Lupang Hinirang

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"Lupang Hinirang"
English: "Chosen Land"
Sheet Lupang hinirang.jpg
Music sheet of "Lupang Hinirang"

National anthem of the Philippines
Also known as"Marcha Nacional Filipina" (original title of the march composed by Julián Felipe)
"Filipinas" (Original title of the poem written by José Palma)
LyricsJosé Palma (original Spanish lyrics), 1899
MusicJulián Felipe, 1898
Adopted
  • June 12, 1898 (music)
  • 1899 (Spanish lyrics)
  • May 26, 1958 (Tagalog lyrics)
  • February 12, 1998 (codification of the 1956 Filipino lyrics[1])
Audio sample
U.S. Navy Band instrumental version

"Lupang Hinirang" ("Chosen Land"), originally titled in Spanish as "Marcha Nacional Filipina" ("Philippine National March") and commonly known by its incipit "Bayang Magiliw" ("Beloved Country"), is the national anthem of the Philippines. Its music was composed in 1898 by Julián Felipe, and the lyrics were adopted from the Spanish poem "Filipinas", written by José Palma in 1899.[2]

The composition known as "Lupang Hinirang" was commissioned on June 5, 1898, by Emilio Aguinaldo, head of the Dictatorial Government of the Philippines,[2] as a ceremonial and instrumental national march without lyrics, similar to the status of the "Marcha Real" in Spain. It was first performed in public during the proclamation of Philippine independence at Aguinaldo's residence in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898. It was re-adopted as the national march of the Philippine Republic (Spanish: República Filipina) in 1899.

Following the defeat of the First Republic in the Philippine–American War and the subsequent colonial rule of the United States, the Flag Act of 1907 prohibited the public display of flags, banners, emblems, or devices used by the Philippine Republican Army during the war.[1] Under the Flag Act, public performance of the national march was prohibited.[3] Upon repeal of the Flag Act in 1919, the national march regained its popular status as the national anthem of the Philippines. Following the establishment of self-rule under the Commonwealth of the Philippines, Commonwealth Act No. 382, approved on September 5, 1938, officially adopted the musical arrangement and composition by Julián Felipe as the national anthem.[4]

In the years after the revolution, the poem "Filipinas", written in 1899 by nationalist José Palma, gained widespread popularity as unofficial Spanish lyrics of the anthem. The Spanish lyrics were translated into English and, beginning in the 1940s, in the national language. The current Filipino lyrics, written in 1956, were adopted and made official subject to a slight revision in the 1960s. On February 12, 1998, Republic Act No. 8491 was passed, codifying the 1956 Filipino lyrics into law.[1]

History[edit]

Julián Felipe, composer of the music
José Palma, author of the lyrics

"Lupang Hinirang" began as incidental music which President Emilio Aguinaldo commissioned for use in the proclamation of Philippine independence from Spain. This task was given to Julián Felipe and was to replace a march which Aguinaldo had deemed unsatisfactory. The original title of this new march was "Marcha Filipina-Magdalo" (Philippine-Magdalo March), and was later changed to "Marcha Nacional Filipina" (Philippine National March) upon its adoption as the national anthem of the First Philippine Republic on June 11, 1898, a day before independence was to be proclaimed.[5] Felipe said that he had based his composition on three other musical pieces: the "Marcha Real", which is the current Spanish national anthem; the "Grand March" from Giuseppe Verdi's Aida; and the French national anthem, "La Marseillaise".[6] It was played by the Banda San Francisco de Malabón (now called the Banda Matanda, from present-day General Trias) during the proclamation rites on June 12.

