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Coordinates: 51°52′42″N 00°24′53″W / 51.87833°N 0.41472°W / 51.87833; -0.41472
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Top to bottom, left to right: Luton Town Hall, Luton Hoo, St Mary's Church, Luton Airport and Luton Town's stadium Kenilworth Road
Scientiæ et labori detur (Latin)[1][2]
"May it be given to skill and industry"[3]
Luton shown within Bedfordshire
Luton shown within Bedfordshire
Luton is located in England
Location within England
Luton is located in the United Kingdom
Location within the United Kingdom
Luton is located in Europe
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 51°52′42″N 00°24′53″W / 51.87833°N 0.41472°W / 51.87833; -0.41472
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
RegionEast of England
Ceremonial countyBedfordshire
Settlementc. 6th century
Unitary authority1997
Administrative HQLuton Town Hall
 • TypeUnitary authority
 • BodyLuton Borough Council
 • ExecutiveLabour
 • MayorMohammed Yaqub Hanif
 • MPsSarah Owen (L)
Rachel Hopkins (L)
 • Total17 sq mi (43 km2)
 • Rank254th
 • Total226,973
 • Rank83rd
 • Density13,560/sq mi (5,236/km2)
Ethnicity (2021)
 • Ethnic groups
Religion (2021)
 • Religion
Time zoneUTC+0 (GMT)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (BST)
Postcode Area
Dialling code01582
ISO 3166 codeGB-LUT
International airportLondon Luton Airport (LTN)
Railway stationsLuton (B)
Luton Airport Parkway (D)
Leagrave (D)
OS grid referenceTL0896521763
GSS codeE06000032
ONS code00KA
Websiteluton.gov.uk Edit this at Wikidata

Luton (/ˈltən/ )[7] is a town and unitary authority with borough status in Bedfordshire, England, with a population at the 2021 census of 225,262.[5][8]

Luton is on the River Lea, 32 miles (50 km) north-west of London,[9] 18 miles (29 km) north-west of Hertford, 20 miles (32 km) south of Bedford[9] and 23 miles (37 km) south-east of Milton Keynes. The town's foundation dates to the sixth century as a Saxon settlement on the river, from which Luton derives its name.[10] Luton is recorded in the Domesday Book as Loitone and Lintone.[11] One of the largest churches in Bedfordshire, St Mary's Church, was built in the 12th century.[12] There are local museums which explore Luton's history in Wardown Park[13] and Stockwood Park.[14]

Luton was once known for hatmaking and also had a large Vauxhall Motors factory. Car production at the plant began in 1905 and continued until its closure in 2002.[15] Production of commercial vehicles continues and the head office of Vauxhall Motors is in the village of Chalton on the northern border of the borough .[16] London Luton Airport opened in 1938 and is now one of Britain's major airports,[17] with three railway stations also in the town. The University of Bedfordshire was created from a merger with the University of Luton;[18] two of its campuses are in Luton.[19]

Luton Town Football Club, nicknamed the Hatters, due to the town's connection to hatmaking, has had several spells in the top flight of the English league as well as a Football League Cup triumph in 1988. They play at Kenilworth Road, their home since 1905; planning permission for a new larger stadium was approved in 2019.[20] Luton International Carnival, the largest one-day carnival in Europe, is held on the day before the last Monday in May;[21][n 1] the Saint Patrick's festival is held on the weekend nearest to Saint Patrick's Day[22] as there is a large Irish community in Luton. The town also has a large Pakistani community which, along with the Irish, were attracted to employment at the Vauxhall car plant.[23][24] Luton Hoo is an English country house, estate and Grade I listed building originally designed by Scottish architect Robert Adam but later transformed to the designs of Robert Smirke.[25]


Luton is believed to have been founded by the Anglo-Saxons sometime in the 6th century.[26] Its name first appears in the 8th century as Lygetun, meaning "town on the River Lea".[27]

The Domesday Book records Luton as Loitone and as Lintone.[11] Agriculture dominated the local economy at that time, and the town's population was around 700 to 800.[28]

St Mary's Church, Luton town centre
The Wenlock chapel within St Mary's

In 1121 Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester started work on St Mary's Church in the centre of the town. The work was completed by 1137.[29] A motte-and-bailey castle which gives its name to the modern Castle Street was built in 1139 but demolished by 1154.[30]

The hat making industry began in the 17th century and became synonymous with the town.[31][32]

A row of largely Grade II listed buildings in George Street, Luton

The town grew: in 1801 the population was 3,095,[33] but by 1850 it was over 10,000 and by 1901 it was almost 39,000.

