Lupin the Third
First English-language volume of Lupin III released by Tokyopop.
|Genre||Adventure, Comedy-drama, Kaitō|
|Written by||Monkey Punch|
|Published by||Futabasha, Chuokoron-Shinsha|
|Magazine||Weekly Manga Action|
|Original run||August 10, 1967 – May 22, 1969|
|Lupin III – World's Most Wanted|
|Written by||Monkey Punch|
|Magazine||Weekly Manga Action|
|Original run||June 23, 1977 – May 28, 1981|
|Anime television series|
|Original video animations|
Lupin III (ルパン三世 Rupan Sansei?), also written as Lupin the Third or Lupin the 3rd, is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Monkey Punch. It follows the escapades of master thief Arsène Lupin III, the grandson of Arsène Lupin, the gentleman thief of Maurice Leblanc's series of novels.
The Lupin III manga, which first appeared in Weekly Manga Action on August 10, 1967, spawned a media franchise that includes numerous manga, two versions of an animated pilot film, five animated television series, six theatrically-released animated feature films, two live-action films, a two-part animated theatrical short film, five OVA works, twenty-six animated television specials, two musicals, music CDs, and video games. Many different companies have owned the English-language distribution rights to various Lupin III properties at various times, with just the first two animated films having been released by over 10 companies alone. Tokyopop acquired the license to the original manga in 2002, and later the second series in 2004. Funimation Entertainment purchased the rights to several of the television specials and films in 2002, and the fourth television series in 2012. Geneon licensed and dubbed 79 episodes of the second television series, 26 of which were broadcast on Cartoon Network's Adult Swim during 2003. Discotek Media licensed the entire first and second television series and the first live-action film; they also own the rights to several other Lupin titles, including some previously released by other companies.
Nearly fifty years after its creation, Lupin III remains popular, with the fifth anime series airing in Italy and Japan in 2015. Critical reception of the franchise has been largely positive across its various incarnations, with praise in general being aimed at the characterization of its leads and their shared chemistry. The voice acting (in both Japanese and English versions) and soundtracks (especially those composed by Yuji Ohno) of the anime adaptations have also received similar compliments; however, several of the franchise's installments, most specifically the television specials, have been criticized for being formulaic. The manga has also been noted by fans and critics for its darker tone compared to the anime, with its explicit depictions of sex and violence, as well as its black, fourth wall-breaking sense of humor, contrasting with the mostly family-friendly animated versions. For several years, issues relating to the copyright of Maurice Leblanc's intellectual property meant that the Lupin name was removed from its releases outside Japan, usually changed to "Rupan" or "Wolf". However, the copyright has since expired, allowing foreign releases to use the Lupin name.
- 1 Plot
- 2 Production
- 3 Copyright Issues
- 4 Media
- 5 Reception
- 6 Legacy
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Arsène Lupin III, the grandson of the fictional gentleman thief, Arsène Lupin, is considered the world's greatest thief, known for announcing his intentions to steal valuable objects by sending a calling card to the owners of his desired items. His right-hand man and closest ally is Daisuke Jigen, an expert marksman who can accurately shoot a target in 0.3 seconds. Although Lupin and Jigen frequently work as a two-man team, they are often joined by Goemon Ishikawa XIII, a master swordsman whose sword can cut anything, or Fujiko Mine, a femme fatale and Lupin's love interest. Although Fujiko usually works together with the others, she occasionally exploits Lupin's interest in her to steal the treasure for herself. Lupin and his gang are constantly chased by Inspector Koichi Zenigata of the ICPO, who has made it his life's work to arrest them, pursuing Lupin across the globe.
The series was created by Japanese manga artist Kazuhiko Katō under the pen name Monkey Punch. His inspiration for the series was the fictional French gentleman thief Arsène Lupin, created by Maurice Leblanc. Before creating the series he read 15 of Leblanc's stories. The aim of the Lupin III series was to produce a comedy adventure series that reflected the traits of Leblanc's character. Originally the intention was to keep the blood ties between the two fictional characters secret, however he was convinced by others not to do so.
Monkey Punch combined elements of Arsène Lupin with James Bond to develop the character of Lupin III and made him a "carefree fellow". Lupin was given a red color jacket which Monkey Punch believes is a flashy, sexy color. As the series was to be published in a magazine targeted at adults, Fujiko Mine was created to add a female presence and to fulfill a "Bond girl" role. Her name was inspired by a picture of Mount Fuji, Monkey Punch added the -ko female suffix to create her first name, and chose "Mine" for her family name because of its meaning as "summit". At the beginning of the series, many of the women Lupin encounters are all named Fujiko, but are treated as different characters from chapter to chapter. Creating a new female each week was too difficult for Monkey Punch so she evolved into a single character who changes style frequently. Jigen Daisuke was based on James Coburn, especially his role in The Magnificent Seven, and his name was chosen to reflect his unconventional personality. Goemon was created to give an oriental element into an otherwise western series. Despite Lupin and Goemon originally being enemies, Monkey Punch decided that they were on the same wavelength. While Lupin, Fujiko, Jigen and Goemon frequently operate together for their own goals, the author considers them not to be a true group as they have their own individual interests. In the manga they operated individually, however in the anime adaptations the group tend to work together. Inspector Zenigata was conceived as Lupin's archrival to create a "human Tom and Jerry".
When Monkey Punch began Lupin III, he was already working on another series, Pinky Punky. Monkey Punch enjoys writing outlaw characters, and both Lupin III and Pinky Punky made use of outlaws as central characters. According to him, this made it easy for him to write two series without much pressure. Monkey Punch enjoys puzzles and mysteries such as Columbo and Agatha Christie novels, and was also inspired by The Three Musketeers and the movies of Alfred Hitchcock. He believes the characters of Lupin and Fujiko are similar to the characters of D'Artagnan and Milady de Winter, and describes them as "Not necessarily lovers, not necessarily husband and wife, but more just having fun as man and woman with each other". Another influence on the manga was Mad magazine. Monkey Punch said the appeal of drawing Lupin comes from the character being able to go anywhere without obstacles and being able to do whatever he wants, whenever he wants. However, this is contrasted by the appeal of Zenigata's strict personality. Originally the series was only expected to last three months, but due to its popularity, Monkey Punch continued to draw it. However, despite his happiness at its success, he has expressed confusion over its popularity.
Monkey Punch has said that he believes the story can never end but that if he had to, both Zenigata and Lupin would have to end as equals. They would either both fail, both win or both get very old.
Monkey Punch did not ask permission to use the Arsène Lupin name and at the time Japan did not enforce trade copyrights. By the time Leblanc's estate launched legal action in Japan, the name was considered to have entered into common use. However, this was not the case in North America and Europe and several foreign releases of Lupin III media dropped the Lupin III title and the character himself was renamed to "Rupan" or "Wolf". In France, the series was known as Edgar, Detective Cambrioleur (Edgar, Detective Burglar) with Lupin himself renamed "Edgar de la Cambriole" (Edgar of Burglary). Monkey Punch has stated that using the same character design, behavior and face would be illegal, but using a name alone is not illegal. In 2012, Leblanc's original Arsène Lupin entered the public domain in France due to 70 years passing since his death in 1941, and is in the public domain for any country that enforces the rule of the shorter term.
Lupin III was written and illustrated by Monkey Punch. It was serialized by Futabasha in Weekly Manga Action in 94 chapters from August 10, 1967. Additional chapters known as Lupin III New Adventures were released from August 12, 1971. Tokyopop licensed the series for North America, and released all 14 volumes between December 10, 2002 and July 6, 2004. The Tokyopop edition is adapted from the Chuokoron Shinsha edition from 1989.
Monkey Punch began publishing the second Lupin manga, Shin Lupin III in Weekly Manga Actionon June 23, 1977 until 1981. Three chapters were published in the British magazine Manga Mania between May and July 1996. Tokyopop licensed the second series, and released the first 6 volumes as Lupin III – World's Most Wanted between September 7, 2004 and February 7, 2007.  Tokyopop later cancelled the series due to low sales. Like the first series, the Tokyopop release was based on the Chuokoron Shinsha edition from 1990.
Since 1997 a number of manga series have been created by several artists and released in several Futabasha magazines. On August 27, 2004, Futabasha launched Lupin III Official Magazine, a quarterly publication of Lupin III manga by various authors.
Yutaka Abe and Jirō Maruden produced a three chapter adaptation of the Lupin III vs. Detective Conan TV special. From August 25, they also created a manga adaptation of Lupin III vs. Detective Conan: The Movie for Shogakukans Shonen Super Sunday magazine.
On October 24, 1971, YTV began airing the first Lupin III television series. The series was broadcast for 23 episodes, with the last one airing on March 26, 1972. The series was initially directed by Masaaki Ōsumi, who was then replaced by Hayao Miyazaki and Isao Takahata. Discotek Media licensed and released the first series on DVD in North America on June 26, 2012.
The second Lupin III television series began airing on NTV on October 3, 1977. This series was broadcast for 155 episodes, with the last one airing on October 6, 1980. Pioneer Entertainment began distributing the second television series in North America on January 28, 2003. The first 79 episodes were released on 15 DVDs and the first 26 episodes aired numerous times on Cartoon Network's Adult Swim. On December 20, 2015, Discotek Media announced they had licensed the series for North America and would release the series during 2016.
In 1982, an animated television series called Lupin VIII was planned as a French-Japanese co-production, featuring the descendants of Lupin, Goemon, Jigen, and Zenigata, but was never completed. Created by DiC Animation, with Rintaro directing, and character designs by Shingo Araki; two scripts were written, and one episode was fully animated with a music and sound effects track, but the voice-overs were never recorded. It has been suggested that the project was stopped due to Leblanc's estate wanting a large amount of money for use of the Lupin name. The single episode was later included in the 2012 Lupin III Master File box set.
The third Lupin III television series, called Lupin III Part III, began airing on YTV on March 3, 1984. This series was broadcast for 50 episodes and ended on November 6, 1985. In 2009, the Southern California-based United Television Broadcasting network began airing subtitled episodes from all three series on their UTBHollywood channel.
The Woman Called Fujiko Mine
The fourth series, titled Lupin the Third: The Woman Called Fujiko Mine, aired on NTV for 13 episodes between April 4, 2012 and June 27, 2012. Funimation Entertainment simulcast the series on their website and Nico Nico with English subtitles, before releasing it on Blu-ray/DVD on August 20, 2013 with an English-language dub. Manga Entertainment released a similar set in the United Kingdom on September 16, while Hanabee released the series in a two-part combo set in Australasia, the first on October 16 and the second on November 20.
The fifth series Lupin the Third Part 4 was created by Telecom Animation Film and aired in Italy for 26 episodes on the Italia 1 channel between August 30, 2015 and November 30, 2015. The series aired for 24 episodes in Japan on NTV between October 1, 2015 and March 17, 2016. The series has been licensed by Anime Limited for the UK market.
Adapting the manga into animation was first suggested by animator Gisaburō Sugii to Yutaka Fujioka, the founder of Tokyo Movie Shinsha. This led to the creation of a CinemaScope Pilot Film, consisting of introductions to the manga's five lead characters, intended to generate interest in the project and secure funding. The Pilot Film was created by Sugii, Yasuo Otsuka, Tsutomu Shibayama and Osamu Kobayashi, with supervision by Masaaki Ōsumi. Completed in 1969, the project was left unsold and the Pilot Film was adapted for television when Yomiuri Television agreed to broadcast and provide funding for a televised anime adaptation of the manga in 1971.
Seven theatrical animated films based on Lupin III have been created by TMS Entertainment. The first animated feature film adaptation of the series was titled simply Lupin III (later known as Lupin III: Lupin vs. the Clone), directed by Sōji Yoshikawa and released in Japanese theaters on December 16, 1978. Hayao Miyazaki directed the next feature film, The Castle of Cagliostro, which was released in Japanese theaters on December 15, 1979.
The third film, Legend of the Gold of Babylon co-directed by Seijun Suzuki and Shigetsugu Yoshida, was released in Japanese theaters on July 13, 1985. Ten years after Babylon was released, the fourth film, Farewell to Nostradamus, entered Japanese theaters on April 22, 1995. The fifth anime feature film, Dead or Alive, was directed by the creator of the series, Monkey Punch, and released in Japanese theaters on April 20, 1996.
Four years after the two series had a crossover TV special together, Lupin the 3rd vs. Detective Conan: The Movie was released on December 7, 2013, making it the first Lupin III theatrical feature in 17 years. Takeshi Koike directed a continuation film to The Woman Called Fujiko Mine TV series. Entitled Daisuke Jigen's Gravestone, it was released theatrically on June 21, 2014. A follow-up by the same staff entitled Goemon Ishikawa's Spray of Blood is scheduled for release on February 4, 2017.
