University.[22]


Tagle was ordained in the Diocese of Imus on 27 February 1982. After ordination, he held the following positions: associate pastor of San Agustín Parish – Méndez-Núñez, Cavite (1982–1984), spiritual director (1982–1983) and later rector (1983–1985) of the diocesan seminary of Imus. After having gone to Rome to study (1985–1992), he was appointed Episcopal Vicar for Religious (1993–1995), then Parish Priest and Rector (1998–2001) of Nuestra Señora del Pilar Cathedral-Parish in Imus. He also taught theology at San Carlos Seminary (1982-1985) and Divine Word Seminary in Tagaytay, Cavite.[23]

Pope John Paul II appointed Tagle to the International Theological Commission (1997–2002) serving under its President, then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger. He was a member of the Bologna-based editorial board (1995–2001) of the "History of Vatican II" project led by Alberto Melloni. Tagle is also currently the Chairman for the Episcopal Commission on the Doctrine of Faith of the Philippines.[22]

Bishop of Imus[edit]

In 2001, Tagle was appointed Bishop of Imus on October 22 and consecrated on December 12.[24]

At the first gathering of bishops under Pope Benedict XVI in 2005, the General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, he made one of the seven speeches from the floor, about the inadequacy of the number of priests in the Philippines,[25][26] and also commented in a news conference that "The first Sunday after my ordination as a priest, I said nine Masses, and that is regular in the Philippines."[27] Within the Episcopal Conference of the Philippines, he is the President of the Commission for the Doctrine of the Faith.

Tagle attended the 2008 International Eucharistic Congress in Quebec, Canada, for delivering a well-received catechesis on the importance of the Eucharist. As Bishop of Imus, Tagle's predecessor was the Most Rev. Manuel C. Sobreviñas, D.D. who served from 1993-2001 while his successor was the Most Rev. Reynaldo G. Evangelista, D.D. who was installed on June 5, 2013 at Imus Cathedral.

Archbishop of Manila[edit]

The Cathedral-Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, metropolitan seat of Archbishop Tagle and the See of Manila, Philippines.

The Holy See appointed Tagle as the 32nd Archbishop of Manila on October 13, 2011, succeeding Cardinal Gaudencio Rosales.

According to Father Catalino Arévalo, SJ (the first Asian member of the Vatican's International Theological Commission), while Tagle was greatly favoured for the post by then-Papal Nuncio to the Philippines Edward Joseph Adams and Cardinal Gaudencio Rosales, several correspondent objections were submitted to Pope Benedict XVI, who in turn requested the allegations to be investigated.[28]

Tagle now governs the Metropolitan See of Manila with a population 2.8 million Roman Catholics, at a time when secularisation presents many challenges to the Church including changes in legislation regarding family life, birth control, and marriage.[29] As per the terms of canon law, Tagle took possession of the see of Manila within two months of his appointment. He was installed as Archbishop on December 12, 2011, to coincide with the feast day of Our Lady of Guadalupe and the tenth anniversary of his episcopal consecration.

Prior to his installation as archbishop, Tagle made a religious pilgrimage to the Israel and the Palestinian territories in October 2011. At the Church of Saint Catherine in Bethlehem, Palestinian territories, Tagle held a statue of the Infant Christ that was taken out for veneration in anticipation of Christmas. A large silver marker was also installed in the Yardenit baptism site in the Jordan River in honour of Tagle, where he participated in a tree-planting ceremony as a symbol of Filipino-Israeli friendship.[30]

On February 9, 2012, Tagle attended a four-day conference called Symposium for Healing and Renewal at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome. Addressing 110 dioceses and 30 religious institutes, Tagle discussed the sex-abuse crises in Asia, where non-celibate priests acquiring mistresses is the more common problem than child-abuse cases.[31][32] Tagle maintained that a culture of shame perpetrated the problem and does not contribute to the solution.[33] As a result, the Holy See has launched an internet project to further help the cause of abused victims and prevent further crises.[34]

Tagle announced on February 13, 2012 that Manila Cathedral would temporarily be closed, citing structural work needed to maintain the integrity and strength of the building against possible earthquakes. In a circular, Tagle noted that the ground beneath the basilica is too soft, with the support columns not meeting engineering criteria, and that the Archdiocese has temporarily moved to San Fernando de Dilao Parish Church in Paco until repairs on the basilica are completed.[35]

On June 12, 2012, Tagle was appointed a member of the Congregation for Catholic Education for a five-year renewable term.[36] That day, Tagle delivered a Catechetical speech at the 50th International Eucharistic Congress in Dublin, Ireland. He noted the importance of the Eucharist in relation to the Virgin Mary, particularly her maternal role in the Christian daily life and the practicality of living a life of sanctity and piety based on the beliefs regarding the Eucharist in the Catholic Church.[37] He also mentioned the various issues which divided the Church in Ireland and similar cases in Asia.[38][39]

Tagle received the pallium from Pope Benedict XVI on June 29, 2012 (the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul), along with several archbishops from various countries. Tagle was one of several Asian archbishops whom the Pontiff granted the pallium, one of whom being the Archbishop of Seoul Andrew Yeom Sou-jeong.