Newspaper printing arrived in the town in 1854. The first public cemetery was opened in the same year and Luton was made a borough in 1876.[34]

Luton's hat trade reached its peak in the 1930s,[35] but severely declined after the Second World War and was replaced by other industries.

In 1907, Vauxhall Motors opened the largest car plant in the United Kingdom in Luton, during the Second World War, it built Churchill tanks[36] as part of the war effort. Despite heavy camouflage, the factory made Luton a target for the Luftwaffe and the town suffered a number of air raids. 107 died[37] and there was extensive damage to the town (over 1,500 homes were damaged or destroyed).

The first town hall was destroyed in 1919

The original town hall was destroyed in 1919 during Peace Day celebrations at the end of the First World War. Dr. John G. Dony, author of The Flora of Bedfordshire[38] told his history students (he taught at Luton Grammar, predecessor of Luton Sixth Form College), during the 1950s, that he had broken the last intact window of the old town hall during the 1919 riots. Local people, including many ex-servicemen, were unhappy with unemployment and had been refused the use of a local park to hold celebratory events. They stormed the town hall, setting it alight (see Luton Town Hall). A replacement building was completed in 1936.

Luton Borough Corporation had provided the borough with electricity since the early twentieth century from Luton power station, located adjacent to the railway. Upon nationalisation of the electricity industry in 1948 ownership passed to the British Electricity Authority and later to the Central Electricity Generating Board. Electricity connections to the national grid rendered the 23 megawatt (MW) coal and latterly oil-fired power station redundant. The station had a single chimney and two reinforced concrete cooling towers.[39] The power station closed in 1968; in its final year of operation it delivered 3,192 MWh of electricity to the borough.[40]

Luton Airport opened in 1938, owned and operated by the council. It is now one of the largest employers in the area.

The pre-war years, were something of an economic boom for Luton, as new industries grew and prospered. New private and council housing was built in the 1920s and 1930s, with Luton starting to incorporate nearby villages Leagrave, Limbury and Stopsley between 1928 and 1933.[41]

Post-war, a number of substantial estates of council housing were built, notably at Farley Hill, Stopsley, Limbury, Marsh Farm and Leagrave (Hockwell Ring). The Marsh Farm area of the town was developed in the mid to late 1960s as a large council housing estate, mostly to house the overspill population from London. However, the estate gained a reputation for high levels of crime, poverty and unemployment, which culminated in a riot on the estate in July 1992 and another more serious riot three years later.[42]

The closure of the Vauxhall manufacturing plant in 2002 had negative effects for Luton, leading to increased unemployment and deprivation.[43]


The town is situated within the ceremonial county of Bedfordshire but, since 1997, Luton has been an administratively independent unitary authority, administered by Luton Borough Council. There are 48 councillors on the Borough Council, representing 19 wards.

As of April 2022, Luton is represented in Parliament by Sarah Owen who holds Luton North and Rachel Hopkins who holds Luton South.

In 1876 the town council was granted its own coat of arms.[2] The wheatsheaf was used on the crest to represent agriculture and the supply of straw used in the local hatmaking industry (the straw plaiting industry was brought to Luton by a group of Scots under the protection of Sir John Napier of Luton Hoo). The bee is traditionally the emblem of industry and the hive represents the straw plaiting industry for which Luton was famous. The rose is from the arms of the Napier family, whereas the thistle is a symbol for Scotland. An alternative suggestion is that the rose was a national emblem, and the thistle represents the Marquess of Bute, who formerly owned the Manor of Luton Hoo.[44][45]


A pedestrian suspension bridge spans the River Lea in Wardown Park.
Snow accumulation over the Chiltern Hills during October 2008 snowfall, Luton is denoted by the yellow dot.

