Luis Pacheco de Narváez

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Luis Pacheco de Narváez
Luis Pacheco de Narváez
Luis Pacheco de Narváez
Born1570
Died1640
OccupationWriter, fencing master

Don Luis Pacheco de Narváez (Baeza, 1570–1640) was a Spanish writer on the art of fencing.[1]

He was a follower of Don Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza. Some of his earlier works were compendia of Carranza's work while his later works were less derivative. He served as fencing master to King Philip IV of Spain.

Nevertheless, it is not known exactly when Pacheco met his teacher, the greatest master of Spanish fencing, Jerónimo Sanchez de Carranza.[2][3]

Biography[edit]

Until now, there is no information about the exact date of birth of Luis Pacheco de Narvaez. Born in the city of Baeza, his life was devoted to working with weapons, becoming a sergeant major in the Canary Islands, namely on the island of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote.[4][5]

According to documents[6][7] from the legacy of Luis Pacheco de Narvaez in the Canary Islands, it is known that he was the son of Rodrigo Marin de Narvaez and Magdalena Pacheco Cameras. He married Beatriz Fernandez de Cordoba, the daughter of Michael Jerome Fernandez de Cordova, clerk of the chamber and secretary of the Royal court of the Canary Islands and Lucia Sayago.[8][9]

In 1608, he fought a fencing match with Francisco de Quevedo as a result of Quevedo criticizing one of his works. Quevedo took off Pacheco's hat in the first encounter.[10][11]

In Quevedo's picaresque novel El Buscón,[12][13] this duel was parodied with a fencer relying on mathematical calculations having to run away from a duel with an experienced soldier.[14][15]

The life of a swordsman[edit]

Despite the lack of accurate data on the life of Pacheco de Narvaez, as well as numerous other masters of the Middle Ages fencing, there are often occasional references, from which it is clear that the profession of the fencing master in Spain XV and XVI centuries required serious preparation and extreme physical strength, organization, existed a monopoly on teaching and awarding the title of master of fencing art.[16][17]

I was born with an innate fighting bias, just put my feet on the threshold of life and new forces, hit my ears in the ears and a special surprise was caused by the book Carranza

Don Geronimo Sanchez de Carranza master of fencing, founder of the Spanish fencing school – Destreza, became famous for his written treatise "The Philosophy of Arms and Destructs" ("La filosofía de las armas y de su destreza, y de la agresión y defensa cristiana", y de la agresión y defensa cristiana, published in 1582 ) became a mentor, fencing teacher Luis Pacheco de Narvaez.[19][20]

Luis Pacheco de Narvaez was a Military Man, served on land and sea, from a soldier, sergeant, ensign became a sergeant major and governor.[21][22]

Book of the Greatness of the Sword[edit]

«Libro de las grandezas de la espada». Luis Pacheco de Narváez. "The Book of the Greatness of the Sword"Luis Pacheco de Narvaez
Luis Pacheco de Narvaez

«Book of the Greatness of the sword" by Don Pacheco de Narvaez formed the basis of all the Spanish fencing literature of the 17th century. The first edition of the "Book of the Greatness of the sword" includes all the principles that Narvaez handed to Carranza. This book describes a lot of secrets, principles and prescriptions, with the help of which any person can learn by himself and teach others, without resorting to the instructions of other masters.

«Book of the Greatness of the sword" was written in the city of Seville and is dedicated to Philip III, the king of all of Spain and most of the world. As a pupil of Carranza, Don Luis Pacheco de Narvaez reproduces in all details the characteristic method of primer inventor de la ciencia and introduces for explanation the curious schemes, with drawn circles and positions of the blades relative to each other – in the form of conditional swords, intersecting at different angles, depending on the type of movement, the cutting or piercing stroke.

After extensive and detailed arguments about the need to defend, as required by human human and divine laws, as well as the arguments about the elevation of self-perfection in the art of possession of arms, the author consecrates his wisdom and practice in the art of fencing.[23][24]

In the middle of the 16th century, the stance, according to the school of Spanish fencing, was a popular stance in which: the trunk is straightened, but so that the heart is not directly opposite the opponent's sword; right arm is straight, legs are not widely spaced. These foundations give three advantages: the point of the sword is directed as close as possible to the enemy, the swordsman keeps his sword with more force, thus eliminating the risk of injuring the elbow. It is not a question of crossing the swords with the enemy.