On August 4, 2012, Tagle delivered a public speech against the Reproductive Health Bill in EDSA, Manila, Philippines. In the speech, he advocated for women's rights by recognising their valued role as mothers and wives, deserving of genuine love and respect as reflections of God and a gift to mankind.[40][41] Tagle also spoke heavily against sexual prostitution, which he viewed as an affront to women's femininity.

Benedict XVI named Tagle as one of the papally-appointed Synod Fathers for the 13th Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops on the New Evangelisation on September 18, 2012, .[42]


On Tuesday, October 23, 2012, the Vatican Secretary of State, Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone read a personalized letter by Pope Benedict XVI addressed to Archbishop Tagle intending to appoint him into the College of Cardinals.[43] In addition, Tagle noted that he was specifically instructed to remain silent with regard to the papal appointment as to not interfere the workings of the episcopal synod which were ongoing in Rome at the time. The papal letter relayed by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone did not officially confirm the Pontiff's formal decision on the cardinalate appointment.

Pope Benedict XVI named Archbishop Tagle to the College of Cardinals on Wednesday, October 24.[44] As Cardinal-Priest, he was assigned the titular church of San Felice da Cantalice a Centocelle during the papal consistory on November 24. Tagle is the seventh Filipino to be made Cardinal in the Catholic Church.[45] During the Cardinalate rites, Tagle was noted to be crying during his titular appointment.

On November 30, 2012, upon his return to the Philippines, a grand thanksgiving Holy Mass was presided by Tagle at the San Fernando de Dilao Church in Paco, Manila, and was attended by the Philippine President, Benigno Aquino III, Vice-President Jejomar Binay and the then-Mayor of Manila, Alfredo Lim.

On January 9, 2013, during the feast of the Black Nazarene, Tagle issued a public televised homily at the Quirino Memorial Grandstand denouncing Cafeteria Catholics in the Philippines as "enemies of the Church, false witnesses with pretentious devotion", specifying those who claim to follow Jesus Christ but reject Roman Catholic doctrine by refusing to respect the sanctity of human life and natural law, while hinting at the recent passage of the Reproductive Health Bill into civil law. In addition, Tagle also spoke against nominal Catholics who worship their "jewelry" (wealth), but ignore Jesus Christ in the Blessed Sacrament.[46]

On January 31, 2013, Cardinal Tagle was appointed by Pope Benedict XVI to serve as a Member of the Presidential Committee of the Pontifical Council for the Family and the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants.[47]

Among the participating cardinal-electors, Tagle was considered to be among the papabili in the Papal conclave 2013 that elected Pope Francis.[48][49]

Cardinal Tagle is currently a member of the Congregation for Catholic Education, Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, Pontifical Council for the Family, Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People, Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, Pontifical Council for the Laity, XIII Ordinary Council of the Secretariat General of the Synod of Bishops and on July 11, 2015, he was made a member of the Pontifical Council 'Cor Unum'. He was also confirmed by Pope Francis as President of the Catholic Biblical Federation on March 5, 2015. On May 14, 2015, he was elected President of the Caritas Internationalis replacing Cardinal Oscar Rodriguez Maradiaga.[50] Because of Tagle's liberal views, his election as head of Caritas Internationalis was criticized by some Catholic media.[9]

Coat of arms[edit]

Styles of
Luis Antonio Tagle
Coat of arms of Luis Antonio Tagle.svg
Reference style His Eminence
Spoken style Your Eminence
Informal style Cardinal
See Manila

Tagle's personal coat of arms (sinister side) is impaled with that of the Archdiocese of Manila (dexter side).

The dexter side is derived from the arms of the City of Manila. The tower of Castille[51] signifies belief in the one God, its three windows professing devotion to the Trinity. The crescent moon is a symbol of the Blessed Virgin Mary as the Immaculate Conception, the principal patroness of the Philippines. On the lower portion, a sea-lion bearing a cruciform staff is on an azure field, signifying the City of Manila. The sea-lion is originally a Spanish heraldic designation for the Philippines as an ultramar (overseas) possession. Today, the device is also found on several state arms such as the Presidential Seal.