Luton is situated 28 miles north of London and 39 miles southwest of Cambridge. The town forms the core part of the wider Luton/Dunstable Urban Area which includes the nearby towns of Dunstable and Houghton Regis in Central Bedfordshire. The town is the most populous settlement in Bedfordshire followed by Bedford.[46]

Luton is located in a break in the eastern part of the Chiltern Hills. The Chilterns are a mixture of chalk from the Cretaceous period[47] (about 66 – 145 million years ago) and deposits laid at the southernmost points of the ice sheet during the last ice age (the Warden Hill area can be seen from much of the town).

Bedfordshire had a reputation for brick making but the industry is now significantly reduced. The brickworks[48] at Stopsley took advantage of the clay deposits in the east of the town.

The source of the River Lea, part of the Thames Valley drainage basin, is in the Leagrave area of the town. The Great Bramingham Wood surrounds this area. It is classified as ancient woodland; records mention the wood at least 400 years ago.

There are few routes through the hilly area for some miles, this has led to several major roads (including the M1 and the A6) and a major rail-link being constructed through the town.


Luton has a temperate marine climate, like much of the British Isles, with generally light precipitation throughout the year. The weather is very changeable from day to day and the warming influence of the Gulf Stream makes the region mild for its latitude. The average total annual rainfall is 698 mm (27.5 in) with rain falling on 117 days of the year.

The local climate around Luton is differentiated somewhat from much of South East England due to its position in the Chiltern Hills, meaning it tends to be 1–2 degrees Celsius cooler than the surrounding towns – often flights at Luton airport, lying 160 m (525 ft) above sea level, will be suspended when marginal snow events occur, while airports at lower elevations, such as Heathrow, at 25 m (82 ft) above sea level, continue to function. An example of this is shown in the photograph to the right, the snowline being about 100 m (328 ft) above sea level. Absolute temperature extremes recorded at Rothamsted Research Station, 5 miles (8 km) south south east of Luton town centre and at a similar elevation range from −17.0 °C (1.4 °F)[49] in December 1981 and −16.7 °C (1.9 °F) in January 1963[50] to 36.6 °C (97.9 °F) in July 2019[51] and 33.8 °C (92.8 °F) in August 1990[52] and July 2006.[53] Records for Rothamsted date back to 1901.

Climate data for Rothamsted
WMO ID: 03680; coordinates 51°48′24″N 0°21′37″W / 51.80671°N 0.36017°W / 51.80671; -0.36017 (Met Office Rothamsted); elevation: 128 m (420 ft); 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1914–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.2
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 7.1
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.3
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 1.6
Record low °C (°F) −16.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 67.6
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 12.2 10.4 9.2 9.5 8.4 8.3 8.5 9.5 8.9 11.4 12.1 11.8 120.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 60.0 78.3 119.1 165.9 202.5 205.2 209.0 194.4 149.8 111.5 69.2 56.0 1,620.9
Source 1: Met Office[54]
Source 2: KNMI[55]


The 2021 United Kingdom census showed that the borough had a population of 225,262,[6] a 10.9% increase from the previous census in 2011 and a 22.2% increase compared with 2001. In 2021, 52,566 residents (23% of the total) were aged under 16, 146,330 (65%) were aged 16 to 64, and 26,363 (12%) were aged 65 or over.[6]

Local inhabitants are known as Lutonians.