In August 1899, soldier and writer José Palma penned the Spanish poem Filipinas, which in turn was derived from a Kapampangan poem called Labuad Mapalad by Mariano Proceso Pabalan of Bacolor, Pampanga written in September 1898[7] during his stay in Casa Hacienda in Bautista, Pangasinan. The poem was published for the first time for the first anniversary of the newspaper La Independencia on September 3, 1899, and was subsequently set to the tune of the "Marcha Nacional Filipina".[8][9]

The Flag Act of 1907 prohibited the use of the anthem and other Philippine revolutionary and Katipunan symbols for a short period of time. When it was repealed back in 1919, the Insular Government decided to translate the hymn from its original Spanish version to the English version. The first translation was written around that time by the renowned poet Paz Márquez Benítez of the University of the Philippines. The most popular translation, called the "Philippine Hymn", was written by Senator Camilo Osías and an American, Mary A. Lane. In the 1920s, the time signature in performance was changed from 2/4 to 4/4 to facilitate its singing and the key was changed from the original C major to G.[10] However, this change was not codified into law. The anthem was played alongside the United States anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner", which was adopted in 1931. It was played alongside each other until the country's eventual independence in 1946.

Tagalog translations began appearing in the 1940s, with the first known one titled "Diwa ng Bayan" (Spirit of the Country), which was sung during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines. The second most popular one was "O Sintang Lupa" (O Beloved Land) by Julián Cruz Balmaceda, Ildefonso Santos, and Francisco Caballo; this was adopted as the official version in 1948. Upon the adoption of "Diwa ng Bayan", the song "Awit sa Paglikha ng Bagong Pilipinas" and the Japanese national anthem "Kimigayo" were replaced.[11]

During the term of President Ramon Magsaysay, Education Secretary Gregorio Hernández formed a commission to revise the lyrics. On May 26, 1956, the Tagalog translation "Lupang Hinirang" was sung for the first time. Minor revisions were made in the 1960s, and it is this version by Felipe Padilla de León which is presently used.

The Martial Law years from 1972 to 1981 during the second term of Ferdinand Marcos up to the 1986 EDSA Revolution saw the use of the National Anthem as the opening protest song of some political parties, activist organizations, and union groups, accompanied by the use of the "raised clenched fist" salute instead of the traditional hand-to-heart salute. This was notably done by opposition political parties and activists.

The 1956 Filipino lyrics were confirmed in 1958 by Republic Act No. 8491 (the "Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines") in 1998, abandoning use of both the Spanish and English versions.[1] Philippine law requires that the anthem always be rendered in accordance with Felipe's original musical arrangement and composition, but the original holograph cannot be located.[1][10]

Historian Ambeth Ocampo observed in 2006 that the Spanish lyrics, which were not intended to be sung when composed, do not flow with the music very well compared to later English and Tagalog versions which are smoother. Also, some of the original meanings in "Filipinas" have been lost in translation; for example, "hija del sol de oriente" (Daughter of the orient (eastern) sun) in the original Spanish version became "child of the sun returning" in the Philippine Hymn and "perlas ng silanganan" (pearl of the orient) in the present (official) version.[12] In 2011, Senator Bong Revilla introduced a bill which, among other things, would have removed the requirement that the anthem be sung "in its original Filipino lyrics and march tempo", but this was not promulgated into law.[13]

Other anthems[edit]

"Lupang Hinirang" was not the first Philippine national anthem to ever be conceived. The composer and revolutionist Julio Nakpil composed "Marangal na Dalit ng Katagalugan" (Honourable Hymn of the Tagalog Nation/People) upon the request of Andrés Bonifacio, the leader of the Katipunan, the secret society that had spearheaded the Revolution.[14][6][15] Bonifacio had converted the organization into a revolutionary government—with himself as President—known as the Tagalog Republic just before hostilities erupted. The term "Katagalugan" in Bonifacio's usage referred to the Philippine Islands and its population as a whole; not just ethnic Tagalogs, but all Filipinos.[16][15] Nakpil composed his national anthem for Bonifacio in Balara (part of modern Quezon City) in November 1896, and Bonifacio later promoted its use in Cavite, where it was still known as late as 1898.[14][15] But after Bonifacio's Katipunan and Republika ng Katagalugan were superseded by a succession of various governments led by Aguinaldo starting in 1897, Nakpil's anthem was never officially adopted by them.[14][15][6]