Original video animations
Several original video animations (OVAs) based on Lupin III have been produced. The Plot of the Fuma Clan was shown in theaters in Japan on December 26, 1987 before being released to video on April 5, 1988. Because of budget problems, TMS decided not to employ the regular voice cast from the television series and theatrical movies; instead, they hired a different cast to save money. The second OVA, Return of the Magician was released on April 3, 2002 as part of the 30th anniversary of the first television series and features the return of one of the original villains of the series, the magician Pycal. A third OVA, Green vs. Red, was released on April 2, 2008 as part of the 40th anniversary of the manga.
The Lupin III Master File box set released in 2012 included a new short animation titled "Lupin Family Lineup" (ルパン一家勢揃い Rupan Ikka Seizoroi) where the veteran cast of Kanichi Kurita as Lupin, Kiyoshi Kobayashi as Jigen, Makio Inoue as Goemon, Eiko Masuyama as Fujiko, and Goro Naya as Zenigata reunited for the last time, after the later three were replaced for the previous year's TV special. A parody flash anime titled Lupin Shanshei (ルパンしゃんしぇい Rupan Shanshei) was produced by animator Frogman and his studio DLE Inc. in collaboration with TMS. The ten shorts were released on Blu-ray Disc and DVD on December 19, 2012.
Between 1989 and 2013, a new animated television special by TMS Entertainment aired on NTV every year. The tradition started with Goodbye Lady Liberty on April 4, 1989. 2007's Elusiveness of the Fog was broadcast on July 27 as part of the 40th anniversary celebration of the original manga, featuring the return of a villain from the original television series, Kyousuke Mamo. A crossover special titled Lupin the 3rd vs. Detective Conan, featuring characters from both Lupin III and Detective Conan, aired on March 27, 2009, attracting a record audience share of 19.5.
The 2011 special Blood Seal - Eternal Mermaid brought new voice actors for Fujiko, Zenigata and Goemon, the first change in 16 years. Princess of the Breeze - The Hidden City in the Sky, the last of the yearly consecutive specials, features Yui Ishikawa as its heroine Yutika.
On January 8, 2016, a special tie-in with the Lupin the Third Part IV TV series aired.
The first Lupin III theatrical feature was a live-action movie released on August 3, 1974.Lupin III Strange Psychokinetic Strategy (ルパン三世 念力珍作戦) included all of the main cast members with the exception of Goemon Ishikawa XIII. In contrast to the dark theme of the first television series, the live-action feature was very heavy on slapstick humor and physics-defying stunts. A DVD was released in North America in 2006 by Discotek.
WhiteLight Entertainment, a production company owned by Gerald R. Molen, purchased the live-action theatrical rights to Lupin III in 2003. A live-action Filipino TV drama based on Lupin III, titled simply Lupin, aired on GMA Network from April 9 to August 17, 2007.
A new live-action film, titled simply Lupin III and directed by Ryuhei Kitamura, was released on August 30, 2014. The cast features Shun Oguri as Lupin, Meisa Kuroki as Fujiko, Tetsuji Tamayama as Jigen, Go Ayano as Goemon, and Tadanobu Asano as Zenigata. Tomoyasu Hotei provided the theme song for the movie. It was released in Australia in 2015 by Madman Entertainment. A sequel is in development.
Two stage adaptations have been produced. I'm Lupin was performed on November 5, 1999. The all-female acting troupe Takarazuka Revue began a stage musical adaptation of the series on January 1, 2015.
The first Lupin video game was a stealth game released to arcades in Japan by Taito in 1980 as Lupin III. A Laserdisc video game entitled Cliff Hanger was released to arcades in North America in 1983 by Stern. While it used footage from The Mystery of Mamo and The Castle of Cagliostro to provide a gaming experience similar to Dragon's Lair, it changes the characters' names and has an original plot. Since then Lupin video games have been released for a number of platforms including Family Computer, Super Famicom, Sony Playstation, Sony Playstation 2, Sega Saturn, Nintendo DS and Sega Naomi.
Columbia Music Entertainment and VAP have both released numerous Lupin III music CDs in Japan. These include over 48 soundtrack albums by Takeo Yamashita and Yuji Ohno for the TV series, movies, and specials, as well as 15 collections of jazz arrangements by the Yuji Ohno trio, the Lupintic Five, and the Lupintic Sixteen.