Ethnic demography of Luton from 1971 to 2021
Luton: Ethnicity: 2011 Census[56] and 2021 Census[6]
Ethnic group 2011
White 111,079 54.7 101,798 45.2
Mixed 8,281 4.1 9,620 4.3
Asian or Asian British 60,952 30.0 83,325 37.0
Black or Black British 19,909 9.8 22,735 10.1
Other Ethnic Group 2,980 1.5 7,783 3.5
Total 203,201 100 225,261 100

Luton has seen several waves of immigration. In the early part of the 20th century, there was internal migration of Irish and Scottish people to the town. These were followed by South Asian and Afro-Caribbean immigrants. More recently immigrants from European countries such as Albania have made Luton their home. As a result of this Luton has a diverse ethnic mix, with a significant population of Asian descent, mainly Pakistani (41,143 residents, 18.3%) and Bangladeshi (20,630, 9.2%).[57] People in Asian ethnic groups accounted for 86% of Luton's Muslim population in 2021.[58]

As of the 2021 census, the White British population of Luton (including White English/Scottish/Welsh/Northern Irish) comprised less than a third of the total (31.8%), the twelfth lowest proportion out of 318 local authorities in England and Wales and the second lowest (after Slough) outside of London.[57] Overall, 45.2% of Luton's population in 2021 was White (including non-British White people),[57] down from 54.7% in 2011.

In 2011 81% of the population of Luton defined themselves as British.[59]


At the 2021 census, the religious affiliation of Luton was as follows:[60]

Religion Population %
Christian 85,297 37.9
Muslim 74,191 32.9
Hindu 7,438 3.3
Sikh 3,032 1.3
Buddhist 664 0.3
Jewish 246 0.1
Other religion 1,115 0.5
No religion 39,580 17.6
Religion not stated 13,697 6.1
Methodist Chapel
The Methodist Chapel in High Town (built 1897)
Sikh Temple
The Guru Nanak Gurdwara Sikh Temple
Muslim mosque
The Jamia Mosque


Griffin House, former headquarters of Vauxhall Motors
Hangar 89, EasyJet headquarters

Luton's economy has traditionally been focused on several different areas of industry, including car manufacturing, engineering and millinery. However, today, Luton is moving towards a service based economy mainly in the retail and the airport sectors, although there is still a focus on light industry in the town.

Notable firms with headquarters in Luton include:

Notable firms with offices in Luton include:

Luton's post-war and more recent industrial decline has been compared to that of similar towns in northern England.[72]


Of the town's working population (classified 16–74 years of age by the Office for National Statistics), 63% are employed. This figure includes students, the self-employed and those who are in part-time employment. 11% are retired, 8% look after the family or take care of the home and 5% are unemployed.[73]


A Midland Mainline Class 222 at Luton Airport Parkway in April 2006

Luton is situated less than 30 miles (50 km) north of the centre of London, giving it good links with the City and other parts of the country via rail and major roads such as the M1 (which serves the town from junctions 10 and 11) and the A6.

The town has three railway stations: Luton,[74] Leagrave[75] and Luton Airport Parkway[76] that are served by East Midlands Railway and Thameslink services.

Luton is also home to London Luton Airport, one of the major feeder airports for London and the south-east. A light metro people mover track, Luton DART, opened in 2023, linking the airport and Luton Airport Parkway railway station.[77]

A network of bus services run by Arriva Shires & Essex, Grant Palmer and Centrebus serves the urban area of Luton and Dunstable. A bus rapid transit route opened in 2013,[78] called the Luton to Dunstable Busway, connecting the town with the airport, Dunstable and Houghton Regis. Hertfordshire-based bus operator Uno also run buses on their 'Dragonfly' 610 route to Hatfield, Potters Bar and Cockforsters [79]

Luton is also served by a large taxi network. As a unitary authority, Luton Borough Council is responsible for the local highways and public transport in the borough and licensing of taxis.[80]


University of Bedfordshire – Luton

Luton is one of the main locations of the University of Bedfordshire. A large campus of the university is in Luton town centre, with a smaller campus based on the edge of town in Putteridge Bury, an old Victorian manor house. The other campuses of the university are located in Bedford, Milton Keynes and Aylesbury.