Some sources assert that an English version written by Mary A. Lane and Camilo Osías was legalized by Commonwealth Act No. 382.[17][18] The act, however, only concerns itself with the instrumental composition by Julián Felipe.[19]

During World War II, Felipe Padilla de León composed "Awit sa Paglikha ng Bagong Pilipinas", commissioned as a replacement anthem by the Japanese-sponsored Second Philippine Republic. It was later adapted during the martial law era under President Ferdinand Marcos into the patriotic song titled "Hymn of the New Society", not to be confused with the "March of the New Society".

Lyrics[edit]

Official lyrics[edit]

The following Spanish, English and Tagalog versions of the national anthem have been given official status throughout Philippine history. However, only the current Filipino version is officially recognized by the Flag and Heraldic Code, approved on February 12, 1998, which specifies, "The National Anthem shall always be sung in the 'national language' within or outside the country; violation of the law is punishable by a fine and imprisonment."[1] Several bills have been introduced to amend the Flag and Heraldic Code to highlight the importance of complying, abiding and conforming to the standard expression as prescribed by law, but none have been enacted into law.[20][21]

Official Filipino version IPA transcription of Filipino[a] Former Spanish version Former English version

Bayang magiliw,
Perlas ng silanganan,
Alab ng puso
Sa dibdib mo'y buhay.

Lupang hinirang,
Duyan ka ng magiting,
Sa manlulupig
Di ka pasisiil.

Sa dagat at bundok,
Sa simoy at sa langit mong bughaw,
May dilag ang tula
At awit sa paglayang minamahal.

Ang kislap ng watawat mo'y
Tagumpay na nagniningning;
Ang bituin at araw niya,
Kailan pa ma'y di magdidilim.

Lupa ng araw, ng luwalhati't pagsinta,
Buhay ay langit sa piling mo;
Aming ligaya na 'pag may mang-aapi,
Ang mamatay nang dahil sa 'yo.

[ˈba.jɐŋ mɐ.ˈɡi.lɪʊ̯]
[ˈpeɾ.lɐs nɐŋ sɪ.lɐ.ˈŋa.nɐn]
[ˈa.lɐb nɐŋ ˈpu.so(ʔ)]
[sa dɪb.ˈdib moɪ̯ ˈbu.haɪ̯]

[ˈlu.pɐŋ hɪ.ˈni.ɾɐŋ]
[ˈdu.jɐn k(x)ɐ nɐŋ mɐ.ˈɡi.tɪŋ]
[sa mɐn.lʊ.ˈlu.pɪg]
[ˈdi(ʔ) k(x)ɐ pɐ.sɪ.sɪ.ˈʔil]

[sa ˈda.gɐt ʔɐt bʊn.ˈdok]
[sa ˈsi.moj ʔɐt sa ˈla.ŋɪt moŋ bʊɡ.ˈhaʊ̯]
[maj dɪ.ˈlaɡ ˈʔaŋ tʊ.ˈla]
[ʔɐt ˈʔa.wɪt sa pɐ.gla.jɐŋ mɪ.nɐ.mɐ.ˈhal]

[ˈʔaŋ kɪs.ˈlap nɐŋ wɐ.ˈta.wɐt moɪ̯]
[tɐ.ˈgum.pɐj na nɐg.nɪ.nɪŋ.ˈniŋ]
[ˈʔaŋ bɪ.tʊ.ˈ(ʔ)in ʔɐt ˈʔa.ɾɐʊ̯ ɲa]
[k(x)ɐɪ̯.ˈlan pɐ maɪ̯ ˈdi(ʔ) mɐg.dɪ.dɪ.ˈlim]

[ˈlu.pɐ(ʔ) nɐŋ ˈʔa.ɾɐʊ̯ nɐŋ lwɐl.ˈha.tɪt pɐɡ.ˈsin.tɐ]
[ˈbu.haɪ̯ (ʔ)aɪ̯ ˈla.ŋɪt sa ˈpi.lɪŋ mɔ]
[ʔɐ.ˈmiŋ lɪ.ˈga.jɐ na pɐɡ maj mɐŋ ʔɐ.ʔɐ.ˈpi]
[ˈʔaŋ mɐ.mɐ.ˈtaj nɐŋ ˈda.hɪl sa jɔ]

Tierra adorada,
Hija del sol de Oriente,
Su fuego ardiente
En ti latiendo está.