The top sinister section depicts Christ as the Good Shepherd and as a fisherman, accompanied by an open Gospel Book inscribed with the letters Alpha and Omega. The middle section is a stylised version of Our Lady of the Pillar, the patroness of his previous diocese. This consists of an Ionic column surmounted by an ornate "M" as a symbol for the Virgin Mary, crowned with twelve stars. The bottom depicts a carpenter's square, which signifies Saint Joseph the Worker, along with a lily; these refer to the seminary he once attended.

Tagle's motto is taken from the John 21:7, Dominus Est (“It is the LORD!”).

Bologna School affair[edit]

Tagle served for six years (1995–2001) on the editorial board (consisting of over 50 members) of the History of Vatican II project[22] coordinated by Alberto Melloni and Giuseppe Alberigo, both promoters of the Bologna School of ecclesiastical history which asserts that the Second Vatican Council was a "rupture" with the past. This position has been criticized by Pope Benedict XVI (amongst others) who holds the Vatican II was a "continuity" with the past.[52]

The five volume, 2,500 page History of Vatican II (completed after discussions at 14 international conferences with contributions from over 100 scholars) is seen as the seminal work on the Second Vatican Council although it has been criticized by some conservatives for providing an overly progressive reading of the council.[53] In particular, in 1999 Tagle, not yet a bishop, wrote the chapter in the fourth volume of the History of Vatican II dedicated to the so-called “A November Storm: The Black Week” which unfolded at the close of the council’s third session in 1964, when several actions by Pope Paul VI caused alarm among reform forces. The Catholic commentator Sandro Magister reported that members of the Congregation for Bishops – who considered Tagle's candidacy for archbishop – only found out about his affiliation with the Bologna School after he was appointed.[54]

In 2005, the Archbishop of Astigi, Agostino Marchetto, then Secretary-General for the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants,[55] criticized the chapter written by Tagle, calling it "unbalanced, journalistic, and lacking objectivity expected of a true historian".[56]

The Vaticanologist John L. Allen, Jr. reported that Cardinal Marc Ouellet, the Holy See's prefect for the Congregation for Bishops and protégé of Pope Benedict XVI, maintains his “full support" for Tagle. Allen also reported that a Vatican official indicated that he read Tagle’s 1999 essay – after media reports highlighted it – and found nothing objectionable. In fact, he was impressed by Tagle’s defense of Paul VI (Tagle wrote that Paul followed a strategy of “listening to all views, especially opposing ones” and was willing to “sacrifice his personal popularity to save the council and its future”). This official also said that it is difficult to suggest Tagle is opposed to Pope Benedict’s reading of the council since one of the sources Tagle cited was the writings of Joseph Ratzinger.[57]

In a 2012 televised interview by Salt + Light Television, Tagle maintained that there was no rupture in the magisterium of the Roman Catholic Church in comparison to the pre-Second Vatican Council. Furthermore, he added that he does not subscribe to the "Rupture theory" that the Catholic Church before 1962 is disconnected from the present church.[58]


In his intervention at the 2012 General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Tagle spoke of the need for an attitude of humility, respectfulness and silence on the part of the Catholic Church as to "become more credible among its followers[59] and elaborated on it in an interview on Vatican Radio.[60]

Communion for divorced and remarried Catholics[edit]

Cardinal Tagle has repeatedly signaled his openness to allowing divorced and remarried Catholics receive communion. In a conversation with the American newspaper The Boston Globe, Cardinal Tagle said that he is open to hearing arguments to allow divorced and remarried Catholics to receive Communion without an annulment.[61] In a conversation with the National Catholic Reporter, Tagle expressed hope that "the pastoral care of divorced and civilly remarried couples is debated openly and with good will" at the 2014 Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, adding that "debate is healthy."[62] In an October 2014 interview with Vatican Insider, Cardinal Tagle said that although the members of the Extraordinary Synod on the Family had voted against a paragraph about admitting divorced and remarried Catholics to communion, he is still "open" to the possibility.[63] In 2015, he told the Catholic Herald that "Every situation for those who are divorced and remarried is quite unique. To have a general rule might be counterproductive in the end."[64]

Global warming[edit]

Following the publication of Pope Francis' encyclial Laudato Si, Cardinal Tagle launched an ambitious campaign in the Philippines to collect signatures for a petition against anthropogenic global warming caused by carbon dioxide emissions.[65]

Language on homosexuals, unwed mothers and divorced and remarried Catholics[edit]

At the Flame 2 Youth Congress, a gathering of 8,000 young Catholics at the SSE Wembley Arena in 2015, Tagle criticized the "harsh words" that the Catholic Church had for a long time used for homosexuals, unwed mothers and divorced and remarried Catholics, adding that it made them feel "branded".[64] Tagle's comments drew the criticism of the National Catholic Register, the oldest national Catholic newspaper in the United States[66] and,[67] a large Christian pro-life movement.

National Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary[edit]

Tagle led the National Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary at the Paco-Dilao Church on June 8, 2013.

Priestly celibacy[edit]

At the Synod of Bishops in 2005, Cardinal Angelo Scola expressed reservations about a desire to change the Church's rules on celibacy. Tagle, however, responded by suggesting that the Church should consider such a change to combat priest shortages.[68][69][70]


Academic Honors


  • Outstanding Manilan 2013
  • Fides Award (January 26, 2015)[73]


Despite his appointment as Archbishop of Manila, Tagle is still the presenter of The Word Exposed, a Catholic television programme produced by the Jesuit Communications Foundation, which also maintains a non-official Facebook account while all his official correspondences and press releases are maintained and released by the Archdiocesan Chancery of Manila.[74]

He is also co-presenter on Kape't Pandasal ("Coffee and Prayer", a pun on the term kape't pandesal or "coffee and salted bread"), an early morning religious inspirational programme partly produced by the same network, currently furnished and broadcast by ABS-CBN.[75]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Biography of The Most Reverend Luis Antonio G. Tagle (CEI 2008). Retrieved on February 18, 2012.
  2. ^ Rinuncia Dell’Arcivescovo Metropolita Di Manila (Filippine) E Nomina Del Successore. (2011-10-13). Retrieved on February 18, 2012.
  3. ^ a b c Tagle, Luis Antonio. Retrieved on February 18, 2012.
  4. ^ Cardinal-designate Tagle laments 'practical atheism' among some Pinoys | News | GMA News Online | The Go-To Site for Filipinos Everywhere
  5. ^ New Manila archbishop bares pro-life stance | Top Stories. (2011-12-15). Retrieved on February 18, 2012.
  6. ^ Philippine church and military change guard | Reuters. (2011-12-12). Retrieved on February 18, 2012.
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ a b
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^ Tagle is new archbishop of Manila | Inquirer News. (2011-12-13). Retrieved on February 18, 2012.
  15. ^ As a Filipino native, Tagle's phonetic is proficient in reading both Latin and the Spanish language, borrowing its AEIOU phonetics similar to many Spanish words and tonal dialect.
  16. ^ Daily Mail: "The Facebook Pope? Singing Philippine cardinal who uses social networking to spread the gospel is Asia's leading contender to become the next pontiff" By Daniel Miller March 7, 2013
  17. ^ In the discipline of the Roman Catholic Church, the pallium bestowed to a priest is only unique to a metropolitan bishop. All Latin-Rite metropolitans are archbishops; but some archbishops are not necessarily metropolitans.
  18. ^ "Annuncio di Concistoro per la Creazione di Sei Nuovi Cardinali" (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. October 24, 2012. 
  19. ^ Tagle: fede e dialogo interreligioso in Estremo Oriente - Vatican Insider
  20. ^ [1] Emilio Aguinaldo, Mga Gunita ng Himagsikan. Copyright by Mrs. Cristina Aguinaldo Suntay. Manila. 1964
  21. ^ Theological Studies: "Episcopal Collegiality and Vatican II: The Influence of Paul VI" by Francis Sullivan June 2006.
  22. ^ a b c Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila: Archbishop Tagle biography Retrieved on March 8, 2012.
  23. ^ Pope appoints Mgr. Tagle Archbishop of Manila. Retrieved on February 18, 2012.
  24. ^ "Luis Antonio Gokim Cardinal Tagle". David M. Cheney. Retrieved 21 January 2015. 
  25. ^ "Synod Begins with Candid Talk from Bishops." National Catholic Reporter, October 15, 2005.
  26. ^ "XI Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops." Holy See Press Office, October 2–23, 2005.
  27. ^ "Uninvited Guest Turns Up at Catholic Synod: Issue of Married Priests" by Ian Fisher Oct 7, 2005 the New York Times [2]
  28. ^ Archbishop Tagle: Good chemistry with Pope | Inquirer Global Nation
  29. ^ Vatican Insider: "Pope appoints communicator and scholar as new Archbishop of Manila" October 13, 2011