Geneon Entertainment has released two of the music CDs in the United States. Lupin the 3rd: Sideburn Club Mix is a collection of thirteen remixed themes from the first television series, which was released in conjunction with the first DVD volume on January 28, 2003. Lupin the 3rd Original Soundtrack, released on April 8, 2003, is a collection of fifteen themes from the second television series performed by Yuji Ohno with his jazz group You & the Explosion Band.
To celebrate the 40th anniversary of the series, a live concert was held on September 8, 2007 performed by Yuji Ohno and the Lupintic Sixteen; a concert DVD was released in Japan on December 21, 2007. Play the Lupin clips x parts, a compilation of Lupin animation clips set to music from the series, as well as the opening and ending credits from a number of Lupin III productions, was released on DVD and Blu-ray Disc in Japan on May 22, 2009.
The Lupin III franchise still remains popular in Japan; the manga was listed in 38th place on Japan's Agency for Cultural Affairs' 2007 list of the top 50 manga series. In 2000, satellite TV channel Animax together with Brutus, a men's lifestyle magazine, and Tsutaya, Japan's largest video rental chain, conducted a poll among 200,000 fans on the top anime series, with Lupin III coming in second. TV Asahi conducted two polls in 2005 on the Top 100 Anime, Lupin III came in fifth in the nationwide survey conducted with multiple age-groups and in twelfth in the online poll. The Castle of Cagliostro was in 5th place on Agency for Cultural Affairs' list of the best anime, while the original television series was in 50th place on the same list. In 2001, the magazine Animage elected the original Lupin III TV series the ninth best anime production of all time. In 2012, 38.7% of people polled by Tokyo Polytechnic University named Lupin III as part of Cool Japan.
In Manga: The Complete Guide, Jason Thompson referred to Monkey Punch's original manga as "a crazy, groovy 1960s world of dynamite and backstabbing, hippies and gangsters", and considered it "a fascinating homage to Mad magazine and a four star example of comics as pure comedy." He rated the series four out of four stars. Allen Divers of Anime News Network (ANN) praised the strong writing and action; however, he felt that the art was too primitive. Otaku USAs Daryl Surat was also put off by the art, saying he couldn't tell most character apart and had a hard time figuring out what he was looking at. In The Rough Guide to Manga, Jason S. Yadao highlighted the example of how Lupin wearing a hat looks exactly like Zenigata. However, he considered it a successful plot device in once chapter that while it may take several attempts to understand, eventually pays off. He included the series in his list of 50 essential manga. Many of the first volumes of the English edition of the Lupin III manga released by Tokyopop made it onto ICv2's list of top 50 graphic novels, as well as later volumes from the series.
In Anime Classics Zettai!, Brian Clamp and Julie Davis compare the first two anime adaptions. They note that the first series is of a serious style, closer to the original manga with a dark tone and that it focuses on disputes between Lupin and other criminals. In contrast they sum up the second series as a caper comedy with a more comedic tone and style. Both Chris Beveridge of Mania.com and Mike Crandol of ANN disliked the dub of the second television series because Pioneer Entertainment used many modern references and updated dialogue for a series that was released in the late 1970s, although the series itself received a positive overall review from both reviewers. Rob Lineberger of DVD Verdict wrote, "Lupin the Third is James Bond meets Charlie's Angels with Scooby-Doo sensibilities." Monkey Punch believes that the voice work of Yasuo Yamada was a large reason for the popularity of the anime series.
Chris Beveridge of Mania.com gave The Castle of Cagliostro an "A+", although he disliked Manga Entertainment's use of PG-13 level language in the English dub. While the film was not initially a box-office success, it gained popularity through numerous re-releases and was even voted as "the best anime in history" by the readers of Animage. The film was the best-selling anime DVD in May 2001, and the third best selling in June. Some fans maintain that it is not a "true" Lupin title, due to Miyazaki's altering of the titular character into a family-friendly hero, rather than his original ruthless criminal self. While admitting that Cagliostro is the most well-known, ANN's Mike Crandol cited The Plot of the Fuma Clan as the best Lupin animation. Mania.com gave 2002's Episode 0: First Contact an A+ and hailed it as the best TV special made to date.