Tierra de amores,
Del heroísmo cuna,
Los invasores,
No te hollarán jamás.

En tu azul cielo, en tus auras,
En tus montes y en tu mar,
Esplende y late el poema
De tu amada libertad.

Tu pabellón, que en las lides,
La victoria iluminó,
No verá nunca apagados
Sus estrellas y su sol.

Tierra de dichas, de sol y amores,
En tu regazo dulce es vivir.
Es una gloria para tus hijos,
Cuando te ofenden, por ti morir.

Land of the morning,
Child of the sun returning,
With fervor burning
Thee do our souls adore.

Land dear and holy,
Cradle of noble heroes,
Ne'er shall invaders
Trample thy sacred shores.

Ever within thy skies and through thy clouds,
And o'er thy hills and seas,
Do we behold the radiance, feel the throb
Of glorious liberty.

Thy banner dear to all our hearts,
Its sun and stars alight,
Oh, never shall its shining fields
Be dimmed by tyrant's might!

Beautiful land of love, o land of light,
In thine embrace 'tis rapture to lie,
But it is glory ever, when thou art wronged,
For us, thy sons to suffer and die.

Source:[1] Source:[22][23][b] Source:[25]

Other historical lyrics[edit]

Original Kapampangan lyrics
(Dalit ning Lahi)
Japanese-era Tagalog version
(Diwa ng Bayan)
Post-World War II Tagalog version
(O Sintang Lupa)

Labuad a mapalad
Mutya nang lalu sampat
Ning dayat-malat
A queca misapuac.

Budning sultana
Guinu na ning Malasia
Pemalena'na
Ning tapat a sinta.

Caring bunduc mu at caqueuan
Batis, ulu't pulung cacal
Bitasang macalimbagan
Ing quecang catimauan.

Qng bandila mung maningning
A tecutan da ring tacsil
Capilan man e culimlim
Ing aldo na at batuin.

Labuad ning aldo, sinta't tepangan
Mayumung diling queque ca mie
Ing queca que ngan paimate.

Lupang mapalad,
Na mutya ng silangan;
Bayang kasuyo,
Ng sangkalikasan.

Buhay at yaman,
Ng Kapilipinuhan;
Kuha't bawi,
Sa banyagang kamay.

Sa iyong langit, bundok,
batis, dagat na pinalupig;
Nailibing na ang karimlan,
Ng kahapong pagtitiis.

Sakit at luha, hirap,
Sisa at sumpa sa pag-aamis;
ay wala nang lahat at naligtas,
Sa ibig manlupit.

Hayo't magdiwang lahi kong minamahal,
Iyong watawat ang siyang tanglaw;
At kung sakaling ikaw ay muling pagbantaan,
Aming bangkay ang siyang hahadlang.

O sintang lupa,
Perlas ng Silanganan,
Diwang apoy kang
Sa araw nagmula.

Lupang magiliw,
Pugad ng kagitingan,
Sa manlulupig
Di ka papaslang.

Sa iyong langit, simoy, parang.
Dagat at kabundukan,
Laganap ang tibok ng puso
Sa paglayang walang hanggan.

Sagisag ng watawat mong mahal
Ningning at tagumpay;
Araw't bituin niyang maalab
Ang s'yang lagi naming tanglaw.

Sa iyo, Lupa ng ligaya't pagsinta,
Tamis mabuhay na yakap mo,
Datapwa't langit ding kung ikaw ay apihin
Ay mamatay ng dahil sa 'yo.