  30. ^ Archbishop Tagle of Manila
  31. ^ Asia Next for Catholic Sex-Abuse Disclosures? | Asia | English. (2012-02-09). Retrieved on February 18, 2012.
  32. ^ Catholic leaders launch online abuse education forum. The Washington Post (2012-01-31). Retrieved on February 18, 2012.
  33. ^ Tagle: Asia’s culture of silence rules | Inquirer News. (2012-02-11). Retrieved on February 18, 2012.
  34. ^ CNS STORY: Don't wait for explosion: Speakers say church must prevent abuse. Retrieved on February 18, 2012.
  35. ^ ASH WEDNESDAY FEBRUARY 22, 2012. Retrieved on February 18, 2012.
  36. ^
  37. ^ "Congress 'happy' with attendances - The Irish Times - Tue, Jun 12, 2012". The Irish Times. 
  38. ^ International Eucharistic Congress: focus on marriage, family, abuse scandal : News Headlines - Catholic Culture
  39. ^ Full Video of the Speech covered by Salt & Light International Television on YouTube
  40. ^ Ano bang kultura ang sisimulan ng RH Bill?
  41. ^ Talk of Abp. Chito Tagle on YouTube
  42. ^ - Translator
  43. ^ Four new cardinals had to keep news secret from synod | National Catholic Reporter
  44. ^ Pope Benedict names 6 new cardinals in surprise announcement : News Headlines - Catholic Culture
  45. ^ State of the Nation: TV News show with GMA Network senior correspondent: Jessica Soho -
  46. ^ Luis Antonio Tagle takes a swipe against the Reproductive Health Bill - Homily - Luneta Quirino Memorial Grandstand - January 9, 2013
  47. ^
  48. ^ "One Of These Men Will Be The Next Pope". Business Insider. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2013. 
  49. ^ "A look at possible papal contenders". CNN. Retrieved 2 March 2013. 
  50. ^ Cardinal Tagle elected head of intl church social action arm| GMA News Online
  51. ^ The Tower of Castille (Spanish: Torre de los Castellaños) refers to the Spanish cultural symbol of the Spanish monarchy that ruled the Philippines during its 300 years of Spanish occupation. To Filipinos, the word is presently translated as Kastila, a phonetic pronunciation of the Spanish "Castilla".
  52. ^ Catholic "Benedict's Hermeneutic of Continuity" by Jeff Mirus January 30, 2009
  53. ^ Philippine Daily Inquirer: "CNN analyst sees Manila archbishop a 'papal contender'" by Philip C. Tubeza October 22, 2011
  54. ^ The school of Bologna is getting the purple
  55. ^ New Liturgical Movement: Archbishop Agostino Marchetto Resigns Curial Position to Study History of Vatican II
  56. ^ Vatican Diary / The consistory of the six cardinals
  57. ^ National Catholic Reporter: "Vatican OK with Manila leader despite link to Vatican II school" by John L. Allen Jr. December 20, 2011
  58. ^ "Archbishop Tagle – Witness interview by Fr. Thomas Rosica". Salt + Light Television. Retrieved August 2012. 
  59. ^ Third General Congregation
  60. ^ Cardinal-designate Tagle calls for quieter, listening Church
  61. ^ John L. Allen, Jr. (15 March 2014). "Meet the Philippine Pope Francis". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  62. ^
  63. ^
  64. ^ a b
  65. ^
  66. ^
  67. ^
  68. ^
  69. ^
  70. ^
  71. ^ "Bio-Data of Archbishop Luis Antonio G. Cardinal Tagle, DD". The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila. 
  72. ^ "Tagle to receive honorary doctorate degree from Fordham University". CBCP News (Manila). 
  73. ^ "His Eminence Luis Antonio Cardinal Tagle receives Fides award". La Salle Bacolod. 
  74. ^ Malaya Business News Online - Philippine Business News | Online News Philippines - Hackers asked to spare disaster risk operations
  75. ^ "Bishop Chito Tagle". Jesuit Communications Foundation. Retrieved October 15, 2011. 

External links[edit]

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Manuel C. Sobreviñas
Roman Catholic Bishop of Imus
October 22, 2001–October 13, 2011
Succeeded by
Reynaldo G. Evangelista
Preceded by
Gaudencio Rosales
Roman Catholic Archbishop of Manila
October 13, 2011–present
Title last held by
Stephen Kim Sou-hwan
Cardinal-Priest of San Felice da Cantalice a Centocelle
November 24, 2012–present