The town is home to Luton Sixth Form College and Barnfield College. Both have been awarded Learning & Skills Beacon Status by the Department for Children, Schools and Families.[81][82]

Luton's schools and colleges had also been earmarked for major investment in the government scheme Building Schools for the Future programme, which intends to renew and refit buildings in institutes across the country. Luton is in the third wave of this long-term programme with work intending to start in 2009.[83] Some schools were rebuilt before the programme was scrapped by the coalition government.

There are 98 educational institutes in Luton – seven nurseries, 56 primary schools (9 voluntary-aided, 2 special requirements), 13 secondary schools (1 voluntary-aided, 1 special requirements), four further educational institutes and four other educational institutes.[84]



The town contains 92 listed buildings.[72]

Leisure and entertainment[edit]

Luton International Carnival[edit]

Luton International Carnival is the largest one-day carnival in Europe. It usually takes place on the late May Bank Holiday. Crowds can reach 150,000[85] on each occasion.

The procession starts at Wardown Park and makes its way down New Bedford Road, around the town centre via St George's Square, back down New Bedford Road and finishes back at Wardown Park. There are music stages and stalls around the town centre and at Wardown Park.

Luton is home to the UK Centre for Carnival Arts (UKCCA),[86] the country's first purpose-built facility of its kind.[87]

Luton St Patrick's Festival[edit]

The festival celebrating the patron saint of Ireland St Patrick and organised by Luton Irish Forum,[22] is held on the weekend nearest to 17 March.[88] In its 20th year in 2019,[89] the festival includes a parade, market stalls and music stands as well as Irish themed events.[90]

Luton Mela[edit]

The first Luton Melā took place in August 2000 and has developed into one of the most significant and well attended South Asian cultural events in the eastern region.

City of Culture bid and pilot year[edit]

Luton Council's strategic vision for the Arts, and Cultural and Creative industries includes the plan to bid for City of Culture Status. This plan includes a pilot year with the theme of Peace Riots starting in Spring 2019.[72] Events will be published on the Luton.Events website.

Theatre and performing arts[edit]

Luton is home to the Library Theatre, a 238-seat theatre located on the 3rd floor of the town's Central Library. The theatre's programme consists of local amateur dramatic societies, pantomime, children's theatre (on Saturday mornings) and one night shows of touring theatre companies.[91]

Luton is also home to the Hat Factory, originally as its name suggests, this arts centre was in fact a real hat factory. The Hat Factory is a combined arts venue in the centre of Luton. It opened in 2003 and since then has been the area's main provider of contemporary theatre, dance and music. The venue provides live music, club nights, theatre, dance, films, children's activities, workshops, classes and gallery exhibitions.




  • Luton is served by London and East Anglia regional variations of the BBC and ITV. Television signals are received from either Crystal Palace or Sandy Heath TV transmitters. However, the local relay transmitter for Luton only broadcast programmes from Norwich.[94]

Local attractions[edit]

Wardown Park Museum - one of two museums run by Luton Culture


Parks and open spaces[edit]

Luton has a variety of parks ranging from district parks, neighbourhood parks, local open space and leisure gardens.

Brantwood Park[edit]

In the 1880s, the land now known as Brantwood Park was an open field on the south side of Dallow. The site was purchased by the Town Council in 1894 for use as a recreation ground and there is reference to it as ‘West Ward Recreation Ground' in a 1911-year book. It is reported as being one of the first two recreation grounds in Luton; the other being East Ward Recreation Ground, now known as Manor Road Park.[95]

Kidney Wood[edit]

Kidney Wood is ancient semi-natural woodland on the southern edge of Luton that has been identified as a County Wildlife Site. The wood was purchased by Luton Borough Council as an area of public open space. The council seeks to maintain and enhance the nature conservation interest of Kidney Wood, including its habitats while allowing public access for informal recreation including play. Kidney Wood includes a way marked nature trail and play dells.

Memorial Park[edit]

Sir Julius Wernher purchased the Luton Hoo Estate and the Manor of Luton from Madame de Falbe around 1903. He carried out substantial renovation works to the Manor and grounds. On his death in 1912 the estate passed to Lady Ludlow. Lady Ludlow presented the Park to the people of Luton on 12 June 1920, in memory of her son Alex Piggott Werner, who was killed in action during the First World War. The site is officially named Luton Hoo Memorial Park. Council records state that the area was purchased under the Statutory Powers of the Public Health Acts.