Source:[26][27] Source:[28][better source needed] Source:[29]

Lyrics in other regional languages[edit]

Ilocano version

(Nailian a Dayyeng)

Cebuano version

(Nasudnong Awit)

Hiligaynon version

(Banwang Guinhalaran)

Imnas nga ili
Baggak ti dumadaya
Daytoy ayatmi
Ti sagutmi kenka

Dagat' kinasudi
Indayon ti nakired
Iti mangdadael
Haanka pailuges

Iti tangatang, ulep ken pul-oy
Bambantay ken baybay
Addan dayag ti daniw ken dayyeng
Ti nasamit a wayam

Ti raniag ta wagaywaymo
Ket balligi a nasileng
Ti init ken dagiti bituenna
Dinto pulos aglidem

Nakaliblibnos unay a dagan' ayat
Daytoy biag langit dita dennam
Ngem no ti dayawmot' inda dadaesen
Inggat' tanem sumalakankam

Yutang tabunon
Mutya nga masilakon
Putling bahandi
Amo kang gimahal

Mithing gisimba
Yuta’s mga bayani
Sa malupigon
Padagapigan ka

Ang mga bungtod mo ug lapyahan
Ang langit mong bughaw
Nagahulad sa awit, lamdag sa
Kaliwat tang gawas

Silaw sa adlaw ug bitoon
Sa nasudnong bandila
Nagatimaan nga buhion ta
Ang atong pagkausa

Yutang maanyag, duyan ka sa pagmahal
Landong sa langit ang dughan mo;
Pakatam-ison namo kon maulipon ka
Ang kamatayon sa ngalan mo

Banwang masinadyahon,
Perlas sang nasidlangan,
Init sang tigpusuon,
Gakabuhi sa imo nga dughan.

Banwang Guinhalaran,
Payag ka sang maisog,
Sa mga manugpigos,
Wala guid nagapadaog.

Sa dagat kag bukid,
Sa usbong kag sa dagway nga gabanaag,
May idlak kag tibok ang dilambong,
Kag amba sang kahilwayan.

Ang idlak sang ayahay mo,
Isa ka matam-is nga kadalag-an,
Ang bituon kag ang adlaw,
Nangin masanag sa katubtuban.

Dutang nasambit sang adlaw kag paghigugma,
Sa sabak mo matam-is ang mabuhi,
Ginapakipagbato namon, nga kung may manungpanakop,
Ang mapatay nahanungod sa imo.

Source:[30] Source:[31] Source:[32]
Bicolano version

(Rona Kang Mawili)

Pangasinense version

(Oh, Pilipinas dalin min kagal-galang)

Tausug version

(Bahasa Sūg)

Bayang Inutang
Aki ka nin sirangan
Tingraw niyang malaad
Nasa si-mong daghan.

Rona kang mawili
Nagimatan bayani
An mansalakay
Dai ka babatayan.

Sa si-mong langit, bukid
Hayop kadagatan siring man
Nagkukutab nagbabanaag
An si-mong katalingkasan.

Simong bandera na nagkikintab
Sa hokbo naglayaw
Dai nanggad mapapara
An simong bitoon Aldaw.

Dagang nawilihan, maogma, maliwanag,
Sa limpoy mo hamis mabuhay
Minamarhay mi kun ika pagbasangan
An buhay mi si-mo idusay.

Oh, Pilipinas,
Dalin min kagal-galang
Musia na dayat,
Ed dapit letakan

Simpey gayagan,
Panag-ugagepan day
Totoon lapag,
Ed dapit-seslekan.

Saray anak mo agda
Kawananen ya ibagat ed sika'y
Dilin bilay da no
Nakaukulay galang tan ka-inaoan

Diad palandey, lawak, taquel,
Dayat o no dia ed lawang
Sugbaen day patey ya andi
Dua-rua no sikay pan-sengegan.