The Lupin III television specials released by Funimation have received reviews varying from positive to mixed. The most well-received seems to be Island of Assassins, with Chris Beveridge of Mania.com describing it as "the best non-TV Lupin experience ... since The Castle of Cagliostro", Missed by a Dollar received an eight out of ten rating by IGN's Jeremy Mullin, who stated it starts off as seemingly a simple heist film, but turns out to have plenty of twists. The least well-received of Funimation's releases is Secret of the Twilight Gemini, which received mixed reviews due to the animation and its B movie-style plot. Mania.com gave 2002's Episode 0: First Contact an A+ and hailed it as the best TV special made to date.
Critical reception of the 2014 live-action film was generally negative among Japanese and Western film critics, especially following the film’s showing at LA EigaFest. Areas frequently targeted for criticism were Ryuhei Kitamura's direction, the film’s supporting characters, screenplay, cinematography and editing (especially in the action scenes), costume design and soundtrack. The film was also criticized for having most of the its dialogue performed in English (resulting in poor delivery and intonation of numerous lines by its Asian cast members), and for overall squandering its potential as an adaptation of Monkey Punch’s manga. Shun Oguri, Tetsuji Tamayama, Gō Ayano, Meisa Kuroki and Tadanobu Asano were, however, frequently seen as well-cast in their respective roles. Audience opinions were mixed, with some viewing the film as “an enjoyable time to be had to the whole family”, while others viewed it as part of a “terrible live-action adaptation trend that has been going on through the years”.
Cowboy Bebop and Samurai Champloo director Shinichirō Watanabe revealed during an interview with Newtype Japan that he was heavily influenced by the work of director Masaaki Ōsumi on the first Lupin television series. Animator Akihiro Kanayama has cited the animation of the anime adaption as an inspiration. Numerous series have made reference to the series including Magical Princess Minky Momo, Cat's Eye, Gunbuster, Urusei Yatsura, Cowboy Bebop, Here is Greenwood and FLCL. Video game designer Hideo Kojima compared the personality of Lupin with Solid Snake in Metal Gear Solid, stating that in "MGS, Snake became this sharp-tongued, Lupin III-like guy who flirted with women and told lots of jokes".
On March 30, 1984, the series was the last animated work to be featured on the cover of the Japanese TV Guide magazine before the implementation of a policy limiting the cover to live action images. In 2006, Kanye West's "Touch the Sky" featured rapper Lupe Fiasco referencing Lupin III. In 2008, the Lupin III-themed attraction "Lupin III: Labyrinth Trap", which has visitors track down treasure in a maze-like layout, opened at the Tokyo Dome City Attractions amusement park.
In 2009, Japanese-Canadian rock band Monkey Majik created an animated music video in which its members meet the Lupin III cast. The video, that is set to the band's version of the anime's theme song, promoted the Lupin the Third Dance & Drive official covers & remixes CD. A campaign titled "Lupin Steal Japan" was launched that same year by NTV, TMS Entertainment, Namco Bandai Games, and Heiwa — a manufacturer of pachinko machines. The project's website took suggestions on real-life objects for Lupin to steal. One such example is the Moai statue in Shibuya, which was taken elsewhere for cleaning on December 7, but was replaced by the calling card of the master thief that read "Thanks for the Moai".
In celebration of the anime's 40th anniversary, the "This is the World of Lupin III" event was held at the Matsuya store in Ginza. From August 10 to August 22, 2011, over 300 items related to Lupin III were exhibited, including original manuscripts by Monkey Punch and animation cels from the feature films. The following year a similar exhibit was held at the Kitakyushu museum from November 3 to December 28, and another at the Kawasaki City Museum from October until November 10, 2013. The exhibit then moved to Aomori's Sunroad shopping centre from December 21, 2013 until January 21, 2014.
In 2012, the Hokkaido Railway Company unveiled Lupin III-themed trains on their Hanasaki Line between Kushiro and Nemuro station, in honor of Monkey Punch, who is a native of Hokkaido. The train was originally to run until March 2015, but was then extended until March 2017. From April 1, 2014 to March 31, 2015, the city of Sakura in Chiba prefecture began accepting applications for Lupin III motorcycle and minicar license plates. Monkey Punch is a resident of the city and the plates were commissioned for the 60th anniversary of being awarded city status. The plates were limited to 3000 across 4 categories with 2500 plates reserved for 50cc vehicles.
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