|This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2008)|
|• City||29.09 km2 (11.23 sq mi)|
|Elevation||6 m (20 ft)|
|Population (31 December 2014)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||971 00 - 978 20|
|Area code(s)||(+46) 920|
Luleå (Swedish: [ˈlʉːlɛo] ( listen), Lule Sami Luleju) is a city on the coast of northern Sweden, and the capital of Norrbotten County, the northernmost county in Sweden. Luleå has about 47,000 inhabitants and is the seat of Luleå Municipality (with a total population of 75,921).
Luleå has the seventh biggest harbor in Sweden for shipping goods. It has a large steel industry and is a center for extensive research. Luleå University of Technology is Sweden’s first technology university and the northernmost university in Sweden.
- 1 History
- 2 Modern city
- 3 Economy
- 4 Climate
- 5 Media
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Shopping
- 8 Culture
- 9 Sports
- 10 UNESCO World Heritage
- 11 Notable people
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The town's Royal charter was granted in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. The original town was situated where Gammelstad (Old Town) is situated today. The town had to be moved in 1649 to the current site, due to the post-glacial rebound that had made the bay too shallow for ships to enter.
In 1805 Luleå only had 947 inhabitants, but in 1865 Luleå succeeded Piteå as the county town in Norrbotten county and now had around 1400 residents. In the 1860s the industries also started taking root in the city.
The town has been plagued by fires in 1653, 1657 and in 1887, and the fire in 1887 was a devastating fire that destroyed most of the town, sparing only a few buildings. The Neo-Gothic Cathedral (originally the Oscar Fredrik church), dedicated in 1893, standing at 67 meters (220 ft), is the tallest building in town.
With the arrival of Malmbanan railway line, Luleå became the shipping port for iron ore coming from Malmberget. Luleå was also becoming an industrial city. In 1943 Norrbottens Järnverk AB steelworks opened (nowadays known as SSAB) using the iron ore as an input for further processing.
During the period 1940-1980 Luleå was one of the fastest growing cities in Sweden, with developing suburban areas. In 1971 Luleå University of Technology was founded.
Luleå's commerce and industry are a mix of industry, research, education, trade, and services. The university's educational programmes have attracted new businesses as well as local offices for multinational corporations.
Major employers in the city are the SSAB steelworks and Luleå University of Technology. A Swedish Air Force wing, F 21 (or Norrbotten Air Force Wing), is stationed near Luleå at the neighbouring Luleå Airport. Other major employers include Ferruform (a subsidiary of Scania AB) and Gestamp HardTech (acquired from SSAB 2005-01-01).
The information technology industry in Luleå has about 2000 employees (2008).
Luleå is the home of several major innovations and technological milestones.
- Broadcast radio: RDS, DAB, DARC (1992–1997)
- The Luleå algorithm for routing (1997)
- Living Labs: leading European service testbed with 6000 users (2001–)
- HDTV transport layer for telephony cabling (1996)
- Software GPS in mobile phones (2005–)
- Marratech: pioneers in Internet-based E-meetings (1998–) – acquired by Google, releasing in November 2008 video-chat support in Gmail
- Arena project, IT in Sports: sensors, handheld wireless video (1999–2002)
- Estreet project: First large-scale mobile marketing experiment (2000)
- On 27 October 2011 Facebook announced it would locate its first data center outside of the United States in Luleå. The whole facility, a set of three 28,000 m2 (300,000 ft2) buildings is scheduled to be operational by 2014. The first building was to be operational in 2012. The establishment will help turn the Luleå region into a major node for European data traffic. The town's northern location and that it will become a hub for data traffic in Europe has generated a new epithet for the Luleå region – The Node Pole. The Node Pole region provides stable, low-cost electricity that is 100-percent derived from renewable sources. In addition, they cite the benefits of low cooling expenses, given that the region is one of the coolest in Sweden. Sweden's long political stability is cited as another long-term benefit of the Node Pole's location.
Facebook expands into Luleå
The new European computer center in Luleå is Facebooks first investment outside of the US. One of the reasons that Facebook choose Luleå was because of the natural cooling thanks to the climate, reliable electricity networks, cheap electricity and the clean energy. The computer center is the largest one in Europe, with 84 m2 which is comparable with 11 football fields.
The computer center will process large amounts of data through thousands of computers working as one. The establishment of Facebook in Luleå has also lead to other companies realizing the potential of establishing in Luleå. The positive effect has also been noticeable at the university where the applications rate has risen with 18 percent- Luleå Science Park has also had an increase with 25 percent of new established companies.
Luleå has a subarctic climate (Köppen: Dfc), which borders on a continental climate (Köppen: Dfb) with short, mild to warm summers and long, cold, snowy winters. But due to the Gulf Stream Luleå has a warmer climate than other cities on the same latitude and even some that are further south in Canada, Alaska and Siberia. During the summer in June and July the temperature in Luleå can some days rise to around +30 degrees Celsius. Summers are very bright with marginal twillight being the only exception during the summer solstice.
|Climate data for Luleå, Sweden, 2002-2014|
|Record high °C (°F)||10.3
|Average high °C (°F)||−5.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−12.9
|Record low °C (°F)||−42.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||34
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||23||79||172||221||283||296||309||243||152||91||37||3||1,909|
|Source #1: SMHI|
|Source #2: SMHI|
Local buses are run by Luleå LLT.
