|Native to||Canada, United States|
|Region||Southern British Columbia into Northern Washington|
|Ethnicity||Duwamish, Snohomish, Suquamish, Sammamish, Snoqualmie, Puyallup, Sahewamish, Skagit, Nisqually|
|(100 Skagit cited 1977)
210 Southern Puget (2010 census), 10 Lushootseed proper (2007), 10 Snohomish (1998)
lut – Lushootseed
slh – Southern Puget Sound Salish
ska – Skagit (covered by [lut])
sno – Snohomish (covered by [lut])
Lushootseed (also: xʷəlšucid, dxʷləšúcid, Puget Salish, Puget Sound Salish or Skagit-Nisqually) is the language or dialect continuum of several Salish Native American tribes of modern-day Washington state. Lushootseed is a member of Coast Salish, one of two main divisions of the Salishan language family.
Lushootseed has a complex consonantal phonology, with 41 distinct consonant phonemes. Along with more common voicing and labialization contrasts, Lushootseed has a plain-glotallic contrast, which is be realized as laryngealized with sonorants, ejective with voiceless stops or fricatives, and implosive for /b/.
|Nasal||m, m̥ ̰||n, n̥ ̰|
|Stop||p, b||t, d||k, g||kʷ , gʷ||q, qʷ||ʔ|
|Glottalized stop||p', ɓ||t'||k'||k'ʷ||q', q'ʷ|
|Affricate||ts, dz||cç, ɟ͡ʝ|
|Glottalized affricate||ts', tɬʼ||cç'|
|Fricative||s, ɬ||xʷ||χ, χʷ||h|
|Approximant||l, l ̰||j, j ̰||w~ʋ, w ̰|
Related languages and current status
Lushootseed, like its neighbour Twana, is in the Southern Coast Salish subgroup of the Salishan family of languages. The language was spoken by many Puget Sound region peoples, including the Duwamish, Steilacoom, Suquamish, Squaxin Island Tribe, Muckleshoot, Snoqualmie, Nisqually, and Puyallup in the south and the Snohomish, Stillaguamish, Skagit, and Swinomish in the north.
Ethnologue quotes a source published in 1990 (and therefore presumably reflecting the situation in the late 1980s), according to which there were 60 fluent speakers of Lushootseed, evenly divided between the northern and southern dialects. On the other hand, the Ethnologue's list of United States languages also lists, alongside Lushootseed's 60 speakers, 100 speakers for Skagit, 107 for Southern Puget Sound Salish, and 10 for Snohomish (a dialect on the boundary between the northern and southern varieties). Some sources given for these figures, however, go back to the 1970s when the language was less critically endangered. Linguist Marianne Mithun has collected more recent data on the number of speakers of various Native American languages, and could document that by the end of the 1990s there were only a handful of elders left who spoke Lushootseed fluently. The language was extensively documented and studied by linguists with the aid of tribal elder Vi Hilbert, d. 2008, who was the last speaker with a full native command of Lushootseed. There are efforts at reviving the language, and instructional materials have been published.
As of 2013[update], the Tulalip Tribes' Lushootseed Language Department teaches classes in Lushootseed, and its website offers a Lushootseed "phrase of the week" with audio. The Tulalip Montessori School teaches Lushootseed to young children. As of 2013[update], an annual Lushootseed conference is held at Seattle University. A course in Lushootseed language and literature has been offered at Evergreen State College. Lushootseed has also been used as a part of environmental history courses at Pacific Lutheran University. It has been spoken during the annual Tribal Canoe Journey (Tribal Journeys) that take place throughout the Salish Sea.
There are also efforts within the Puyallup Tribe. Their website and social media, aimed at anyone interested in learning the language, are updated often.
In the summer of 2016, the first ever adult immersion program in Lushootseed was offered at the University of Washington's Tacoma campus. It was taught by Assistant Professor Danica Miller, a member of the Puyallup Tribe, in the School of Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences.
