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Lumnitzera racemosa (flowering) - Kung Krabaen, Chantaburi province, Thailand.JPG
Lumnitzera racemosa (flowering) - Kung Krabaen, Chantaburi province, Thailand
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Myrtales
Family: Combretaceae
Genus: Lumnitzera
Willd. (1803)[1]

Lumnitzera littorea
Lumnitzera racemosa

Lumnitzera range map.png
Range of Lumnitzera[1]

Lumnitzera is an Indo-West Pacific mangrove genus in the family Combretaceae. An English common name is black mangrove.[2] Lumnitzera, named after the German botanist, Stephan Lumnitzer (1750-1806), occurs in mangroves from East Africa to the Western Pacific (including Fiji and Tonga), and northern Australia.[1]

Lumnitzera littorea, Tonga
Lumnitzera racemosa, Indonesia

The genus has two species of similar vegetative appearance but with differing flower colour. Lumnitzera littorea has red flowers whereas Lumnitzera racemosa has white flowers. Both species have flat and spoon-shaped (spathulate) leaves with emarginate tips. L. racemosa dominates in the western part of the range and L. littorea dominates in the east. Hybrids occur within the zone of overlap (Lumnitzera × rosea).[1]

Three genera of the tropical woody family Combretaceae, Laguncularia, Conocarpus, and Lumnitzera, are found in mangroves but Lumnitzera is the only one to occur in the Indo-West Pacific mangroves, including Australia.[1]

Lumnitzera racemosa var. racemosa (Tonga mangrove, Afrikaans: Tonga-wortelboom, Zulu: Isikhaha-esibomvu) is a protected tree in South Africa.[3]

List of species[edit]

The total world list of Lumnitzera species is 3,[4] namely L. littorea, L. racemosa and L. X rosea - others are synonyms, or incorrectly assigned names:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e "Lumnitzera". University of Queensland. Retrieved 30 June 2010. 
  2. ^ "Lumnitzera". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 23 June 2015. 
  3. ^ "Protected Trees" (PDF). Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Republic of South Africa. 3 May 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 July 2010. 
  4. ^ Duke, Norman C (2013). World Mangrove ID: expert information at your fingertips. Currumbin, Queensland: MangroveWatch Publications. ISBN 9780992365905. 
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External links[edit]

Media related to Lumnitzera at Wikimedia Commons