Passenger train service is available from Luleå Central Station on Sweden's national SJ railway service northbound to Narvik on the Norwegian coast, and southbound to Stockholm. See Rail transport in Sweden.
The world’s first indoor mall was built in Luleå and was named Shopping; there are two other malls in Luleå: Strand and Smedjan. The main shopping streets in Luleå are Storgatan and Kungsgatan. A couple kilometers outside Luleå is a shopping center called Storheden.
Luleå has a variety of cultural institutions, among them Norrbottensteatern; Norrbottens museum; and Norrbotten Big Band, led by Tim Hagans. In January 2007 the Cultural House (Kulturens Hus) was opened. A library, concerts, and art exhibitions are all hosted here. Luleå is also home to hardcore punk band Raised Fist, melodic death metal band The Duskfall, power metal band Machinae Supremacy and death 'n' roll band Helltrain.
One of the largest winter festivals in Luleå is an indoor festival called Minus 30-festivalen, held at At Kulturens hus (the House of Culture) annually on a Saturday in mid-March.
Luleå Hamnfestival (Luleå harbor festival) is a big summer event in the center of Luleå, mostly centered around the north harbor. The festival has been a recurring event each summer since 2013. Held in July, it is a free event not targeting a specific group. The festival is the new version of Luleåkalaset which was held each summer from 2002-2012, which itself replaced sjöslaget, the summer festival from 1988-2002.
Musikens makt (The power of music) is a smaller music festival that is each summer in August at Gültzauudden since 2010. This is a free concert.
Ice music is a new art form where professional musicians play on instruments made out of ice. The concerts are performed in a huge igloo and the instruments are pulsating in all the colors of the rainbow.
Luleå has many teams competing in a variety of sports.
Three teams in Luleå compete in the highest Swedish leagues: Luleå Basket (female basketball team, previously called Northland Basket); BC Luleå (male basketball team, previously named Plannja Basket and LF Basket Norrland); and Luleå Hockey (male ice hockey team).
Luleå Basket has won two Swedish championships (2014 and 2015), while BC Luleå has won seven Swedish championships (1997, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006 and 2007). Luleå Hockey has won one Swedish Championship, in 1996, and the European Champion Hockey League 2015.
- LF Basket Norrbotten, formerly Plannja, for men and Luleå Basket for women; Plannja has won Basketligan 7 times, which is a record.
In Luleå there is also an American football team, the Luleå Eskimos.
The Swedish Championship in Yukigassen is held in Luleå annually.
Cricket Association of Luleå consists of few graduates from Luleå University of Technology. The association conducts occasional indoor and outdoor cricket matches in Luleå.
UNESCO World Heritage
- Maud Adams, Swedish actress best known for appearing in two James Bond films
- Karin Mamma Andersson, Swedish artist
- Breach, Swedish Hardcore-band
- Niklas Bäckström, Swedish fighter competing in the UFC
- Emilia de Poret, Swedish musician
- Adam Dunkels, computer scientist
- The Duskfall, Swedish Death metal band
- Lena Granhagen, Swedish actress
- Alexander Majorov, Swedish figure skater
- Per Ledin, Swedish ice hockey player
- Martin Ljung, Actor
- Machinae Supremacy, Swedish Metal band
- Movits!, Swedish Hip-Hop band
- John W. Nordstrom, founder of department store chain Nordstrom
- Leif Östling, former CEO of Scania AB
- Raised Fist, Swedish Hardcore-band
- Peter Skoggard, Professional Hockey Player
- The Bear Quartet, Swedish Rockband
- Marita Ulvskog, Politician
- Ingvar Wixell, Swedish baritone opera singer
- Lars Petrus, Rubik's Cube expert, former Swedish National speedcubing champion, fewest moves champion from the World Championships 2005
- Jonas Eriksson, FIFA referee.
- Rui Santos, Wisdom according to Rui Blogger.
- Anders Nilsson, goaltender for the Edmonton Oilers of the NHL.
- "Tätorternas landareal, folkmängd och invånare per km2 2005 och 2010" (in Swedish). Statistics Sweden. 14 December 2011. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
- Folkmängd 31 december 2014. Statistiska Centralbyrån. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- World-class Innovations in ICT, Luleå university of Technology, 2007, http://www.cdt.ltu.se/main.php/LTU237%206-sid%20Folder%20ICT_lo.pdf?fileitem=2365519 Archived 15 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "Facebook on Ice: New Data Center to Be Built Near Arctic Circle". Fox News. 27 October 2011.
- Orange, Richard; Lass, Julian (January 2013). "Node Pole". Geographical Magazine. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
- Janssen, Cory. "What is the Node Pole? – Definition from". Techopedia.com. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
- "Statistik från väder och vatten - Månads och årsstatistik (Swedish)". Svenska Metereologiska och Hydrologiska Institutet. Retrieved 11 April 2015. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "SMHI" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
-  Archived 15 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Luleå.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Luleå.|
- The official guide for the location Luleå
- Official website
- (Swedish) article Luleå from Nordisk Familjebok (1912)
- Luleå university of technology
- Current temperature in Luleå and archive of the last years