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Luoyang dialect

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Native toChina
RegionLuoyang, Henan
Language codes
ISO 639-3
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The Luoyang dialect is a dialect of Zhongyuan Mandarin spoken in Luoyang and nearby parts of Henan province.[1]

The old Luoyang dialect served as one of historical standards of Chinese from the Warring States period into the Ming Dynasty, which distinguish from the modern Luoyang dialect.[2] It is because Luoyang switched from Southern to Northern Mandarin over history. According to Lü Shuxiang (1985), "In Northern Song dynasty, the dialects at the Central Plains are still in the southern variety [of Mandarin]; the predecessor of modern Northern Mandarin began as a tiny regional dialect near Khanbaliq".[3][note 1]




Labial Alveolar Retroflex Alveolo-
Nasal m n
Plosive p t k
Affricate ts tsʰ tʂʰ tɕʰ
Fricative f v s ʂ ʐ ɕ x ɣ
Lateral l
w Labio-velar approximant
ɥ Labio-palatal approximant
j Palatal approximant




  • The Middle Chinese entering tone has a different distribution in the Luoyang dialect than in Standard Mandarin. (See entering tone for more.)
  • Tone contours are different from those in Standard Mandarin.
  • The retroflex and alveolar fricatives are found in different distributions: retroflex fricatives in Standard are often fronted to alveolar fricatives in Luoyang.
  • The distinction between /w/ and /v/, lost in Standard, is maintained in Luoyang.
  • The retroflex series is less retroflexed than in Standard Mandarin and slightly further forward.
  • The alveolo-palatal series is slightly further back than in Standard Mandarin.
  • Standard final /œ/ and /ɑu/ are often backed to [ɔ] in Luoyang. For example, (Standard [ɕɥœ̌]/[ɕɥě], to learn) is [ɕɥɔ], and (Standard [tɕjɑù]/[tɕjàʊ], horn) is [tɕɥɔ].
  • Standard final /əi/ is pronounced [ɯ] or [i] in certain environments in Luoyang.
  • Standard final /n/ nasalizes the preceding vowel in the Luoyang Dialect.
  • The -儿 suffix is pronounced /ɯ/.




  1. ^ Jerry Norman (1997 [2004]) elaborated further on Luoyang's history of Southern Mandarin.[4]


  1. ^ Kurparska 2010, p. 165.
  2. ^ Pulleyblank 1983, pp. 2–3; Kaske 2008, p. 44; Dong 2014, p. 45.
  3. ^ Lu, Shuxiang 吕叔湘; Jiang, Lansheng 江蓝生 (1985). Jìndài Hànyǔ zhǐshì dàicí 近代汉语指示代词 [Demonstrative Pronoun in Modern Chinese] (in Chinese). Shànghǎi: Xuelin chubanshe. 北宋的时候,中原的方言还是属于南方系;现在的北系官话的前身只是燕京一带的一个小区域的方言
  4. ^ Norman, Jerry (1997). "Some Thoughts on the Early Development of Mandarin". In Yu, Aiqin 余靄芹; Endō, Mitsuaki 遠藤 光暁 (eds.). Hashimoto Mantarō kinen Chūgoku gogaku ronshū 橋本萬太郎紀念中国語学論集. Tōkyō: Uchiyama Shoten. An online paywall version is available in Chinese translation, Norman, Jerry (2004). "關於官話方言早期發展的一些想法". 《方言》 (4). Translated by Mei, Tsu-Lin.