Stockwood Park[edit]

Stockwood Park, Luton
Part of the Mossman Collection.

Stockwood Park is a large municipal park near Junction 10 of the M1. Located in the park is Stockwood Discovery Centre, a free museum that houses Luton local social history, archaeology and geology. The collection of rural crafts and trades held at Stockwood Discovery Centre was amassed by Thomas Wyatt Bagshawe, who was a notable local historian and a leading authority on folk life. The park has an athletics track, an 18-hole golf course, several rugby and football pitches and areas of open space. The park was originally the estate and grounds to Stockwood house, which was demolished in 1964. The museum includes the Mossman Collection of horse-drawn vehicles, which is the largest and most significant vehicle collection of its kind in the country, including originals from the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries.

Wardown Park[edit]

The Daisy-Chain Wall in Wardown Park.

Wardown Park is situated on the River Lea in Luton. The park has sporting facilities, is home to the Wardown Park Museum and contains formal gardens. The park is located between Old Bedford Road and the A6, New Bedford Road and is within walking distance of the town centre.[96] The park houses Wardown House Museum and Gallery, previously known as Luton Museum and Art Gallery, in a large Victorian mansion. The museum collection focuses on the traditional crafts and industry of Luton and Bedfordshire, notably lace making and hatmaking. There are samples of local lace from as early as the 17th century.


The Mall Luton, the main shopping destination in Luton's town centre.

The main shopping area in Luton is centred on the Mall Luton. Built in the 1960s/1970s and opened as an Arndale Centre,[97] construction of the shopping centre led to the demolition of a number of the older buildings in the town centre, including the Plait Halls (a Victorian covered market building with an iron and glass roof). Shops and businesses in the remaining streets, particularly in the roads around Cheapside and in High Town, have been in decline ever since. George Street, on the south side of the Arndale, was pedestrianised in the 1990s.

The shopping centre had some construction and re-design work done to it over the 2011/12 period, with a new square built to be used for leisure events, as well as a number of new food restaurants. Contained within the main shopping centre is the market, which contains butchers, fishmongers, fruit and veg, hairdressers, tattoo parlours, ice cream, a flower stall, T-shirt printing and the market's original sewing shop for clothes alterations and repairs as well as eating places.[98]

Another major shopping area is Bury Park where there are shops catering to Luton's ethnic minorities.


Kenilworth Stand at Kenilworth Road, home to Luton Town Football Club

Luton has a wide range of sports clubs. It is the home town of Luton Town Football Club which in May 2023 achieved promotion to the English Premier League for the first time in their history[99] which also includes several spells in the top flight of the English league as well as a League Cup triumph in 1988. They play at Kenilworth Road, their home since 1905, with a new larger capacity stadium known as Power Court under construction.[20] Their nickname, 'The Hatters', dates back to when Luton had a substantial millinery industry, and their logo is based on the town's coat of arms.

Bedfordshire County Cricket Club is based at Wardown Park and is one of the county clubs which make up the Minor Counties in the English domestic cricket structure, representing the historic county of Bedfordshire. Luton Rugby Club are a local rugby union club based on Newlands Road, by the M1 motorway just outside Stockwood Park, who play in London 1 North. Speedway racing was once staged at Luton Stadium from 1934 to 1937.[100]

Twin towns[edit]

Luton participates in international town twinning; its partners[101] are:

Country Place State/Region Date
Germany Bergisch Gladbach[102] North Rhine-Westphalia 1956
France Bourgoin-Jallieu[103] Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes 1956
Sweden Eskilstuna[104] Södermanland 1949
Germany Berlin-Spandau[105] Berlin 1959
Germany Wolfsburg Lower Saxony 1950

Notable people[edit]

People who were born in Luton or are associated with the town.