Diad silong na laylay mo mankaka-sakey
Tan diad sika man-lingkor tan mangi-agel
Bangta dia'd akualan mo aneng-neng day silew
Diad akualan mo muet akuen day patey.

Hula sin bangsa,
Filipinas pagnganan
Kalasahan ta,
Mucha ha Subangan

Maharga katu
In mga kamaasan
Yasag in dugu
Ba't hula b'yaugbugan

Dayn ha uttara sampay pa saytan
Dayn ha bud pa dagat
Kamahardikaan kakitaan
Baugbugan da sin raayat

Bituun-suga ha panji n'ya
In sinag pangdaugan
Bang man di' maka' in sahaya n'ya
Sampay pa kasaumulan

Malingkat ing hula ta iban limaya
Marayaw tuud paghulaan
Tantu, bang gubatun sin dugaing bangsa
Pa kamatay, subay baugbugan!

Source:[33] Source:[34] Source:[35]

Proposed lyrical revision[edit]

The final line of the national anthem, "ang mamatay nang dahil sa 'yo" (literally: "to die because of you [the country]", translated above as: "For us, thy sons to suffer and die."), is subject to certain proposed revisions for allegedly being defeatist.[36][37] In 2013, Filipino musician Joey Ayala, tampered with the national anthem in a forum by changing the last line to "ang magmahal ng dahil sa 'yo" ("to love for the country") and arranged the time signature from 4/4 to 6/8,[38] drawing mixed reactions from the public.[39] In 2018, Senate President Vicente Sotto III suggested that last line should be revised to "ang ipaglaban ang kalayaan mo" ("to defend thy freedom") as it reflects the commitment of the Filipinos to defend the country's independence.[36], but his suggestion was not well-received by Filipino netizens.[37]

Music and tempo[edit]

R.A. 8491 specifies that in official or civic gatherings the anthem "shall be in accordance with the musical arrangement and composition of Julián Felipe."[1] However, when literally followed, this would require performance by a pianist or by a brass band, as these were the only versions that were produced by Julián Felipe.[10] The original version was composed in duple time (i.e., in a time signature of 2/4) and was changed to the present quadruple time (4/4) in the 1920s to make singing easier by reducing emphasis on syncopation.[10][40]

During televised boxing matches featuring Filipino boxer Manny Pacquiao, singers have been both praised and criticized by the National Historical Institute (NHI) for singing too slow or too fast.[41] The NHI says that the proper tempo is a 2/4 and 100 metronomes and that the anthem should last 53 seconds.[41]

Usage[edit]

The anthem is usually played during public gatherings in the Philippines or in foreign countries where the Filipino audience is sizable. The Code also provides that it be played at other occasions as may be allowed by the National Historical Institute (now known as the National Historical Commission of the Philippines). It prohibits its playing or singing for mere recreation, amusement, or entertainment except during International competitions where the Philippines is the host or has a representative; local competitions; during the "sign-on" and "sign-off" of radio broadcasting and television stations in the country; and before the initial and last screening of films and before the opening of theatre performances.

Until 1999, the national anthem was played with four ruffles and flourishes as the presidential salute honors music during the beginning of civil or military parades following Spanish and Taiwanese tradition, especially on national holidays. Since that year it has been played solely during the presentation of award recipients on anniversary parades or following the presidential honors.[42]

The national anthem is played each morning early breakfast on radio and television by GMA Network and at the sign-on and sign-off (replay rerun recorded sign-on) of its transmission for the day.[citation needed]

Regulation[edit]

Article XVI, Section 2 of the 1987 Constitution specifies that "The Congress may, by law, adopt a new name for the country, a national anthem, or a national seal, which shall be truly reflective and symbolic of the ideals, history, and traditions of the people. Such law shall take effect only upon its ratification by the people in a national referendum."[43]

Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines[edit]

