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Sundial lupine (Lupinus perennis)
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Genisteae
Genus: Lupinus
Type species
Lupinus albus
  • Lupinus
  • Platycarpos (S.Wats) Kurl.

Lupinus, commonly known as lupin, lupine,[note 1] or regionally bluebonnet, is a genus of plants in the legume family Fabaceae. The genus includes over 199 species, with centers of diversity in North and South America.[1] Smaller centers occur in North Africa and the Mediterranean.[1][2] They are widely cultivated, both as a food source and as ornamental plants, but are invasive to some areas.



The species are mostly herbaceous perennial plants 0.3–1.5 metres (1–5 feet) tall, but some are annual plants and a few are shrubs up to 3 m (10 ft) tall. An exception is the chamis de monte (Lupinus jaimehintonianus) of Oaxaca in Mexico, which is a tree up to 8 m (26 ft) tall.[3]

Lupins have soft green to grey-green leaves which may be coated in silvery hairs, often densely so. The leaf blades are usually palmately divided into five to 28 leaflets, or reduced to a single leaflet in a few species of the southeastern United States and eastern South America.[4]

The flowers are produced in dense or open whorls on an erect spike, each flower 1–2 centimetres (3834 inch) long. The pea-like flowers have an upper standard, or banner, two lateral wings, and two lower petals fused into a keel. The flower shape has inspired common names such as bluebonnets and quaker bonnets.

The fruit is a pod containing several seeds. The seeds contain alkaloids which lend them a bitter taste.



The genus Lupinus L. and, in particular, its North American species were divided by Sereno Watson (1873) into three sections: Lupinus, Platycarpos, and Lupinnelus. Differences in habitat and in the number of ovules were the basis for this classification. A majority of the perennial and annual species from the American continent described by Watson were referred to Lupinus. Some annual species with two ovules in the ovary and two seeds in the pod (L. densiflorus, L. microcarpus, etc.) were attributed to the Platycarpos section. Section Lupinnelus consisted of one species (L. uncialis), with axillary and solitary flowers, scarcely reflexed banner, and also with two ovules in the ovary.

While Watson's work was predominantly based on study of North American species, the later research of Ascherson and Graebner (1907) extended his principle of classification to cover all lupins from the Eastern and Western Hemispheres, also using number of ovules (seedbuds) in the ovary (and thus of seeds in the pod) as the criterion for this division. They described two subgenera, Eulupinus and Platycarpos. Most of the described species were referred to subgen. A. Eulupinus. Subgen. B. Platycarpos included several annual species from the Eastern Hemisphere with two seedbuds and seeds in the bean (the same species, as the one specified by S. Watson).

A current schema retains this distinction, but uses the nomenclature for the subgenera of Platycarpos and Lupinus. In this schema, subgenus Platycarpos (S.Wats.) Kurl. contains perennial and annual species from the Western Hemisphere, with a minimum two or more ovules or seedbuds. Subgenus Lupinus consists of 12 species from Africa and the Mediterranean, with a minimum of four ovules or seedbuds.[5]

The taxonomy of Lupinus has always been confusing. How many distinct species exist or how they might be organized within the genus is not clear. The plants are variable and the taxa are not always distinct from one another. Some American taxa have been described as complexes rather than separate species.[6] Estimates of the number of lupine species generally fall between 200 and 500.[2] One authority places the estimate at approximately 267 species worldwide.[1] Currently, two subgenera are recognized.

Subgenus Platycarpos


The ovary contains two and more ovules or seedbuds. The seed are predominantly small-sized, with an underdeveloped embryo and small amount of endosperm. Cotyledons are small-sized, with long caulicles. The first pair of true leaves is alternate. The stem is predominantly naked with waxen coating. Dominating is the monopodial type of branching. Leaflets are smooth, with waxen coating or slight pubescence, predominantly narrow. Pods are flat or orbicular, with two or more seeds. Represented by frutcuilose, fruticose and herbaceous perennial forms, or less often annual ones. Plants are cross-pollinated. Chromosome number 2n is either 36, 48, or 96.[7] This subgenus is distributed throughout North, Central and South America, predominantly in the mining systems of the Andes and Cordillera. Some species are cultivated (L. mutabilis, L. polyphyllus). This subgenus includes several hundred species, requiring further analysis of their authenticity.

