Shades of red

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Red
 
Color icon red.svg
Spectral coordinates
Wavelength ~630–740[1] nm
Frequency ~480–405 THz
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FF0000
sRGBB  (rgb) (255, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (0°, 100%, 100%)
Source HTML/CSS[2]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Varieties of the color red may differ in hue, chroma (also called saturation, intensity, or colorfulness) or lightness (or value, tone, or brightness), or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are also called tints and shades, a tint being a red or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below.

Notable tints of red[edit]

Pink[edit]

Pink
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FFC0CB
sRGBB  (rgb) (255, 192, 203)
HSV       (h, s, v) (350°, 25%, 100%)
Source X11 color names[3]
HTML/CSS[4]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

At right is displayed the web color pink, a light tint of red. The pink is often considered to be a basic color term on its own.

Salmon pink[edit]

Salmon (Crayola)
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FF91A4
sRGBB  (rgb) (255, 145, 164)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 54, 42, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (350°, 43%, 100%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the pinkish tone of salmon that is called salmon in Crayola crayons.

This color was introduced by Crayola in 1949. See the List of Crayola crayon colors.

Coral pink[edit]

Coral Pink
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #F88379
sRGBB  (rgb) (248, 131, 121)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 50, 49, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (16°, 69%, 100%)
Source ISCC-NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color coral pink is displayed at right, a pinkish orange color.

Salmon[edit]

Salmon
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FA8072
sRGBB  (rgb) (250, 128, 114)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 45, 69, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (14°, 52%, 100%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The web color salmon is displayed at right.

Computer web color red[edit]

Red (RGB)[edit]

Red (RGB)
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FF0000
sRGBB  (rgb) (255, 0, 0)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (Not, possible, in, CMYK)
HSV       (h, s, v) (0°, 100%, 100%)
Source HTML/CSS[4]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
Red, green and blue lights, representing the three basic additive primary colors of the RGB color system, red, green, and blue.

The color displayed at right, Red (RGB), RGB red, or electric red (i.e., as opposed to pigment red, shown below) is the brightest possible red that can be reproduced on a computer monitor. This color is an approximation of an orangish red spectral color. It is one of the three primary colors of light in the RGB color model, along with green and blue. The three additive primaries in the RGB color system are the three colors of light chosen such as to provide the maximum gamut of colors that are capable of being represented on a computer or television set, at a reasonable expense of power. Portable devices such as mobile phones might have even narrower gamut due to this purity–power tradeoff and their "red" may be less colorful and more orangish than the standard red of sRGB.

This color is also the color called red in the X11 web colors, which were originally formulated in 1987. It is also called color wheel red. It is at precisely zero (360) degrees on the HSV color wheel, also known as the RGB color wheel (Image of RGB color wheel). Its complementary color is cyan.

Additional definitions of red[edit]

Red (CMYK) (pigment red)[edit]

Pigment Red
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #ED1C24
sRGBB  (rgb) (237, 28, 36)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 100, 100, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (358°, 88%, 93%)
Source CMYK[dead link]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
Cyan, magenta, and yellow are the three subtractive primary colors used in printing.

Pigment red is the color red that is achieved by mixing process (printer's) magenta and process (printer's) yellow in equal proportions. This is the color red that is shown in the diagram located at the bottom of the following website offering tintbooks for CMYK printing: [1][dead link].

The purpose of the CMYK color system is to provide the maximum possible gamut of colors capable of being reproduced in printing.

Psychedelic art made people used to brighter colors of red, and pigment colors or colored pencils called "true red" are produced by mixing pigment red with a tiny amount of white. The result approximates (with much less brightness that is possible on a computer screen) the electric red shown above.

Red (NCS) (psychological primary red)[edit]

Red (NCS)
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #C40233
sRGBB  (rgb) (196, 2, 51)
HSV       (h, s, v) (345°, 99%, 77[5]%)
Source sRGB approximation to NCS S 1080-R[6]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
Approximations within the sRGB gamut to the primary colors of the Natural Color System, a model based on the opponent process theory of color vision.

The color defined as red in the NCS or Natural Color System is shown at right (NCS 1080-R). The Natural Color System is a color system based on the four unique hues or psychological primary colors red, yellow, green, and blue. The NCS is based on the opponent process theory of vision.

The "Natural Color System" is widely used in Scandinavia.

Red (Munsell)[edit]

Red (Munsell)
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #F2003C
sRGBB  (rgb) (242, 0, 60)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 100, 75, 5)
HSV       (h, s, v) (345°, 100%, 95[7]%)
Source Munsell Color Wheel
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
The hues of the Munsell color system, at varying values, and maximum chroma to stay in the sRGB gamut.

The color defined as red in the Munsell color system (Munsell 5R) is shown at right. The Munsell color system is a color space that specifies colors based on three color dimensions: hue, value (lightness), and chroma (color purity), spaced uniformly in three dimensions in the elongated oval at an angle shaped Munsell color solid according to the logarithmic scale which governs human perception. In order for all the colors to be spaced uniformly, it was found necessary to use a color wheel with five primary colors—red, yellow, green, blue, and purple.

The Munsell colors displayed are only approximate as they have been adjusted to fit into the sRGB gamut.

Red (Pantone)[edit]

Red (Pantone)
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #ED2939
sRGBB  (rgb) (237, 41, 57)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 83, 76, 7)
HSV       (h, s, v) (355°, 83%, 93[8]%)
Source Pantone TPX[9]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color defined as red in Pantone is displayed at right.

The source of this color is the "Pantone Textile Paper eXtended (TPX)" color list, color #032M—Red.[10]

Red (Crayola)[edit]

Red (Crayola)
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #EE204D
sRGBB  (rgb) (238, 32, 77)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 87, 68, 7)
HSV       (h, s, v) (347°, 87%, 93[11]%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color defined as red in Crayola crayons is displayed at right.

Red was one of the original colors formulated by Crayola in 1903.

Notable shades of red[edit]

Scarlet[edit]

Scarlet
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FF2400
sRGBB  (rgb) (255, 36, 0)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 86, 100, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (8°, 100%, 100%)
Source [Unsourced]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Scarlet is a bright red with a slightly orange tinge. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, scarlet and other bright shades of red are the colors most associated with courage, force, passion, heat, and joy.[12] In the Roman Catholic Church, scarlet is the color worn by a cardinal, and is associated with the blood of Christ and the Christian martyrs, and with sacrifice.

Imperial red[edit]

Imperial Standard of Napoleon I.

See also Imperial blue

Imperial Red
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #ED2939
sRGBB  (rgb) (237, 41, 57)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 82, 76, 7)
HSV       (h, s, v) (355°, 83%, 93[8]%)
Source Vexillological[13]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color imperial red.

Imperial red is a representation of the red color of the Imperial Standard of Napoleon I.

The first recorded use of imperial red as a color name in English was in 1914.[14] Note: the RGB values for Pantone Red and Imperial Red are identical.

Indian red[edit]

Indian Red
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #CD5C5C
sRGBB  (rgb) (205, 92, 92)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 52, 52, 25)
HSV       (h, s, v) (0°, 52%, 75[15]%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The name Indian red derives from the red laterite soil found in India, which is composed of naturally occurring iron oxides. The first recorded use of "Indian red" as a color term in English was in 1792.[16]

Spanish red[edit]

Red (G&S)
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #E60026
sRGBB  (rgb) (230, 0, 38)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 100, 85, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (350°, 100%, 90%)
Source Gallego and Sanz[17][18]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Spanish red is the color that is called Rojo (the Spanish word for "red") in the Guía de coloraciones (Guide to colorations) by Rosa Gallego and Juan Carlos Sanz, a color dictionary published in 2005 that is widely popular in the Hispanophone realm.

Carmine[edit]

Carmine
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #960018
sRGBB  (rgb) (150, 0, 24)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 75, 42, 1)
HSV       (h, s, v) (350°, 100%, 59[19]%)
Source Pourpre.com
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color carmine is a saturated red. In its pigment form it mostly contains the red light with wavelengths longer than 600 nm, i.e. it is close to the extreme spectral red. This places it far beyond standard gamuts (both RGB and CMYK), and given RGB value is a poor approximation only.

Ruby[edit]

Ruby
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #E0115F
sRGBB  (rgb) (224, 17, 95)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 92, 57, 12)
HSV       (h, s, v) (337°, 92%, 88[20]%)
Source Maerz and Paul[21]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Ruby is a color that is a representation of the color of the cut and polished ruby gemstone.

Crimson[edit]

Crimson
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #DC143C
sRGBB  (rgb) (220, 20, 60)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 122, 73, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (348°, 91%, 86%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Crimson is a strong, bright, deep red color combined with some blue and/or violet, resulting in a tiny degree of purple.

Rusty red[edit]

Rusty Red
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #DA2C43
sRGBB  (rgb) (218, 44, 67)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 80, 69, 15)
HSV       (h, s, v) (352°, 80%, 86[22]%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color rusty red is displayed at right. Rusty red is a color formulated by Crayola in 1990 as one of the colors in its Silver Swirls specialty box of metallic colors.

It is supposed to be a metallic color, and there is no mechanism for displaying metallic colors on a computer monitor.

Fire engine red[edit]

Fire Engine Red
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #CE2029
sRGBB  (rgb) (206, 32, 41)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 89, 80, 19)
HSV       (h, s, v) (357°, 89%, 81%)
Source [23]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Fire engine red is an intense, bright red commonly used on emergency vehicles; mostly on, as the name implies, fire engines.

Cardinal red[edit]

Cardinal
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #C41E3A
sRGBB  (rgb) (196, 30, 58)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 85, 70, 23)
HSV       (h, s, v) (350°, 85%, 77%)
Source Maerz and Paul
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Cardinal red, also called cardinal, is a vivid red, which gets its name from the cassocks worn by cardinals. The family of birds takes its name from the color.

Chili red[edit]

Chili red
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #E23D28
sRGBB  (rgb) (226, 61, 40)
HSV       (h, s, v) (5°, 183%, 125%)
Source [Unsourced]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Chili red is the color of red chili peppers. It is the shade of red used in the flags of Chile and South Africa

Cornell Red[edit]

Cornell Red
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #B31B1B
sRGBB  (rgb) (179, 27, 27)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 100, 79, 20)
HSV       (h, s, v) (0°, 84.9%, 70.2%)
Source Official Logo
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the university color Cornell Red.

Another name for this color is Carnelian.

Fire brick[edit]

Fire Brick
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #B22222
sRGBB  (rgb) (178, 34, 34)
HSV       (h, s, v) (0°, 74%, 42%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Displayed at right is the web color fire brick.

Madder[edit]

Madder
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #A50021
sRGBB  (rgb) (165, 0, 33)
Source Internet
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Displayed at right is the color madder.

Redwood[edit]

Redwood
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #A45A52
sRGBB  (rgb) (164, 90, 82)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 45, 50, 36)
HSV       (h, s, v) (6°, 50%, 64[24]%)
Source Pantone TPX[25]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color redwood is displayed at right.

The color redwood is a representation of color of the wood of the redwood tree (Sequoia sempervirens).

The first recorded use of redwood as a color name in English was in 1917.[26]

The source of this color is the "Pantone Textile Paper eXtended (TPX)" color list, color #18-1443—Redwood.[10]

OU Crimson[edit]

OU Logo
OU Crimson Red
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #841617
sRGBB  (rgb) (132, 22, 23)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 100, 65, 34)
Source OU Brand website
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

OU Crimson, along with Cream, are the official colors for the University of Oklahoma, and its athletic teams, the Oklahoma Sooners. In the fall of 1895, Miss May Overstreet was asked to chair a committee to select the colors of the university. The committee decided the colors should be crimson and cream and an elaborate display of the colors was draped above a platform before the student body.[27]

OU Crimson is also an official color for the National Weather Center.[28]

Chocolate Cosmos[edit]

Chocolate Cosmos
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #58111a
sRGBB  (rgb) (88, 17, 26)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 81, 70, 65)
HSV       (h, s, v) (352°, 80%, 34%)
Source Internet
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Cholocalate cosmos, or red cosmos is the color of Cosmos atrosanguineus species.[29][30]

The color is richly described as dark red, deep crimson color, deeper burgundy, deep red chocolate, as dark hazelnut and velvety maroon.

Chocolate flower

Dark red[edit]

Dark Red
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #8B0000
sRGBB  (rgb) (139, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (0°, 100%, 56%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Displayed at right is the web color dark red.

Maroon (HTML/CSS)[edit]

Maroon
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #800000
sRGBB  (rgb) (128, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (0°, 100%, 50%)
Source HTML/CSS[4]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Displayed at right is the web color called maroon in HTML/CSS.

Barn red[edit]

Barn Red
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #7C0A02
sRGBB  (rgb) (124, 10, 2)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 92, 98, 51)
HSV       (h, s, v) (4°, 98%, 49[31]%)
Source Milk Paint
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color barn red.

This is one of the colors on one of the milk paint color lists, paint colors formulated to reproduce the colors historically used on the American frontier and made, like those paints were, with milk. This color is mixed with various amounts of white paint to create any desired shade of the color barn red.[32]

Turkey red[edit]

Turkey red
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #A91101
sRGBB  (rgb) (169, 17, 1)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 90, 99, 34)
Source [Unsourced]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color Turkey red.

Turkey red is a color that was widely used to dye cotton in the 18th and 19th century. It was made using the root of the Rubia plant, through a long and laborious process. It originated in India or Turkey, and was brought to Europe in the 1740s. In France it was known as rouge d'Andrinople.[33]

Cinnabar[edit]

Cinnabar
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #E44D2E
sRGBB  (rgb) (228, 77, 48)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 66, 80, 11)
HSV       (h, s, v) (10°, 80%, 89%)
Source Thom Poole's 2017 book Life of Colour[34]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color cinnabar derives from the mineral of the same name. It is a slightly orange shade of red, with variations ranging from bright scarlet to brick.

Blood red[edit]

Blood red
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #660000
sRGBB  (rgb) (102, 0, 0)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 95, 84, 27)
HSV       (h, s, v) (0°, 100%, 40%)
Source Thom Poole's 2017 book Life of Colour[34]:80
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color of blood ranges from crimson to a dark brown-red and may have a slightly orange hue. In the RGB color spectrum, it often consists only of the color red, with no green or blue component; in the CYMK color model blood red has no cyan, and consists only of magenta and yellow with a small amount of black. It is frequently darker than either maroon or dark red.

Wrapping the spectrum into a color wheel[edit]

If the visible spectrum is wrapped to form a color wheel, red appears midway between orange and magenta:

Linear visible spectrum.svg
Visible spectrum wrapped to join magenta and yellow in an additive mixture of red

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thomas J. Bruno, Paris D. N. Svoronos. CRC Handbook of Fundamental Spectroscopic Correlation Charts. CRC Press, 2005.
    Color
  2. ^ "CSS Color Module Level 3". Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  3. ^ X11 rgb.txt. XFree86. (February 1994). Retrieved on 16 September 2008.
  4. ^ a b c W3C TR CSS3 Color Module, HTML4 color keywords. W3C. (May 2003). Retrieved on 16 September 2008.
  5. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB color converter - toolstud.io". Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  6. ^ The sRGB values are taken by converting the NCS color 1080-R using the "NCS Navigator" tool at the NCS website.
  7. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB color converter - toolstud.io". Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  8. ^ a b Forret, Peter. "RGB color converter - toolstud.io". Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  9. ^ Type the word "Red" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear.
  10. ^ a b "Search - Find a PANTONE Color". Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  11. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB color converter - toolstud.io". Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  12. ^ Eva Heller (2009), Psychologie de la couleur; effets et symboliques, pp. 42-49
  13. ^ The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called imperial red in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color imperial red is displayed on page 27, Plate 2, Color Sample L11.
  14. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 196; Color Sample of Imperial Red: Page 27 Plate 2 Color Sample L11
  15. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB color converter - toolstud.io". Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  16. ^ Mish, Frederic C., Editor in Chief Webster's Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.:1994 – Merriam-Webster Page 592
  17. ^ Gallego, Rosa; Sanz, Juan Carlos (2005). Guía de coloraciones (Gallego, Rosa; Sanz, Juan Carlos (2005). Guide to Colorations) Madrid: H. Blume. ISBN 84-89840-31-8
  18. ^ Gallego, Rose and Sanz, Juan Carlos "Diccionario Akal del color" (2001) Akal ISBN 978-84-460-1083-8
  19. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB color converter - toolstud.io". Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  20. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB color converter - toolstud.io". Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  21. ^ The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called ruby in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color ruby is displayed on page 35, Plate 6, Color Sample G6.
  22. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB color converter - toolstud.io". Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  23. ^ "Fire Engine Red". FindTheBest.com. Retrieved 1 January 2014. 
  24. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB color converter - toolstud.io". Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  25. ^ Type the word "Redwood" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear.
  26. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 203; Color Sample of Redwood: Page 35 Plate 6 Color Sample K11
  27. ^ Sooner Tradition - Crimson & Cream
  28. ^ "College of Atmospheric & Geographic Sciences" (PDF). Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  29. ^ Eiseman, L., & Hickey, R. (1998). Colors for your every mood: Discover your true decorating colors. CBs.
  30. ^ Amamiya, K., & Iwashina, T. (2016). Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Flower Pigments in Chocolate Cosmos, Cosmos atrosanguineus, and its Hybrids. Natural product communications, 11(1), 77-78.
  31. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB color converter - toolstud.io". Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  32. ^ "Color Palette & Tinting Chart". Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  33. ^ Lowengard, Sarah (2006). The Creation of Color in Eighteenth-Century Europe. Columbia University Press. 
  34. ^ a b Thom Poole (2017). Life of Colour. Lulu.com. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-326-65724-6.