Republic Act No. 8491 ("The Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines") regulates usage of the National Anthem, and contains the complete lyrics of "Lupang Hinirang".[1] Enacted in 1998, it requires that the anthem "shall always be sung in the national language" regardless if performed inside or outside the Philippines, and specifies that the singing must be done "with fervor".[1]

The code specifies penalties for violation of its provisions. Section 48 provides for public censure and cancellation of licenses and permits, Section 49 requires the Department of Education and the Commission on Higher Education to ensure that all students commit the national anthem to memory, section 50 specifies penalties of fine or imprisonment for violations.[1]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ See Help:IPA/Tagalog and Tagalog phonology.
  2. ^ Some sources present parts of this differently.
    example:[24]
    • the first line of the second stanza as "Patria de Amores", which can be translated as "Beloved homeland"
    • the fourth line of the second stanza as "No te hallarán jamás," which literally translates to "They shall never find you."

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "An Act prescribing the Code of the National Flag,Anthem, Motto, Coat-of-Arms and other heraldic items and devices of the Philippines". Official Gazette of the Philippine Government. February 6, 1998. This Act is a consolidation of Senate Bill No. 630 and House Bill No. 2586 was finally passed by the Senate and House of Representatives on February 3, 1998, and February 6, 1998, respectively.
  2. ^ a b "About The Philippine National Anthem". philembassy.org.au. Retrieved July 23, 2020.
  3. ^ Pomeroy, William J. (1992). The Philippines: Colonialism, Collaboration, and Resistance. International Publishers Co. p. 10. ISBN 0-7178-0692-8. Retrieved January 26, 2008. Philippines flag law.; excerpted quote: "In 1909 an entire band was sent to prison for playing the Philippine National Anthem at a festival in Quiapo, Manila.", citing Agoncillo, Teodoro A. (2005). The Revolt of the Masses: The Story of Bonifacio and the Katipunan. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.
  4. ^ "Commonwealth Act No. 382". Official Gazette of the Philippine Government. September 5, 1938.
  5. ^ "The Philippine National Anthem" (PDF). Balanghay: The Philippine Factsheet. No. 3. May-June. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. 2012.
  6. ^ a b c "The National Anthem's predecessor and influences". Malacañang Palace. Retrieved December 26, 2015.
  7. ^ "The History of Lupang Hinirang – The Story of Us | Kapampangan Media". kapampangan.org. May 31, 2020. Retrieved December 21, 2021.
  8. ^ The original text, as published in Barcelona, Spain in 1912: Palma, José (1912). Melancólicas: Coleccion de Poesías. Manila, Philippines: Liberería Manila Filatélica. (Digital copy found online at HathiTrust Digital Library on March 31, 2010)
  9. ^ Contemporary restatements of and comments about the original text:
    ^ "The Making of Filipinas". The Philippines Centennial. msc.edu.ph. Retrieved November 12, 2008.
    ^ "The Philippine National Anthem". Filipinas Heritage Library. filipinaslibrary.org.ph. Archived from the original on August 19, 2018. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
  10. ^ a b c d Ocampo, Ambeth R. (May 24, 2005). "The right way to sing the National Anthem". Philippines Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on May 26, 2005. (archived from the original on May 26, 2005)
  11. ^ Cribb, Robert; Narangoa Li (July 22, 2003). Imperial Japan and National Identities in Asia, 1895–1945. Routledge. p. 28. ISBN 0-7007-1482-0.
  12. ^ Ocampo, Ambeth R. (1995). Mabini's Ghost. Pasig, Philippines: Anvil Publishing.
  13. ^ SB2691 s.2011
  14. ^ a b c Nakpil, Julio (1997) [1964]. Alzona, Encarnacion (ed.). Julio Nakpil and the Philippine Revolution: With the Autobiography of Gregoria de Jesús. Translated by Encarnacion Alzona. Quezon City: Academic Publishing Corporation. ISBN 971-707-048-2.
  15. ^ a b c d Richardson, Jim (2013). The Light of Liberty: Documents and Studies on the Katipunan, 1892-1897. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 9789715506755.
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]