It comprises the following species:[8][9][10]

Subgenus Lupinus


In its current circumscription,[7] subgenus Lupinus includes 12 species from the Mediterranean region and Africa with at least four ovules or seedbuds in the ovary:

  • Lupinus albus L. 1753 – white lupine
    • subsp. albus L.
    • subsp. graecus (Boiss. & Spruner) Franco & P.Silva
    • subsp. termis (Forsk.) Ponert.
  • Lupinus angustifolius L. 1753 – blue lupin, narrow-leafed lupin
    • var. angustifolius L.
    • var. albopunctatus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. griseomaculatus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. chalybens Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. corylinus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. purpureus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. rubidus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. atabekovae Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. sparsiusculus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. brunneus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. albosyringeus Taran.
    • var. albidus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. candidus Kuptzov. et Kurl.
  • Lupinus atlanticus Gladstones 1974
  • Lupinus cosentinii Guss. 1828 – sandplain lupin
  • Lupinus digitatus Forsk. 1775[40]
  • Lupinus hispanicus Boiss. & Reut. 1842
    • subsp. bicolor (Merino) Gladst.
    • subsp. hispanicus Boiss. & Reut.
  • Lupinus luteus L. 1753 – yellow lupin
    • var. luteus L.
    • var. maculosus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. kazimierskii Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. arcellus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. sempolovskii (Atab) Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. melanospermus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. niger Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. cremeus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. leucospermus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. sulphureus (Atab.) Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. stepanovae Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. ochroleucus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. aurantiacus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. croceus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. aureus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. albicans Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. sinskayae Kurl. et Stankev.
  • Lupinus micranthus Guss. 1828
  • Lupinus palaestinus Boiss. 1849 – white-grey lupine
  • Lupinus pilosus Murr. 1774 – blue lupine
  • Lupinus princei Harms 1901
  • Lupinus somaliensis Baker f. 1895

Species names with uncertain taxonomic status


The status of the following binomials is unresolved:[10]

