|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2013)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Goa · Daman and Diu · Dadra and Nagar Haveli · Kerala · Tamil Nadu|
|Malayalam · Tamil · Other Indian languages|
Majority Roman Catholicism
|Related ethnic groups|
|Portuguese Burghers · Goan Catholics|
Luso-Indian is a subgroup ethnicity from Luso-Asians and are people who have mixed varied Indian subcontinent and Portuguese ancestry or people of Portuguese descent born or living in the Republic of India and the world. Most of them live in former Portuguese overseas territories of the Estado da India which are currently a part of the newly formed independent nation as a Union in 1947 called the Republic of India from British raj. Luso-Asians of the Indian subcontinent are primarily from Goa, Daman and Diu, Korlai, Silvassa, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala.
- 1 History
- 2 Portuguese speaking communities in Republic of India
- 3 Portuguese speaking communities pre-independence British raj India
- 4 Luso-Indians, Luso-Goans outside the Republic of India
- 5 Luso-Indians & Luso-Goans
- 6 See also
- 7 References
In the 16th Century, a thousand years after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Portuguese became the first European power to begin trading in the Indian Ocean. They were in South India a few years before the Moghuls appeared in the North. In the early 16th century, they set up their trading posts (factories) throughout the coastal areas of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, with their capital in Goa in South West India on the Malabar Coast.
In 1498, the number of Europeans residents in the area is merely a few tens of thousands. By 1580, Goa was a sophisticated city with its own brand of Indo-Portuguese society. Early in the development of Portuguese society in India, the Portuguese Admiral D.Afonso de Albuquerque encouraged Portuguese soldiers to marry native women and this was termed as Politicos dos casamentos.
The Portuguese also shipped over many Orfas del Rei to Portuguese India, Goa in particular. Orfas del Rei literally translates to "Orphans of the King", and they were Portuguese girl orphans sent to overseas territories to marry either Portuguese settlers or natives with high status.
Arrival of other Europeans
The English, French and Dutch East India Companies (EIC's) became active in Far East trading in a meaningful way about a hundred and fifty years after the Portuguese. They too set up their posts throughout the Indian Ocean. By the middle of the 17th century there were several thousand Portuguese and Luso-Indians in India and a relatively small population of other Indo-Europeans. By the end of the 17th century, the East India Companies had established three major trading posts in India – Fort St. George (Chennai), Fort St William (Kolkata) and Bombay Island. In 1670, the Portuguese population in Madras numbered around 3000.
In the 17th century, Portuguese Jews from Amsterdam and London were coming to Madras as settlers and traders. One of the first Jews who came to Madras with special permission to reside and trade there was Jacques (Jaime) de Paiva (Pavia) who convinced the English authorities to permit Jews to settle in Madras and he was the one who organised the Jews into the semblance of a community. On a plot of land in the suburbs he established a Jewish cemetery. The East India Company used Portuguese Jews based in Madras in its diplomatic efforts to expand English trading.
By the mid-eighteenth century most Portuguese Jews had emigrated to London, leaving very few in Madras. The gravestones of the old Jewish cemetery were moved to the Central Park of Madras in 1934 with the gate of the cemetery on which is written "Beit ha-Haim" in Hebrew letters, the last vestige of Jewish presence in Madras in the seventeenth century.
Portuguese speaking communities in Republic of India
Luso-Goans or Portu-Goesas: Goa was the capital of a large Portuguese eastern empire and was called "Rome of the East". The area has a diverse and extremely complicated history resulting in a rich diversity of ethnicities, one of the respected and renowned communities is the Luso-Goans whose story is connected with the arrival and conquering of Goa by the Portuguese explorers and Iberian sailors. Luso-Goans ethnicity could be of part European, or multiple part European or dominant Asian gene with primarily Mughal or Goud Saraswat Brahmin origins, while some are of Luso-African-Goan (Multiple-ethnicities) due to Goa's contacts with the African territories of Portugal and the British African colonies. Luso-Goans spoke Konkani and Portuguese with present generation adding English as well, and write Konkani in the Latin alphabet. Portuguese was the language of overseas province governance, however it is now spoken only by a small segment of the upper-class families and about 3 to 5 per cent of the people still speak the official language of 450 years inclusion (estimated at 60,000 to 90,000 people). The last Newspaper in Portuguese ended the publication in 1980s (i.e. O Heraldo switched from Portuguese to English overnight in the mid eighties). However, the "Fundação do Oriente" and the Indo–Portuguese Friendship Society (Sociedade de Amizade Indo-Portuguesa) are still active. At Panaji many signs in Portuguese are still visible over shops, administrative buildings etc. although the 20th century Republic of India invasion and annexation of Goa termed as Indian annexation of Goa has changed the names. There is a department of Portuguese language at the Goa University and majority of Luso-Goan students choose Portuguese as their third language in schools. Ironically, English is spoken as a first language by all upper class Goans. Luso-Goans have a choice to either be fully Portuguese citizens or fully Indian citizens or fully Portuguese citizens with an OCI (Overseas citizenship of India) granted by the Indian nationality law. Majority of Luso-Goans from the past noble hierarchy have a well documented family history and heritage recorded and maintained in various archives at Portugal, Goa, Brazil and Britain and many are directly descended and related to royal lineages of Europe and Asia. During the absolute monarchy, nobles of Goa enjoyed the most privileged status and held the most important offices after members of the Kingdom ruling dynasty and major hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church, with the introduction of the constitutional monarchy in 1834, the influence of Portuguese Kingdom and its Empire nobles substantially decreased, although the erosion of their power had begun to accelerate from the time of the prime minister, the Marquis de Pombal, in the mid-18th century. After Portugal became a republic in 1910, some Luso-Goan descendants of the nobility at Goa continued to bear their families' titles according to standards sustained by the Portuguese Institute of Nobility (Instituto da Nobreza Portuguesa), traditionally under the authority of the head of the formerly ruling House of Braganza.