Fencers need to take a stand outside the distance in order to systematize the general concept of the right distance, Carranza and his follower Narvaez represent a circle drawn on the ground – "circonferencia imaginata entre los cuerpos contrarios", which further outlines the actions.[25][26]

Carranza paid the most attention to cutting strokes, although he was very free to use stabbing blows in the fight, he presents the exact definition of the first strike, but does not explain the second one in any way. Narvaez, however, touched on his work in thrusting strikes, but did not give any detailed explanation as to how he was performing.[27][28]

The treatise "Book of the Greatness of the Sword" by Don Luis Pacheco de Narvaez was translated into Russian in 2017 under the patronage of the Scientific Research Institute of «World Traditions of Martial Arts and Criminal Investigations» of the use of weapons jointly with the School of Spanish Fencing «Destreza Achinech» and is available to the public.[29][30]

A simple way of examining teachers in the art of fencing with weapons[edit]

"A simple way of examining teachers in the art of fencing with weapons" is another of the most famous works written by Don Pacheco de Narvaez (Dialogue between a pupil and an exam teacher on philosophy and art of fencing).[31][32]

The seal of this work and any publishing house by other persons were prohibited without the appropriate permission. The book at that time was published by the Cabinet of Lazaro de los Ríos, Secretary of the King of Spain, dated 26 February 1625 (Madrid).[33][34]

Pacheco de Narvaez, Luis «Antiguos tratados de esgrima» (siglo XVII). Don Luis Pacheco de Narvaez "Fencing Treatise"

This treatise contains a dialogue between the student and his teacher-examiner on the art of fencing and philosophy for obtaining the degree of maestro. In this form of writing, Don Luis Pacheco de Narvaez presented one hundred conclusions or forms of cognition.[35][36]

Don Pacheco de Narvaez from the King received gratitude and was appointed examiner for all fencing teachers; However, instead of passing the exams, apparently, his comrades decided to unite against him. This can be concluded by analyzing the index la Matrícula de Yarza – a list of people who have been enrolled. The index is in the archives of the Supreme court. It says the following:

Teachers of martial arts are suing Don Luis Pacheco de Narvaez, who must take the exam from all teachers

— Luis Pacheco de Narvaez, Letter L, file 4, 732

The protective pillars described in the treatise meet the requirements, correspond to the laws of justice and peace in the Republic. Each valiant knight was given a crown as a sign of wisdom and skill. Dialogue is based on these two principles, in the text part, a training with weapons is described. Also in this part, a thorough assessment of the most talented students is conducted, it is said that this is allocated a scholarship for the time devoted to studies. Such a person should be greeted favorably, and the other, who from greed desires to receive the honor to receive a scientific award, but do not despise or avoid working with him. Involuntary ignoring of a person is not a significant mistake, but ignorance of what is necessary is a disrespect to yourself. And above all, absurd talent and a lack of courage lead to a loss of hope to achieve what was possible to achieve, says Luis Pacheco de Narvaez.[37]

This treatise is useful in studying the history of the art of possession of weapons, so intellectuals will consider it so valuable. This book contributed to the re-creation of art and described the image of the art of fencing, from the date of publication of this was addressed only thanks from various masters of fencing.

The treatise «An Easy Way of Examining Teachers in the Art of Fencing with Weapons» by Don Luis Pacheco de Narvaez was translated into Russian in 2017 under the patronage of the Research Institute of World Traditions of Martial Arts and Criminal Investigations of Weapons, in conjunction with the Spanish Fencing School «Destreza Achinech» and is available to the public.[38]

Proceedings of Don Luis Pacheco de Narvaez[edit]

  • «Libro de las grandezas de la espada, en qve se declaran mvchos secretos del que compuso el Commendador Geronimo de Carrança» Luis Pacheco de Narváez. Orbigo, 1600
  • «Compendio de la filosofia de las armas de Geronimo de Carrança» Luis Pacheco de Narváez por Luis Sanchez, 1612
  • «Сolloqvia familiaria et alia quae dam opuscula [de Erasmi de Civilitate morum puerilium] erudiendae imentuti accommodatissima opera doctisimorum…" Luis Pacheco de Narváez. Claudius Bornat, 1643
  • "Nveva ciencia; y filosofia de la destreza de las armas, sv teorica, y practica: A la Magestad de Felipe Quarto, rey, y señor nvestro de las Españas, y de la mayor parte del mundo» Luis Pacheco de Narváez, M. Sanchez, 1672
  • «Modo facil y nueuo para examinar los maestros en la destreza de las armas, y entender sus cien conclusiones, ò formas de saber» Luis Pacheco de Narváez por los herederos de Pedro Lanaja, 1658
  • «Advertencias para la enseñanza de la filosofia, y destreza de las armas, assi à pie, como à cavallo … por D. Luis Pacheco de Narvaez …» Autor Pacheco de Narváez, Luis Fecha 1642
  • «Historia exemplar de las dos constantes mugeres españolas … por Don Luis Pacheco de Naruaez …» Autor Pacheco de Narváez, Luis Imprenta del Reino (Madrid) 1635

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Martial Arts of the World: An Encyclopedia of History and Innovation. Thomas A. Green, 2010 – c. 254
  2. ^ Late Medieval and Early Modern Fight Books: Transmission and Tradition of Martial Arts in Europe (14th–17th Centuries), 2016 г. — С. 3, 329, 352
  3. ^ Jaquet, Daniel (2016). Late Medieval and Early Modern Fight Books: Transmission and Tradition of Martial Arts in Europe, 14th–17th Centuries (History of Warfare). BRILL. p. 636. ISBN 9789004324725.
  4. ^ Biografıas.Gregorio Marañón, Espasa-Calpe, 1970 – C. 621
  5. ^ Marañón, Gregorio (1970). Obras completas: Biografías. Espasa-Calpe.
  6. ^ Todos los documentos canarios que presentamos o comentamos aquí sobre Luis Pacheco se han tomado de la encomiable publicación de Pérez Herrero (2014)
  7. ^ Fernández, Juan I. Laguna. "Luis Pacheco de Narváez: Unos comentarios a la vida y escritos del campeón de la corte literaria barroca de Felipe III y Felipe IV, y su supuesta relación con el Tribunal de la justa venganza contra Francisco de Quevedo" (PDF). PARNASEO. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  8. ^ Protocolos Notariales, nº 1074, pp. 302r-202v. Fecha: 17 de julio de 1621. No obstante lo dicho indica Cioranescu (1957, pp. 353—354) que Beatriz Fernández de Córdoba era «nieta paterna de Alonso Fernández de Córdoba, natural de Gibraleón, teniente de gobernador de la isla de La Palma en 1524, regidor de la misma Isla y vecino después de La Gomera, donde había casado con Isabel Núñez, hija de Pedro Almonte y de Juana Hernández»
  9. ^ AHPLP: Protocolos Notariales, nº 902, pp. 294v-298r. Fecha: 25 de junio de 1591
  10. ^ [Obras de don Francisco de Quevedo Villegas. Francisco de Quevedo M. Rivadeneyra, 1852 – C.69–72] Archived 8 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ Florencio, Janer. "Obras de Don Francisco de Quevedo Villegas (1852–1877) – Quevedo, Francisco de, 1580–1645". BIBLIOTECAVIRTUALDEANDALUCIA. Madrid : [s.n.], 1852–1877 (Imprenta y Esterotipia de M. Rivadeneyra). Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  12. ^ Quevedo: El Buscón.Francisco de Quevedo, Américo Castro, Julio Cejador y Frauca. Ediciones de «La Lectura», 1927 — С. 15,49
  13. ^ De Quevedo, Francisco. "Quevedo: El Buscón". Books. Ediciones de "La Lectura". Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  14. ^ Aparato biográfico y bibliográf.Francisco de Quevedo Rasco, 1897 – C. 565
  15. ^ De Quevedo, Francisco (1897). Obras completas de Don Francisco de Quevedo Villegas: Aparato biográfico y bibliográfico PDF Download. E. Rasco. p. 620.
  16. ^ Schools and masters of fencing. Noble art of blades, Egerton Castle
  17. ^ Castle, Egerton (2008). Schools and masters of fencing. Noble art of sword ownership. Center Poligraph. ISBN 978-5-9524-3799-9.
  18. ^ Nueva ciencia y filosofía de la destreza de las armas, su teórica y práctica, Madrid, 1672. – En el Prólogo al lector del Engaño y desengaño de los errores que se han querido introducir en la destreza de las armas (1635) se expresa Pacheco con igual ambigüedad sobre la época en que comenzó a dudar de las bondades del libro de Carranza: «paralelo corrió con lo más llegado a la primavera de mi edad; en los primeros crepúsculos de mi infancia, o, a lo menos, cuando le pagaba al tiempo las primicias de la juventud, se originó este constante sentimiento».
  19. ^ Late Medieval and Early Modern Fight Books: Transmission and Tradition of Martial Arts in Europe (14th–17th Centuries), 2016 г. — С. 3, 329, 352
  20. ^ Jaquet, Daniel (8 July 2016). Late Medieval and Early Modern Fight Books: Transmission and Tradition of Martial Arts in Europe, 14th–17th Centuries (History of Warfare). Brill Academic Pub. ISBN 978-9004312418.
  21. ^ Advertencias para la enseñanza de la filosofía y destreza de las armas así a pie como a caballo, 1642 (aprobación de 1639) – Prologo
  22. ^ de Narvaez., Luis Pacheco. "DESENGAÑO DE LA ESPADA Y NORTE DE DIESTROS". BIBLIOTEKADIGITAL. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  23. ^ La novela barroca. Catálogo bio-bibliográfico (1620—1700), Begoña Ripoll, Universidad de Salamanca, 1991 – С.116
  24. ^ Pérez, Auladell (1991). Begoña Ripoll, "La novela barroca. Catálogo Bio-Bibliográfico (1620–1700)". Ediciones Universidad de Valladolid.
  25. ^ "La filosofía de las armas y de su destreza, y de la agresión y defensa cristiana. Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza, 1582
  26. ^ de Merich, Stefano. "La presencia del Libro de la filosofía de las armas de Carranza en el Quijote de 1615" (PDF). H-Net. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  27. ^ Schools and masters of fencing. Noble art of sword ownership, Egerton Castle – P.137
  28. ^ Castle, Egerton. "Schools and masters of fencing. Noble art of sword ownership". PROFILIB. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  29. ^ On the Greatness of the sword, Don Luis Pacheco de Narvaez, [Translation from Spanish] – Dnepr: Serednjak T. К., 2017, — 377 с
  30. ^ Serednjak, T. (2017). Book of the Greatness of the Sword. Dnepr. ISBN 978-617-7599-16-5.
  31. ^ A simple way of examining teachers in the art of fencing with weapons. Don Luis Pacheco de Narvaez, [Translation from Spanish] —Dnepr: Serednjak T. К., 2017, — 112 с
  32. ^ "A simple way of examining teachers in the art of fencing with weapons. Luis Pacheco de Narvaez". Internet Archive. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  33. ^ Diálogo entre el maestro examinador en la Filosofía y Destreza de las Armas y el discípulo. Luis Pacheco de Narváez, 1625
  34. ^ Pacheco de Narváez, Luis. "Dialogo entre el Maestro examinador en la filosofía y destreça de las Armas y el Discipulo pidiendo el grado de Maestro en quien se declaran las cien conclusiones o formas de saber [Manuscrito]". Europeana. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  35. ^ "Modo facil y nueuo para examinar los maestros en la destreza de las armas, y entender sus cien conclusiones, ò formas de saber" Luis Pacheco de Narváez por los herederos de Pedro Lanaja, 1658
  36. ^ Pacheco de Narváez, Luis. "Modo facil y nueuo para examinar los maestros en la destreza de las armas, y entender sus cien conclusiones, ò formas de saber". Books. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  37. ^ A simple way of examining teachers in the art of fencing with weapons. Don Luis Pacheco de Narvaez, [Translation from Spanish] —Dnepr: Serednjak T. К., 2017, — 112 с
  38. ^ A simple way of examining teachers in the art of fencing with weapons. Don Luis Pacheco de Narvaez, [Translation from Spanish] —Dnepr: Serednjak T. К., 2017, — 112 с