  • Lupinus acaulis Larrañaga
  • Lupinus achilleaphilus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus acutilobus A.Heller
  • Lupinus aegr-Aovium C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus africanus Lour.
  • Lupinus agninus Gand.
  • Lupinus agropyrophilus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus alaimandus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus albicaulis Douglas ex Hook.
  • Lupinus alicanescens C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus aliclementinus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus aliumbellatus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus altissimus Sessé & Moc.
  • Lupinus alturasensis C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus alveorum C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus amabilis A.Heller
  • Lupinus amniculi-cervi C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus amniculi-salicis C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus amniculi-vulpum C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus andersonianus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus anemophilus Greene
  • Lupinus angustifolius Blanco
  • Lupinus aphronorus Blank.
  • Lupinus apodotropis A.Heller
  • Lupinus aralloius C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus arborescens Amabekova & Maisuran
  • Lupinus arceuthinus Greene
  • Lupinus argyraeus DC.
  • Lupinus atacamicus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus aureus J.Agardh
  • Lupinus axillaris Blank.
  • Lupinus barkeriae Knowles & Westc.
  • Lupinus bartolomei M.E.Jones
  • Lupinus bassett-maguirei C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus beaneanus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus biddleii L.F.Hend.
  • Lupinus bimaculatus Hook. ex D.Don
  • Lupinus bimaculatus Desr.
  • Lupinus bivonii C.Presl
  • Lupinus blankinshipii A.Heller
  • Lupinus blaschkeanus Fisch. & C.A.Mey.
  • Lupinus brevior (Jeps.) J.A. Christian & D.B. Dunn
  • Lupinus brittonii Abrams
  • Lupinus caespitosus Nutt.
  • Lupinus californicus K.Koch
  • Lupinus campbelliae Eastw.
  • Lupinus campestris Cham. & Schltdl.
  • Lupinus campestris-florum C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus candicans Rydb.
  • Lupinus canus Hemsl.
  • Lupinus capitatus Greene
  • Lupinus capitis-amniculi C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus carolus-bucarii C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus chachas Ochoa ex C. P. Smith
  • Lupinus chamissonis Eschscholtz
  • Lupinus chiapensis Rose
  • Lupinus chihuahuensis S.Watson
  • Lupinus christianus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus chrysomelas Casar.
  • Lupinus clementinus Greene
  • Lupinus comatus Rydb.
  • Lupinus consentinii Walp.
  • Lupinus cymb-Aegressus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus dasyphyllus Greene
  • Lupinus davisianus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus debilis Eastw.
  • Lupinus decaschistus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus diaboli-septem C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus dichrous Greene
  • Lupinus dispersus A.Heller
  • Lupinus dissimulans C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus durangensis C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus eatonanus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus equi-coeli C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus equi-collis C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus erectus L.F.Hend.
  • Lupinus erminens S.Watson
  • Lupinus ermineus S.Watson
  • Lupinus falcifer Nutt.
  • Lupinus falsoerectus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus falsoformosus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus falsograyi C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus fieldii Rose ex J. F. Macbr.
  • Lupinus filicaulis C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus finitus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus flavescens Rydb.
  • Lupinus foliosus Hook.
  • Lupinus foliosus Nutt.
  • Lupinus forskahlei Boiss.
  • Lupinus franciscanus Greene
  • Lupinus fraxinetorum Greene
  • Lupinus fruticosus Steud.
  • Lupinus fruticosus Dum.Cours.
  • Lupinus garcianus Bennett & Dunn
  • Lupinus geophilus Rose
  • Lupinus geraniophilus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus glabellus M.Martens & Galeotti
  • Lupinus graciliflorus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus gratus Greene
  • Lupinus gredensis Gand.
  • Lupinus guadalupensis Greene
  • Lupinus guadiloupensis Steud.
  • Lupinus guatimalensis auct.
  • Lupinus gussoneanus J.Agardh
  • Lupinus habrocomus Greene
  • Lupinus haudcytisoides C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus helleri Greene
  • Lupinus hexaedrus E. Fourn.
  • Lupinus hintonii C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus huigrensis Rose ex C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus humicolus A.Nelson
  • Lupinus humifusus Benth.
  • Lupinus humilis Rose ex Pittier
  • Lupinus hyacinthinus Greene
  • Lupinus idoneus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus inamoenus Greene ex C.F.Baker
  • Lupinus indutus Greene ex C.F.Baker
  • Lupinus insignis Glaz. ex C. P. Smith
  • Lupinus integrifolius L.
  • Lupinus intergrifolius Desr.
  • Lupinus ione-grisetae C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus ione-walkerae C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus jamesonianus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus javanicus Burm.f.
  • Lupinus jorgensenanus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus jucundus Greene
  • Lupinus kellerrnanianus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus kyleanus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus labiatus Nutt.
  • Lupinus lacticolor Tamayo
  • Lupinus lacus-huntingtonii C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus lacuum-trinitatum C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus larsonanus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus lassenensis Eastw.
