Lusitanian mythology

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Lusitanian mythology is the mythology of the Lusitanians, the Indo-European people of western Iberia, in the territory comprising most of modern Portugal, Extremadura and a small part of Salamanca.

Lusitanian deities heavily influenced all of the religious practices in western Iberia, namely also in Gallaecia. They mingled with Roman deities after Lusitania was conquered.[1]

Main pantheon[edit]

Of particular importance and popularity, especially following the Roman conquest, were a number of deities among whom were Endovelicus, Ataegina, Nabia and Trebaruna. Endovelicus was a god of healing and also had oracular functions. With ninety-four separate dedications,[1] he appears to have been the most important of all. Ataegina is less well defined; her name has been derived from Celtic *atte-gena perhaps meaning "reborn". Nabia may have been two separate deities, the consort of the Lusitanian equivalent of the Roman Jupiter and another associated with earth and sacred springs[2] while Trebaruna's name appears in inscriptions in the Lusitanian language associated with another, presumably male deity named Reve, whom Witczak[3] suggests may be the equivalent of the Roman Iovis or Jupiter, both names ultimately deriving from Proto-Indo-European *diewo-.

Bandua or Bandi is another with numerous dedications: the name is male in most inscriptions and yet the only depiction being female, it seems the name referred to numerous deities, especially since Bandi/Bandue often carries an epithet associating the name with that of a town or other location such as Bandua Roudaeco, Etobrico or Brealiacui. The god or goddess was probably the protector of the local community, often associated with the Roman Mars[4] and in one dedication is considered a god or goddess of the Vexillum or standard.[5]

Nabia had double invocation, one male and one female. The supreme Nabia is related to Jupiter and another incarnation of the deity, identified with Diana, Juno or Victoria or others from the Roman pantheon, linked to the protection and defense of the community or health, wealth and fertility.

Bandua, Reue, Arentius-Arentia, Quangeius, Munidis, Trebaruna, Laneana, and Nabia worshiped in the heart of Lusitania vanishes almost completely outside the boundary with the Vettones. Bandua, Reue and Nabia were worshiped in the core area of Lusitania (including Northern Extremadura to Beira Baixa and Northern Lusitania) and reaching inland Galicia, the diffusion of these gods throughout the whole of the northern interior area shows a cultural continuity with Central Lusitania.

Two regional deities in Western Iberia do not occur in the region: Crouga, worshiped around Viseu, and Aernus, in the Bragança area. The largest number of indigenous deities found in the whole Iberian Peninsula are located in the Lusitanian-Galician regions, and models proposing a fragmented and disorganized pantheon have been discarded, since the number of deities occurring together is similar to other Celtic peoples in Europe and ancient civilizations.

Deities[edit]

Dii, Lares, Nymphs and Genii, were the main types of divinity worshiped, known from the Latin epigraphy, although many names are recorded in the Lusitanian or Celtiberian languages.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b Katia Maia-Bessa and Jean-Pierre Martin (1999)
  2. ^ P. Le Roux and A. Tranoy (1974)
  3. ^ Krzysztof Tomasz Witczak, Lódz (1999)
  4. ^ Juan Carlos Olivares Pedreño (2005)
  5. ^ Juan Francisco Masdeu (1688)
Sources

External links[edit]