By birth[edit]

By association[edit]

Freedom of the Borough[edit]

The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the Borough of Luton.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Like most long-held UK events on this date, before 1972, it was held during the Christian moving feast and discretionary holiday of Whitsuntide (Pentecost) exactly seven weeks after Easter, in this case usually on the Monday


  1. ^ Relief of Luton's coat of arms and motto on the gate of Wardown Park
  2. ^ a b "Luton - Coat of arms (crest) of Luton". Heraldry-wiki.com. 12 January 2022.
  3. ^ Luton: Straw Hat Boom Town (PDF). Luton Cultural Services Trust. 2011. p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2019. The aspiration contained in its motto: Scientiae et labori detur (May it be given to skill and industry)
  4. ^ Leadership=Mayor & Cabinet
  5. ^ a b UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Luton Local Authority (E06000032)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 10 September 2023.
  6. ^ a b c d e UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Luton Local Authority (E06000032)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 5 January 2024.
  7. ^ "Luton". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
  8. ^ "UNITED KINGDOM: Countries and Major Urban Areas". citypopulation.de. 11 November 2022. Retrieved 23 November 2022.
  9. ^ a b "SPC: St Pancras to Chesterfield Line | SPC1: St Pancras to Bedford". Railway Codes. Engineers Line Reference.
  10. ^ "Key to English place names: Luton". Institute for Name-Studies, University of Nottingham.
  11. ^ a b "Domesday book record". Retrieved 16 June 2008.
  12. ^ "Saint Marys Luton Church Architecture". bedsarchives.bedford.gov.uk. 5 August 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  13. ^ "Wardown House and Museum - About". Luton Culture.
  14. ^ "Stockwood Discovery Centre - About". Luton Culture. Archived from the original on 8 April 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  15. ^ "End of an era for Vauxhall". bbc.co.uk. 20 March 2002.
  16. ^ "Contact Vauxhall | Customer Care". Vauxhall.co.uk.
  17. ^ "CAA Airport Data 2018" (PDF). Caa.co.uk. UK Civil Aviation Authority.
  18. ^ "Our Heritage". Beds.ac.uk.
  19. ^ "Our Campuses". Beds.ac.uk.
  20. ^ a b "Power Court: Luton Town football stadium gains planning permission". BBC News. 16 January 2019.
  21. ^ "Luton – the town: Cultural diversity". University of Bedfordshire. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  22. ^ a b "Are you interested in your culture & heritage?". lutonirishforum.org. Luton Irish Forum.
  23. ^ Robin Richardson; Angela Wood. "The Achievement of British Pakistani Learners" (PDF). Trentham Books. pp. 2, 1–17.
  24. ^ Luton, Noelette Hanley in. "Lending a helping hand to the 20,000 Luton Irish". The Irish Times.
  25. ^ Airs, Malcolm (1982). The Buildings of Britain: Regency. Barrie & Jenkins. p. 165. ISBN 9780091479909.
  26. ^ "Early history of Luton". Localhistories.org. Retrieved 16 June 2008.
  27. ^ Ekwall, Eilert (1947). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. p. 293.
  28. ^ "A History of Luton". Localhistories.org. 14 March 2021.
  29. ^ "History of St Mary's Church". Archived from the original on 28 June 2008. Retrieved 16 June 2008.
  30. ^ "Luton Castle only lasted 15 years". Archived from the original on 1 January 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2008.
  31. ^ "A history hat making in Luton". Plaiting and Straw Hat Making. Luton Libraries. Archived from the original on 27 May 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2008.
  32. ^ "The Hat Industry of Luton and its Buildings". English Heritage. Long before it became associated with motor cars, Luton was well established as an international centre of hat making. More specifically, Luton was the main centre of ladies' hat production in the UK for over 200 years ... This success was founded on the earlier regional industry of straw plaiting, an occupation that was well established by the late 17th century
  33. ^ "Population figures for 1801, 1901 and 1901". Retrieved 16 June 2008.
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  • Dyer, James; Stygall, Frank; Dony, John (1964). The Story of Luton. Luton: White Crescent Press.

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