Lushootseed consists of two dialect groups which can be further divided into subdialects:
- Northern Lushootseed or Lushootseed (Northern Puget Sound Salish)
- Snohomish (Sdoh-doh-hohbsh or Sdohobich) (spoke the Sduhubš / Snohomish dialect, a transitional dialect between Northern and Southern Lushootseed; today as part of the Tulalip Tribes of Washington they developed the dxʷləšucid or Tulalip Lushootseed dialect)
- Stillaguamish (Stoluck-wa-mish River Tribe) (spoke a separate dialect; today many are part of the Tulalip Tribes of Washington and developed the dxʷləšucid or Tulalip Lushootseed dialect)
- Skagit, Skaǰət-Swinomish or Lower Skagit-Swinomish dialects
- Lower Skagit (Whidbey Island Skagit) (on Skagit River and on Whidbey Island, subdialect of Skaǰət-Swinomish)
- Upper Skagit (along upper Skagit River, subdialect of Skaǰət-Swinomish)
- Swinomish (at the mouth of Skagit Rivers and northern part of Whidbey Island, sometimes considered a Lower Skagit band, subdialect of Skaǰət-Swinomish)
- Kikiallus (Ki Ki Allus or Kikyalus) (between Lower Skagit and Swinomish lands, sometimes considered a Lower Skagit band, Kikiallus subdialect of Skaǰət-Swinomish)
- Sauk-Suiattle (Sah-Ku-Me-Hu) (on Sauk River and Suiattle River, Suiʼaẋbixʷ or Sauk-Suiattle dialect)
- Southern Lushootseed or Whulshootseed / Twulshootseed (Southern Puget Sound Salish)
- Skykomish (Skai-whamish) (originally considered a subdivision of the Snoqualmies,
- Snoqualmie (S·dukʷalbixʷ / Sduqwalbixw) (along Tolt River and Snoqualmie River, spoke the Sduqʷalbixʷ or Snoqualmie subdialect, often grouped as Txʷǝlšucid or Twulshootseed local dialect)
- bǝqǝlšuɫucid (Muckleshoot Language) (on Green and White rivers)
- Puyallup (Spuyaləpabš or S’Puyalupubsh) (lived throughout the river basin of the Puyallup River, at Gig Harbor and Wollochet Bay and on Vashon Island, spoke the Txʷǝlšucid or Twulshootseed local dialect)
- Nisqually ('Susqually'absh or sq̓ʷaliʼabš)
- Snohomish (Sdoh-doh-hohbsh) (around the Puget Sound area of Washington, north of Seattle)
- Squaxin Island Tribe
According to work published by Vi Hilbert and other Lushootseed language specialists, Lushootseed uses a morphophonemic writing system meaning that it is a phonemic alphabet which changes to reflect the pronunciation such as when an affix is introduced. The chart below is based on the Lushootseed Dictionary. Typographic variations such as p' and p̓ do not indicate phonemic distinctions.
|bʼ||Glottalized b||/ɓ/||Rare sound, does not begin words|
|ƛʼ||Glottalized barred-lambda||/t͜ɬʼ/||Alveolar lateral ejective affricate|
|mʼ||Strictured m||/m̥ ̰ /||Laryngealized bilabial nasal|
|nʼ||Strictured n||/n̥ ̰/||Laryngealized alveolar nasal|
|wʼ||Strictured w||/w ̰/||Laryngealized high back rounded glide|
|yʼ||Strictured y||/j ̰/||Laryngealized high front unrounded glide|
The Lushootseed language originates from the coastal region of Northwest Washington State and the Southwest coast of Canada. Many of the words in the Lushootseed language are related to the environment and the fishing economy that surrounded the Salish tribes. The following tables show different words from different Lushootseed dialects relating to the salmon fishing and coastal economies.
