|Pronunciation||Persian pronunciation: [loriː]|
|Native to||Iran; a few villages in eastern Iraq.|
|5 million (2012)|
Central Lurish (Minjai)
lrc – Central Lurish
bqi – Bakhtiari Lurish
luz – Southern Lurish
lki – Laki Lurish
Luri languages. (Note: Iraqi distribution corresponds to that of Southern Kurdish.)
Luri also Lurish is a Western Iranian language continuum spoken by the Lurs in Western Asia. Lurish language forms five language groups known as Feyli lurish, Central Lurish (Minjaee), Bakhtiari, Laki and the Southern Lurish. This language is spoken mainly by the Feyli Lurs (including Minjai, Maleki and Laks), Bakhtiaries and Southern Lurs (Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, Mamasani, Sepidan, Bandar Ganaveh, Deylam).
The Luri language is derived and descended from Middle Persian (Pahlavi). They belong to the Persid or Southern Zagros group, and are lexically similar to modern Persian, differing mainly in phonology.
According to the Encyclopædia Iranica, "All Lori dialects closely resemble standard Persian and probably developed from a stage of Persian similar to that represented in Early New Persian texts written in Perso-Arabic script. The sole typical Lori feature not known in early New Persian or derivable from it is the inchoative marker (see below), though even this is found in Judeo-Persian texts". The Bakhtiāri dialect may be transitional between Kurdish and Persian. However, there was never a common ancestor to Luri. There are two distinct languages, Greater Lors (Lor-e bozorg), a.k.a. Southern Luri (including Bakhtiari dialect), and Lesser Lors (Lor-e kuček), a.k.a. Northern Luri.
Lur peoples of Iran are mainly in provinces of Lorestan, Ilam Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Fars province (especially Mamasani and Rostam), Khuzestan, Esfahan province and Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad and some of this people live in provinces as like as Hamadan province , Qom province , Qazvin province , Gilan province and Kerman province. Identified as Feylis, A large crowd of Lurs is located in Eastern parts of Iraq
The language is divided into five languages: Feyli Lurish; this dialect is used by Feyli people in Northern regions of Ilam, central regions of Kermanshah and significant parts of eastern Iraq in Diyala province (Khanaqin, Mendeli and Muqdadiyah cities) and Baghdad; Cental Lurish; this dialect is spoken by northern parts of Lurish communities including eastern, central and northern parts of Luristan province, Southern parts of Hamadan province mainly in Malayer, Nahavand and Tuyserkan counties, Southern regions of Ilam province and southeastern parts of Markazi province, Laki; this dialect is used in central and northwestern regions of Luristan, central and southern regions of Ilam and southern parts of Kermanshah, Bakhtiari Lurish; this dialect is used by Bakhtiari people in South Luristan, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, significant regions in north and east of Khouzestan and western regions of Isfahan province, and Southern Lurish; which is spoken by total Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, western, and central regions in Fars province, northern and western parts of Bushehr province and southeastern regions of Khouzestan. Several Lurish communities are inhabited sporadicly across Iran Plateau e.g. Khorasan (Beyranvand and Bakhtiare Lurish descendants), Kerman, Guilan and Tehran provinces.
Lurish language in comparison with other Iranian languages has been less affected by foreign invaders language e.g. Arabic and Turkic. Nowadays, many ancient Iranian language characteristics are preserved and can be observed in Lurish grammar and vocabulary. According to diverse regional and socio-ecological conditions and due to longtime social interrelations with adjacent ethnic groups especially Kurds and Persian people, different dialects of Lurish despite mainly common characteristics, have significant differences. Northern dialect tends to have more Kurdish loanwords inside and southern dialects (Bakhtiari and south Lurish) have been more exposed to Persian loanwords.
|Laki||South Lurish||Minjai||Bakhtiari||English||Persian||Persian transcription|
|manga||maga||maga||maga||cow||گاو ماده||gave made|
|bìlam||bēlum||bílam||bēlom||let me||به من اجازه بده||be man ejaze bedeh|
A Comparison between Lurish and English
Some words in Lurish are similar to English words.
- Northern Luri at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Historical Dictionary of Iraq
- "LORI LANGUAGE ii. Sociolinguistic Status – Encyclopædia Iranica".
- Najm S. Mehdi, al-Fayli, Stockholm 2001.
- Black-Michaud, J.. (1974). An Ethnographic and Ecological Survey of Luristan, Western Persia: Modernization in a Nomadic Pastoral Society. Middle Eastern Studies, 10(2), 210–228. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4282526
- Shoup, J.A.2011.Ethnic Groups of Africa and the Middle East: An Encyclopedia.ABC-CLIO, Incorporated. p.177
- B. Grimes (ed.), ‘Luri’, in Ethnologue (13th edition) (Dallas, 1996), p. 677; M. Ruhlen, A Guide to the World’s Languages (Stanford, 1991), p. 327.
- H. Izadpan¯ah, Farhang-e Laki [Lexicon of Laki]: in Persian, (Tehran, 1978).
- (بومیان دره مهرگان) تألیف رحیمی عثمانوندی
- H. Izadpan¯ah, Farhang-e Lori [Lexicon of Luri] (Tehran, 1964).
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Luric". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Erik John Anonby (2003). Update on Luri: How many languages?. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Third Series), 13, pp 171-197. doi:10.1017/S1356186303003067.
- G. R. Fazel, ‘Lur’, in Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey, ed. R. V. Weekes (Westport, 1984), pp. 446–447
- John Limbert، The Origin and Appearance of The Kurds In Pre-Islamic Iran. Iranian Studies. http://www.jstor.org/pss/4309997
- Erik John Anonby, "Update on Luri: How many languages?" // Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Third Series), volume 13, issue 02, Jul 2003, pp 171–197.
- Don Stillo, "Isfahan-Provincial Dialetcs" in Encyclopædia Iranica. Excerpt: "While the modern SWI languages, for instance, Persian, Lori-Baḵtiāri and others, are derived directly from Old Persian through Middle Persian/Pahlavi".
- Bakhtiari tribe and the Bakhtiari dialect[dead link], Encyclopædia Iranica.
- Kurdish language, Encyclopædia Iranica.
- امان الهی بهاروند. اسکندر: قوم لر، انتشارات آگاه، تهران، ۱۳۷۴
- "History and cultural relations - Lur". Everyculture.com. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
- Freidl, Erika. 2015. Warm Hearts and Sharp Tongues: Life in 555 Proverbs from the Zagros Mountains of Iran. Vienna: New Academic Press. ISBN 978-3-7003-1925-2
|Northern Luri edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|Bakhtiari test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
|Laki Lurish test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
|Southern Lurish test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
- Dryer, Matthew S. & Haspelmath, Martin (eds.) 2013. Lur. In the World Atlas of Language Structures Online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Lor
- Bakhtiari tribe Lori dialect, Encyclopædia Iranica
- Lurish language: How many languages? - By Erik John Anonby - The Royal Asiatic Society, 2003 - Printed in the UK