External links[edit]

Literature[edit]

  • Late Medieval and Early Modern Fight Books: Transmission and Tradition of Martial Arts in Europe (14th–17th Centuries), 2016
  • Los tratados de la Verdadera Destreza de Pachecho y sus seguidores serán una referencia obligada en España para cualquier tipo de arma blanca o enastada, como demuestran las numerosas publicaciones que perduran hasta el siglo XIX y que se basan en las filosofía desarrollada por Luis Pacheco, siendo una de las últimas obras de relevancia la titulada «Principios universales y reglas generales de la verdadera destreza», publicada por el militar español don Manuel Antonio Brea, en 1805
  • Vida de don Francisco de Quevedo y Villegas. Val, Pablo. Madrid, 1663
  • The story of a life of a scumbag named Don Pablos, an example of vagabonds and a mirror of scammers. Francisco de Quevedo, 1980. – 544 s.
  • «Cartilla y luz en la verdadera destreza, nacida de los escritos de Don Luis Pacheco de Narváez y de los autores que refiere» (1696)
  • «Las tretas de la vulgar y comun esgrima de espada sola y con armas dobles, que reprobo Don Luis Pacheco de Narvaez, y las oposiciones que dispuso en verdadera destreza contra ellas» (1702)
  • Antiguos tratados de esgrima (siglo XVII). Luis Pacheco de Narváez, Christoval de Cala Gómez, 1898
  • Cartilla. Nicolás Tamariz, Luis Pacheco y Narváez, De Vinne Press, 1696