|Southern Lushootseed Salmonoid Vocabulary|
|sčədadx||a word that covers all Pacific salmon and some species of trout.|
|sac̓əb||Chinook or King|
|hədu||the pink salmon|
|ʔalil tiʔiɫ ƛ̕usq̓íl||spawning season|
|sqʼʷəlus||kippered dried salmon|
|qəlx̌||dried salmon eggs|
|sxʷudᶻəʔdaliɫəd||fish with a large amount of body fat|
|Northern Lushootseed Salmonid Vocabulary|
|sʔuladxʷ||a word that covers all Pacific salmon and some species of trout.|
|yubəč||Chinook or King|
|Northern Lushootseed Aquatic Vocabulary|
|qalʼqaləx̌ič||blackfish - killer whale|
|ʔaləšək||Western pond turtle|
|sx̌aʔaʔ||little neck steam clams|
|xʷč́iɫqs||large native oyster|
|č́ič́əlpyaqid / puʔps||periwinkle|
- Lushootseed at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Southern Puget Sound Salish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Skagit (covered by [lut)] at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Snohomish (covered by [lut)] at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Lushootseed–Puget". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Ethnologue, Lushootseed
- Ethnologue, US languages
- Brown, Drew (2003). "History professor helps keep local Native American language alive". Scene - Life of the Mind, Pacific Lutheran University. Retrieved 2013-04-04.
- "Tulalip Lushootseed". Tualip Tribes. Retrieved 2013-04-04.
- Fiege, Gale (2013-03-31). "For students, Tulalip Tribes' native language a connection to the past". HeraldNet.com. Everett, WA. Retrieved 2013-04-04.
- "Lushootseed". Tulalip Tribes. Retrieved 2013-04-04.
- Gauld, Ben (June 24, 2015). "Voices of Youth Keep Lushootseed Language Alive". 94.9 FM - Seattle News & Information. Retrieved 2015-10-03.
- "dxʷləšucid, Lushootseed Research". Retrieved 2013-04-04.
- Lushootseed_Syllabus_06.pdf (PDF), retrieved 2013-04-04
- Scigliano, Eric (2010-12-17). "The Language of the Land". Seattle Met. Retrieved 2013-09-23.
- UWT to offer Lushootseed immersion program this summer, Puyallup Tribal News, April 7, 2016 (retrieved April 25, 2016)
- Eijk, Jan Van. The Lillooet Language: Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, UBC Press, 1985, p.xxiv.
Language learning materials
- Bates, D., Hess, T., & Hilbert, V. (1994). Lushootseed dictionary. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 9780295973234
- Beck, David. "Transitivity and causation in Lushootseed morphology." Working Papers of the Linguistics Circle 13 (1996): 11-20.
- Indiana University, Bloomington (1996). Lushootseed texts: an introduction to Puget Salish narrative aesthetics. Studies in the anthropology of North American Indians. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press in cooperation with the American Indian Studies Research Institute, Indiana University, Bloomington. ISBN 0803212623.
- Chamberlain, Rebecca, Lushootseed Language & Literature: Program reader. (Lushootseed language, cultural, and storytelling traditions.)
- Hess, Thom (1995). Lushootseed reader. University of Montana occasional papers in linguistics. S.l.: Tulalip Tribes. ISBN 1879763141.
- Hess, Tom and Vi Hilbert. Lushootseed Book 1; The language of the Skagit, Nisqually, and other tribes of Puget Sound. An Introduction. Lushootseed Press 1995
- Hess, Tom and Vi Hilbert. Lushootseed Book 2 (Advanced Lushootseed). Lushootseed Press, 1995
- Hess, Tom (1995). Lushootseed Reader with Introductory Grammar. Missoula: University of Montana. ISBN 1879763117.
- Hilbert, Vi. Haboo: Native American Stories from Puget Sound. Seattle: University of Washington, 1985
- Hilbert, Vi, Crisca Bierwest, Thom Hess. Way of the Lushootseed People; Ceremonies & Traditions of North Puget Sound's First People. Third Edition, Lushootseed Press, 2001
- dxʷlešucid xʷgʷədgʷatəd tul̓ʔal taqʷšəblu; Some Lushootseed Vocabulary from taqʷšəblu. Lushootseed Press, 1993
|For a list of words relating to Lushootseed language, see the Lushootseed language category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Puyallup Tribal Language Program
- The Tulalip Lushootseed Department's Website
- History professor helps keep local Native American language alive by Drew Brown for PLU Scene Magazine
- Lushootseed Peoples of Puget Sound Country
- Lushootseed Research
- Dr. David Beck, Salishan Language specialist
- Developing a corpus for Lushootseed