In the Coromandel Coast, Luso-Indians were generally known as Topasses. They were Catholics and spoke Portuguese Creole. When England began to rule in India, they began to speak English in place of the Portuguese and also anglicised their names. They are, now, part of the Eurasian community. In Negapatam, in 1883, there were 20 families that spoke Creole Portuguese. There are currently about 2000 people who speak Creole Portuguese in Damão while in Diu the language is nearly extinct. About 900 monolingual people currently speak Creole Portuguese in Korlai. In Kochi, Luso-Indians now number about 2,000.
Portuguese speaking communities pre-independence British raj India
Numerous Luso-Indians and Luso-Goans were based in Karachi as businessmen, tradesmen and other administrative positions. Many Anglo-Indians resided at Karachi as well and often married Luso-Asians. The descendants are part of a minority community and are Pakistani citizens and cannot visit their ancestral family homes at Goa post the 1961 Indian annexation of Goa with ease.
Luso-Indians, Luso-Goans outside the Republic of India
During Portuguese governance in parts of today's Republic of India, many Luso-Indian, Luso-Goan mestiços left the Indian subcontinent for other Portuguese territories and colonies for purposes of trade. Some also became Roman Catholic missionaries in Macau, Indonesia and Japan. One such mestiço was Gonsalo Garcia, a Catholic saint who was martyred in Japan in 1597. Other Luso-Indians went to Macau, then a Portuguese colony, where they intermarried into the local Macanese population. Goan mestiços are among the ancestors of many Macanese today. Before heading to Macau, Luso-Indians migrated to Malacca, Singapore, and Indonesia. Still other Luso-Indians went to Portuguese Mozambique. Known members of the Luso-Indian Mozambican community are Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho, a leader of the Carnation Revolution against the Estado Novo in Portugal, Zeinal Bava, and Orlando da Costa, a writer who was born in Mozambique and lived until the age of 18 in Goa.
The mestiço children of wealthy Portuguese men were often sent to Portugal to study. Sometimes they remained there and established families. Many Portuguese-born mestiços became prominent politicians, lawyers, writers or celebrities. Alfredo Nobre da Costa, who was briefly Prime Minister of Portugal in 1978, was of partial Goan descent on his father's side. Similarly, current Mayor of Lisbon António Costa is one-quarter Goan from his father, Orlando da Costa. Television presenter Catarina Furtado is also part Indian.
Following the 1961 Indian annexation of Goa, many ethnic Portuguese living in Goa, as well as Goan assimilados and mestiços or Luso-Indians fled Goa for Portugal, Brazil or Portuguese Africa, others continued to live in Goa which is under the statehood of the Republic of India.
Luso-Indians & Luso-Goans
- Anthony Firingee – Bengali language folk poet
- Casimiro Monteiro – PIDE agent who carried out the high profile assassinations of Portuguese politicians, Humberto Delgado and Eduardo Mondlane
- Henry Louis Vivian Derozio – Indian teacher and poet
- Gonsalo Garcia – Roman Catholic saint
- Juliana Dias da Costa – Harem-Queen to the Mughal emperors of India Bahadur Shah I
- : Countries and Their Cultures – Europeans in South Asia
- Charles, H. (2011). A history of the inquisition of spain: And the inquisition in the spanish dependencies. I. B. Tauris.
- : Indo Europeans – Europeans in India
- : THE PORTUGUESE JEWISH COMMUNITY OF MADRAS, INDIA, IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY