Luteinizing hormone beta polypeptide

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Luteinizing hormone beta polypeptide
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols LHB ; CGB4; HH23; LSH-B; hLHB
External IDs OMIM152780 MGI96782 HomoloGene81806 GeneCards: LHB Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE LHB 214471 x at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 3972 16866
Ensembl ENSG00000104826 ENSMUSG00000100916
UniProt P01229 G3X9G6
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000894 NM_008497
RefSeq (protein) NP_000885 NP_032523
Location (UCSC) Chr 19:
49.02 – 49.02 Mb
Chr 7:
45.42 – 45.42 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Luteinizing hormone subunit beta also known as lutropin subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LHB gene.[1][2]


The genes for the beta chains of chorionic gonadotropin and for luteinizing hormone are contiguous on chromosome 19q13.3.[2] In equines, this subunit is encoded by the same gene as the beta subunit of chorionic gonadatropin, subunits which are identical.[3]


This gene is a member of the glycoprotein hormone beta chain family and encodes the beta subunit of luteinizing hormone (LH). Glycoprotein hormones are heterodimers consisting of a common alpha subunit and a unique beta subunit (this protein) which confers biological specificity. LH is expressed in the pituitary gland and promotes spermatogenesis and ovulation by stimulating the testes and ovaries to synthesize steroids.[2]

Clinical significance[edit]

Mutations in this gene are associated with hypogonadism which is characterized by infertility and pseudohermaphroditism.[2]


  1. ^ Sairam MR, Li CH (Feb 1976). "Human pituitary lutropin. Isolation, properties, and the complete amino acid sequence of the beta-subunit". Biochim Biophys Acta 412 (1): 70–81. doi:10.1016/0005-2795(75)90340-2. PMID 1191677. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Entrez Gene: LHB luteinizing hormone beta polypeptide". 
  3. ^ Sherman GB, Wolfe MW, Farmerie TA, Clay CM, Threadgill DS, Sharp DC, Nilson JH (June 1992). "A single gene encodes the beta-subunits of equine luteinizing hormone and chorionic gonadotropin". Mol. Endocrinol. 6 (6): 951–9. doi:10.1210/me.6.6.951. PMID 1379674. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Keutmann HT, Hua QX, Weiss MA (1992). "Structure of a receptor-binding fragment from human luteinizing hormone beta-subunit determined by [1H]- and [15N]nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy". Mol. Endocrinol. 6 (6): 904–13. doi:10.1210/me.6.6.904. PMID 1495492. 
  • Weiss J, Axelrod L, Whitcomb RW et al. (1992). "Hypogonadism caused by a single amino acid substitution in the beta subunit of luteinizing hormone". N. Engl. J. Med. 326 (3): 179–83. doi:10.1056/NEJM199201163260306. PMID 1727547. 
  • Weisshaar G, Hiyama J, Renwick AG, Nimtz M (1991). "NMR investigations of the N-linked oligosaccharides at individual glycosylation sites of human lutropin". Eur. J. Biochem. 195 (1): 257–68. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1991.tb15702.x. PMID 1991473. 
  • Jameson JL, Lindell CM, Habener JF (1986). "Evolution of different transcriptional start sites in the human luteinizing hormone and chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit genes". DNA 5 (3): 227–34. doi:10.1089/dna.1986.5.227. PMID 2424697. 
  • Keutmann HT, Charlesworth MC, Mason KA et al. (1987). "A receptor-binding region in human choriogonadotropin/lutropin beta subunit". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (7): 2038–42. doi:10.1073/pnas.84.7.2038. PMC 304579. PMID 3470775. 
  • Shome B, Parlow AF (1973). "The primary structure of the hormone-specific, beta subunit of human pituitary luteinizing hormone (hLH)". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 36 (3): 618–21. doi:10.1210/jcem-36-3-618. PMID 4685398. 
  • Closset J, Hennen G, Lequin RM (1973). "Human luteinizing hormone. The amino acid sequence of the subunit". FEBS Lett. 29 (2): 97–100. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(73)80534-4. PMID 4719207. 
  • Talmadge K, Vamvakopoulos NC, Fiddes JC (1984). "Evolution of the genes for the beta subunits of human chorionic gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone". Nature 307 (5946): 37–40. doi:10.1038/307037a0. PMID 6690982. 
  • Beitins IZ, Axelrod L, Ostrea T et al. (1981). "Hypogonadism in a male with an immunologically active, biologically inactive luteinizing hormone: characterization of the abnormal hormone". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 52 (6): 1143–9. doi:10.1210/jcem-52-6-1143. PMID 6785294. 
  • Berger P, Kranewitter W, Madersbacher S et al. (1994). "Eutopic production of human chorionic gonadotropin beta (hCG beta) and luteinizing hormone beta (hLH beta) in the human testis". FEBS Lett. 343 (3): 229–33. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(94)80561-X. PMID 7513655. 
  • Keutmann HT, Rubin DA (1993). "A subunit interaction site in human luteinizing hormone: identification by photoaffinity cross-linking". Endocrinology 132 (3): 1305–12. doi:10.1210/en.132.3.1305. PMID 7679977. 
  • Herrlich A, Kühn B, Grosse R et al. (1996). "Involvement of Gs and Gi proteins in dual coupling of the luteinizing hormone receptor to adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (28): 16764–72. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.28.16764. PMID 8663226. 
  • Muyan M, Furuhashi M, Sugahara T, Boime I (1997). "The carboxy-terminal region of the beta-subunits of luteinizing hormone and chorionic gonadotropin differentially influence secretion and assembly of the heterodimers". Mol. Endocrinol. 10 (12): 1678–87. doi:10.1210/me.10.12.1678. PMID 8961276. 
  • Roy AC, Liao WX, Chen Y et al. (1997). "Identification of seven novel mutations in LH beta-subunit gene by SSCP". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 165 (2): 151–3. doi:10.1007/bf00229477. PMID 8979264. 
  • Liao WX, Roy AC, Chan C et al. (1998). "A new molecular variant of luteinizing hormone associated with female infertility". Fertil. Steril. 69 (1): 102–6. doi:10.1016/S0015-0282(97)00445-7. PMID 9457942. 
  • O'Connor JF, Kovalevskaya G, Birken S et al. (1998). "The expression of the urinary forms of human luteinizing hormone beta fragment in various populations as assessed by a specific immunoradiometric assay". Hum. Reprod. 13 (4): 826–35. doi:10.1093/humrep/13.4.826. PMID 9619532. 
  • Takahashi K, Kurioka H, Ozaki T et al. (1999). "Increased prevalence of luteinizing hormone beta-subunit variant in Japanese infertility patients". Hum. Reprod. 13 (12): 3338–44. doi:10.1093/humrep/13.12.3338. PMID 9886510. 
  • Elter K, Erel CT, Cine N et al. (1999). "Role of the mutations Trp8 => Arg and Ile15 => Thr of the human luteinizing hormone beta-subunit in women with polycystic ovary syndrome". Fertil. Steril. 71 (3): 425–30. doi:10.1016/S0015-0282(98)00491-9. PMID 10065776. 
  • Jiang M, Pakarinen P, Zhang FP et al. (1999). "A common polymorphic allele of the human luteinizing hormone beta-subunit gene: additional mutations and differential function of the promoter sequence". Hum. Mol. Genet. 8 (11): 2037–46. doi:10.1093/hmg/8.11.2037. PMID 10484773.