  • Lupinus latissimus Greene
  • Lupinus laxifolius A.Gray
  • Lupinus leptostachyus Greene
  • Lupinus lesueurii Standl.
  • Lupinus linearifolius Larrañaga
  • Lupinus lingulae C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus longilabrum C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus lorentzianus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus louise-bucariae C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus louise-grisetae C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus lucidus Benth. ex Loudon
  • Lupinus lyman-bensonii C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus lysichitophilus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus macrocarpus Hook. & Arn.
  • Lupinus macrocarpus Torr.
  • Lupinus macrophyllus Benth.
  • Lupinus macrorhizos Georgi
  • Lupinus magnistipulatus Planchuelo & Dunn
  • Lupinus maissurianii Atabek. & Polukhina
  • Lupinus marcusianus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus mariae-josephae H.Pascual
  • Lupinus markleanus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus marschallianus Sweet
  • Lupinus mearnsii C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus meli-campestris C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus meridanus Moritz ex C. P. Smith
  • Lupinus mexiae C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus micensis M.E.Jones
  • Lupinus micheneri Greene
  • Lupinus milleri J.Agardh
  • Lupinus minearanus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus minutissimus Tamayo
  • Lupinus molle A.Heller
  • Lupinus mollissifolius Davidson
  • Lupinus monettianus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus muellerianus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus multicincinnis C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus neglectus Rose
  • Lupinus nemoralis Greene
  • Lupinus niger Wehmer
  • Lupinus noldekae Eastw.
  • Lupinus nutcanus Spreng.
  • Lupinus nutkatensis J.G.Cooper
  • Lupinus obtunsus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus octablomus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus opsianthus Amabekova & Maisuran
  • Lupinus pavonum C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus pendeltonii A.Heller
  • Lupinus pendletonii A.Heller
  • Lupinus perconfertus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus perplexus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus philistaeus Boiss.
  • Lupinus pinus-contortae C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus piperi B.L.Rob. ex Piper
  • Lupinus piperitus Davidson
  • Lupinus platanophilus M.E.Jones
  • Lupinus plebeius Greene ex C.F.Baker
  • Lupinus prato-lacuum C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus prolifer Desr.
  • Lupinus propinquus Greene
  • Lupinus proteanus Eastw.
  • Lupinus psoraleoides Pollard
  • Lupinus pumviridis C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus puroviridis C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus purpurascens A.Heller
  • Lupinus pygmaeus Tamayo
  • Lupinus quercus-jugi C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus quercuum C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus rainierensis Eastw.
  • Lupinus regius Rudolph ex Torr. & A.Gray
  • Lupinus rhodanthus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus rickeri C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus rivetianus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus rydbergii Blank.
  • Lupinus sabuli C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus salicisocius C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus salinensis C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus sativus Gaterau
  • Lupinus scaposus Rydb.
  • Lupinus scheuberae Rydb.
  • Lupinus schickendantzii C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus schiedeanus Steud.
  • Lupinus schumannii C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus seclusus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus semiaequus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus semiverticillatus Desr.
  • Lupinus sergenti Tamayo ex Pittier
  • Lupinus sergentii Tamayo
  • Lupinus serradentum C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus shrevei C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus sierrae-zentae C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus sileri S.Watson
  • Lupinus sinus-meyersii C.P. Sm.
  • Lupinus sparhawkianus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus spatulata Larrañaga
  • Lupinus speciosus Voss
  • Lupinus spruceanus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus standleyensis C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus stationis C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus stiveri Kellogg
  • Lupinus stoloniferus L.
  • Lupinus strigulosus Gand.
  • Lupinus subhirsutus Davidson
  • Lupinus subvolutus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus suksdorfii B.L. Rob. ex Piper
  • Lupinus summersianus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus sylvaticus Hemsl.
  • Lupinus thermis Gasp.
  • Lupinus thermus St.-Lag.
  • Lupinus tilcaricus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus timotensis Tamayo
  • Lupinus tricolor Greene
  • Lupinus tricolor G.Nicholson
  • Lupinus trifidus Torr. ex S.Watson
  • Lupinus tristis Sweet
  • Lupinus trochophyllus Hoffmanns.
  • Lupinus tuckeranus C.P. Sm.
  • Lupinus vaginans Benth.
  • Lupinus valdepallidus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus vandykeae Eastw.
  • Lupinus variegatus A.Heller
  • Lupinus variegatus Poir.
  • Lupinus varneranus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus vavilovii Atabekova & Maissurjan
  • Lupinus venustus Bailly
  • Lupinus violaceus A.Heller
  • Lupinus viridicalyx C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus volcanicus Greene
  • Lupinus watsonii A.Heller
  • Lupinus westiana Small
  • Lupinus wolfianus C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus yanlyensis C.P.Sm.
  • Lupinus yaruahensis C.P.Sm.



The following hybrids have been described:[10]

  • Lupinus ×alpestris (A. Nelson) D.B. Dunn & J.M. Gillett
  • Lupinus ×hispanicoluteus W.Święcicki & W.K.Święcicki
  • Lupinus ×hybridus Lem.
  • Lupinus ×insignis Lem.
  • Lupinus ×regalis (auct.) Bergmans—rainbow lupin (Lupinus arboreus × Lupinus polyphyllus)
  • Lupinus ×versicolor Caball.



While some sources believe the origin of the name to be in doubt, the Collins Dictionary definition asserts that the word is 14th century in origin, from the Latin lupīnus "wolfish" from lupus "wolf"[41] as it was believed that the plant ravenously exhausted the soil.[42] But a more likely explanation is that lupinus meant that the plants were as dangerous to livestock as wolves, because the alkaloid poisons of Lupines can sicken or kill grazing animals, especially sheep. Farmers have known since ancient Rome [43] that lupines improve soil by adding nitrogen and loosening compacted earth with their strong root systems, so the Collins explanation is improbable.


Canadian tiger swallowtail on wild perennial lupine, Gatineau, Quebec

Certain species, such as the yellow bush lupin (L. arboreus), are considered invasive weeds when they appear outside their native ranges. In New Zealand, lupines are viewed as invasive and a severe threat in some cases.[44] L. polyphyllus has escaped into the wild and grows in large numbers along main roads and streams on the South Island. A similar spread of the species has occurred in Finland and Norway after the non-native species was first deliberately planted in the landscaping along the main roads.[citation needed] Lupins have been planted in some parts of Australia with a considerably cooler climate, particularly in rural Victoria and New South Wales.

Lupins are important larval food plants for many lepidopterans (butterflies and moths). These include:



Lupinus polyphyllus, the garden lupin, and Lupinus arboreus, the tree lupin, are popular ornamental plants in gardens, and are the source of numerous hybrids and cultivars in a wide range of colours, including bicolors. As legumes, lupins are good companion plants in gardens, increasing the soil nitrogen for vegetables and other plants. As well as growing in the ground, lupins can do well in pots on balconies or patios.[52]



Like other legumes, lupines can fix nitrogen from the atmosphere[53] into ammonia via a rhizobiumroot nodule symbiosis, fertilizing the soil for other plants. This adaptation allows lupins to be tolerant of infertile soils and capable of pioneering change in barren and poor-quality soils. The genus Lupinus is nodulated by Bradyrhizobium soil bacteria.[5]

In the early 20th century, German scientists attempted to cultivate a sweet variety of lupin lacking the bitter taste, making it more suitable for both human and animal consumption.[54]

Many annual species of lupins are used in agriculture and most of them have Mediterranean origin.[55] While originally cultivated as a green manure or forage, lupins are increasingly grown for their seeds, which can be used as an alternative to soybeans. Sweet (low alkaloid) lupins are highly regarded as a stock feed, particularly for ruminants, but also for pigs and poultry and more recently as an ingredient in aqua-feeds. Three Mediterranean species of lupin, blue (narrow-leafed) lupin, white lupin, and yellow lupin, are widely cultivated for livestock and poultry feed.

The market for lupin seeds for human food is currently small, but researchers believe it has great potential. Lupin seeds are considered "superior" to soybeans in certain applications and evidence is increasing for their potential health benefits. They contain similar protein to soybean, but less fat. As a food source, they are gluten-free and high in dietary fiber, amino acids, and antioxidants, and they are considered to be prebiotic.[citation needed]

About 85% of the world's lupin seeds are grown in Western Australia.[56]



Some lupins contain certain secondary compounds, including isoflavones and toxic alkaloids,[53] such as lupinine, anagyrine and sparteine. With early detection, these can be removed through processing, although lupins containing these elements are not usually selected for food-grade products.

A risk of lupin allergy exists in patients allergic to peanuts.[57] Most lupin reactions reported have been in people with peanut allergy.[58] Because of the cross-allergenicity of peanut and lupin, the European Commission, as of 2006, has required that food labels indicate the presence of "lupin and products thereof" in food.[59]

Lupin plants can be colonized by the fungus Diaporthe toxica[60] which can cause a mycotoxicosis known as lupinosis when ingested by grazing animals.



The legume seeds of lupins, commonly called lupin beans, were popular with the Romans, who cultivated the plants throughout the Roman Empire where the lupin is still known in extant Romance languages by names such as lupini.

Seeds of various species of lupins have been used as a food for over 3,000 years around the Mediterranean[61] and for as long as 6,000 years in the Andes.[62] Lupins were also used by many Native American peoples of North America such as the Yavapai. The Andean lupin or tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis) was a widespread food in the Incan Empire; but they have never been accorded the same status as soybeans, dry peas and other pulse crops. The pearl lupin of the Andean highlands of South America, L. mutabilis, known locally as tarwi or chocho, was extensively cultivated, but no conscious genetic improvement other than to select for larger and water-permeable seeds seems to have been made. Users soaked the seed in running water to remove most of the bitter alkaloids and then cooked or toasted the seeds to make them edible,[63][full citation needed] or else boiled and dried them to make kirku,[62] reported as a pre-Columbian practice in Las Relaciones geográficas de Indias.[64] Spanish domination led to a change in the eating habits of the indigenous peoples, and only recently[65] (late 20th century onward) has interest in using lupins as a food been renewed.[66][61]: 353 

Lupinus angustifolius

Lupins can be used to make a variety of foods both sweet and savoury, including everyday meals, traditional fermented foods, baked foods, and sauces. The European white lupin (L. albus) beans are commonly sold in a salty solution in jars (like olives and pickles) and can be eaten with or without the skin. Lupini dishes are most commonly found in Europe, especially in Portugal, Spain, Greece, and Italy. They are also common in Brazil and Egypt. In Egypt, the lupin is known in Arabic as ترمس termes, and is a popular street snack after being treated with several soakings of water, and then brined. In Portugal, Spain, and the Spanish Harlem district of New York, they are consumed with beer and wine. In Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, Jordan, and Syria the salty and chilled lupini beans are called turmus (in Arabic: تُرمُس, Hebrew: תורמוס) and are served as part of an apéritif or a snack. Other species, such as L. albus (white lupin), L. angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin),[67] and L. hirsutus (blue lupin)[68] also have edible seeds.[69]


Lupinus pilosus in Tel Aviv University, Israel

Consumed throughout the Mediterranean region and the Andean mountains, lupins were eaten by the early Egyptian and pre-Incan people and were known to Roman agriculturalists for their ability to improve the fertility of soils.[70]

In the late 18th century, lupins were introduced into northern Europe as a means of improving soil quality, and by the 1860s, the garden yellow lupin was seen across the sandy soils of the Baltic coastal plain.

The successful development of lupin varieties with the necessary "sweet gene" paved the way for the greater adoption of lupins across Europe and later Australia.[citation needed]

Further work carried out by the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and Food during the 1950s and '60s led to more sweet lupin crops produced in Western Australia now than anywhere else in the world.[citation needed]

Bluebonnets, including the Texas bluebonnet (L. texensis), are the state flowers of Texas.

See also



  1. ^ Both pronounced /ˈlpɪn/; the latter spelling is prevalent in North America.


  1. ^ a b c Drummond, C. S.; et al. (2012). "Multiple continental radiations and correlates of diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): Testing for key innovation with incomplete taxon sampling". Systematic Biology. 61 (3): 443–60. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syr126. PMC 3329764. PMID 22228799. Archived from the original on 14 July 2016.
  2. ^ a b Aïnouche, A. K.; Bayer, R. J. (1999). "Phylogenetic relationships in Lupinus (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae) based on internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA". American Journal of Botany. 86 (4): 590–607. doi:10.2307/2656820. JSTOR 2656820. PMID 10205079.
  3. ^ Villa-Ruano, N.; et al. (2012). "Alkaloid profile, antibacterial and allelopathic activities of Lupinus jaimehintoniana BL Turner (Fabaceae)" (PDF). Archives of Biological Sciences. 64 (3): 1065–71. doi:10.2298/ABS1203065R.
  4. ^ Planchuelo, Ana Maria; Dunn, David B. (1984). "The Simple Leaved Lupines and Their Relatives in Argentina". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 71 (1): 92–103. doi:10.2307/2399057. JSTOR 2399057.
  5. ^ a b Kurlovich, B. S. and A. K. Stankevich. (eds.) Classification of Lupins. In: Lupins: Geography, Classification, Genetic Resources and Breeding. St. Petersburg: Intan. 2002. pp. 42–43. Accessed 2 August 2013.
  6. ^ Naganowska, B., et al. (2005). 2C DNA variation and relationships among New World species of the genus Lupinus (Fabaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 256(1-4), 147-57.
  7. ^ a b "Subgen. PLATYCARPOS and Subgen. LUPINUS".
  8. ^ "ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Lupinus". International Legume Database & Information Service. Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  9. ^ USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. "GRIN species records of Lupinus". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 11 April 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ a b c "The Plant List entry for Lupinus". The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden. 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  11. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus alpestris as a synonym of Lupinus argenteus.
  12. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus aridorum as a synonym of Lupinus westianus.
  13. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus aridus as a synonym of Lupinus lepidus.
  14. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus attenuatus as a synonym of Lupinus coriaceus.
  15. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus brevicaulis as a synonym of Lupinus grisebachianus.
  16. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus burkei as a synonym of Lupinus polyphyllus.
  17. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus caespitosus as a synonym of Lupinus lepidus.
  18. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus confertus as a synonym of Lupinus lepidus.
  19. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus crassus as a synonym of Lupinus ammophilus.
  20. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus cumulicola as a synonym of Lupinus diffusus.
  21. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus densiflorus as a synonym of Lupinus microcarpus.
  22. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus depressus as a synonym of Lupinus argenteus.
  23. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus hartwegii as a synonym of Lupinus mexicanus.
  24. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus heptaphyllus as a synonym of Lupinus gibertianus.
  25. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus hilarianus as a synonym of Lupinus gibertianus.
  26. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus hillii as a synonym of Lupinus argenteus.
  27. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus luteolus as a synonym of Lupinus luteus.
  28. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus lyallii as a synonym of Lupinus lepidus.
  29. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus matucanicus as a synonym of Lupinus lindleyanus.
  30. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus minimus as a synonym of Lupinus lepidus.
  31. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus montigenus as a synonym of Lupinus argenteus.
  32. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus oreganus as a synonym of Lupinus sulphureus.
  33. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus ornatus as a synonym of Lupinus sericeus.
  34. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus polycarpus as a synonym of Lupinus bicolor.
  35. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus pratensis as a synonym of Lupinus confertus.
  36. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus prunophilus as a synonym of Lupinus polyphyllus.
  37. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus ruber as a synonym of Lupinus microcarpus.
  38. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus sellulus as a synonym of Lupinus lepidus.
  39. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus subvexus as a synonym of Lupinus microcarpus.
  40. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus digitatus as a synonym of Lupinus cosentinii.
  41. ^ Lewis, Charlton T.; Short, Charles (1879). "lupīnus". A Latin Dictionary. Perseus Digital Library.
  42. ^ "Lupin definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary".
  43. ^ Tietz, W., & von Minckwitz, M.-C. (2023). Plant Nutrition in the Roman empire. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 186, 479–486. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.202300152
  44. ^ White, Mike (3 March 2017). "Lupins: A love-hate story - North & South". Noted. Archived from the original on 21 April 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2022.
  45. ^ Mission Blue Butterfly. Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy.
  46. ^ Callophrys irus. Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility.
  47. ^ Erynnis persius. Archived 2 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine Atlas of North Dakota Butterflies. USGS.
  48. ^ Glaucopsyche lygdamus. Archived 2 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine Atlas of North Dakota Butterflies. USGS.
  49. ^ Plebejus melissa. Butterflies and Moths of North America.
  50. ^ Eastern persius duskywing, Ontario Species at Risk
  51. ^ Anweiler, G. G. (2007). "Species Details Schinia suetus". University of Alberta Museums. E.H. Strickland Entomological Museum. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  52. ^ "How To Grow Lupins In Pots - The Ultimate Guide". plant-garden-secrets.com. 4 October 2022.
  53. ^ a b Taylor, Ronald J. (1994) [1992]. Sagebrush Country: A Wildflower Sanctuary (rev. ed.). Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Pub. Co. p. 104. ISBN 0-87842-280-3. OCLC 25708726.
  54. ^ Lupins: Geography, Classification, Genetic Resources and Breeding. Bogouslav Kourlovitch. 2002. p. 148. ISBN 586741034X.
  55. ^ Langer, R.H.M. & Hill, G.D. 1991. Agricultural Plants, second edition. p 261. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-40545-9
  56. ^ Ross, K. Soy substitute edges its way into European meals. New York Times 16 November 2011.
  57. ^ The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 104(4 Pt. 1), 883-88.
  58. ^ Opinion of the scientific panel on dietetic products, nutrition and allergies on a request from the Commission related to the evaluation of lupin for labelling purposes. The European Food Safety Authority Journal 302 1-11. 2005.
  59. ^ Commission Directive 2006/142/EC of 22 December 2006 amending Annex IIIa of Directive 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council listing the ingredients which must under all circumstances appear on the labeling of foodstuffs.
  60. ^ Williamson et al. (1994) Diaporthe toxica sp. nov., The cause of lupinosis in sheep. Mycological Research, 98 (12): 1367
  61. ^ a b Gladstone, J. S.; Atkins, C. A.; Hamblin, J., eds. (1998). Lupins as Crop Plants: Biology, Production and Utilization. CAB International. ISBN 9780851992242.
  62. ^ a b Uauy, Ricardo; Gattas, Vivien; Yañez, Enrique (1995). "Sweet Lupins in Human Nutrition". Plants in Human Nutrition. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics. 77: 75–88. doi:10.1159/000424466. ISBN 978-3-8055-6101-3. PMID 7732701.
  63. ^ (Hill, 1977; Aguilera and Truer, 1978)
  64. ^ López-Bellido, Luis; Fuentes, M (1986). Lupin crop as an alternative source of protein. Vol. 40. pp. 239–295 (at page 241). doi:10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60284-9. ISBN 9780080563534. {{cite book}}: |journal= ignored (help)
  65. ^ Sweetingham, Mark; Kingwell, Ross (2008). "LUPINS – REFLECTIONS AND FUTURE POSSIBILITIES". 12th International Lupin Conference; Fremantle, Western Australia.
  66. ^ (Hill, 1977).
  67. ^ Murcia, J. and I. Hoyos. (1998). 'Características y applicaciones de las plantas: Altramuz Azul (Lupinus angustifolius). [in Spanish]. Accessed 3 August 2013.
  68. ^ Hedrick, U. P. (ed.) Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. 1919. 387-88.
  69. ^ Fionnuala Fallon (5 January 2019). "Pink dandelions, cucamelons, edible lupins: seeds to plant now for a delicious summer". The Irish Times. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  70. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lupine" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 127.

Further reading

  • Eastwood, R. J., et al. 2008. Diversity and evolutionary history of lupins—insights from new phylogenies. pp. 346–54, In: Palta, J. A. and J. B. Burger. (Eds.) Lupins for Health & Wealth. Proceedings 12th International Lupin Conference, Fremantle, Australia; International Lupin Association, Canterbury, New Zealand.
  • Putnam, D. H., et al. Lupine. Alternative Field Crops Manual. University of Minnesota, University of Wisconsin Extension. 1997.
  • Zhukovsky, P.M. 1929. A contribution to the knowledge of genus Lupinus Tourn. Bull. Apll. Bot. Gen. Pl.-Breed., Leningrad-Moscow, XXI, I:16-294.
  • Kurlovich, B.S. 1989. On the centers of species formation of the genus Lupinus L. (in Russian). Bull.N.I. Vavilov Inst. of plant Industry. Leningrad, 193:20-24.
  • Kurlovich, B.S., Rep’ev, S.I., Shchelko, L.G., Budanova, V.I., Petrova, M.V., Buravtseva, T.V., Stankevich, A.K., Kartuzova, L.T., Alexandrova, T.G., Teplyakova and T.E., Malysh, L.K. 1995. Theoretical basis of plant breeding. Vol.111. The gene bank and breeding of grain legumes (lupine, vetch, soya, and bean), St.Petersburg, VIR, 438p.
  • Kurlovich, B.S.(Ed.). 2002. Lupins. Geography, Classification, Genetic Resources and Breeding. "Intan", 468p.