Tondo (historical state)

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Tondo
ᜎᜓᜉᜁᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓ
Lusung
Lupain ng Tondo
Tung-lio
Kayarian ing Tundo
Kerajaan Tundun / Negara Tundun
Historical state

 

circa 900s–1589
 

 

 

Capital Tondo (Now a modern district of Manila)
Languages Old Tagalog, Kapampangan, Bikol, Iloko (Local languages)
Middle Chinese, Old Malay, (Business language) Sanskrit and Pali. (Religions activities)
Religion Hinduism, Buddhism, Folk religion and Islam
Government Lakanate
Lakan
 •  c.900 Jayadewa (First)
 •  1200-1345 Rajah Alon
 •  1390?-1417? Rajah Gambang
 •  1575-1587 Magat Salamat (Last)
Historical era Iron age
High Middle Ages
 •  Established circa 900s
 •  Diplomacy with the Medang 900 AD
 •  Fortified mandala c.1150
 •  Rajah Alon expanded the terrtories 1200
 •  Majapahit-Luzon war 1365
 •  Diplomacy with Ming Dynasty 1378
 •  Disestablished 1589
Currency Piloncitos (gold), Gold rings and Barter
Today part of  Philippines

Tondo (Filipino: Lupain ng Tondo Tung-lio Baybayin: Pre-Kudlit:ᜎᜓᜐᜓ (Lusu) Post-Kudlit: ᜎᜓᜉᜁᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓ Kapampangan: Kayaryan ing Tundo Malay: Tundun) also referred to as Tundo, Tundun, Tundok, Lusung or Ancient Tondo) was a Major fortified Mandala[1] which was located in the Manila Bay area, specifically north of the Pasig River, on Luzon island. It is one of the settlements mentioned by the Philippines' earliest historical record, the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. It stretches its territories from the mouth of the Pasig river to the Kapampangan chiefdoms up to the Southern Luzon southwards to Bicolandia, making it the largest Kingdom that covered the most of Luzon.

Originally an Indianized kingdom in the 10th century, Tondo built upon and capitalized on being central to the long-existing ancient regional trading routes throughout the archipelago to include among others, initiating diplomatic and commercial ties with China during the Ming Dynasty. Thus it became an established force in trade throughout Southeast Asia and East Asia. (See Luções). Tondo's regional prominence further culminated during the period of its associated trade and alliance with Brunei's Sultan Bolkiah, when around 1500 its peak age as a thalassocratic force in the northern archipelago was realized. When the Spanish first arrived in Tondo in 1570 and defeated the local rulers in the Manila Bay area in 1591, Tondo came under the administration of Manila (a Spanish fort built on the remains of Kota Seludong), ending its existence as an independent polity. This subjugated Tondo continues to exist today as a district of the city of Manila.

Etymology[edit]

The world in 900 AD and the location of Tondo also known as Lusung and its neighbors.

Numerous theories on the origin of the name "Tondo" have been put forward. Philippine National Artist Nick Joaquin suggested that it might be a reference to high ground ("tundok").[2] French linguist Jean-Paul Potet, however, has suggested that the River Mangrove, Aegiceras corniculatum, which at the time was called "tundok" ("tinduk-tindukan" today), is the most likely origin of the name.[3]

Lusung term[edit]

Bangkang Pinawa, ancient Philippines Mortar and pestle.

The name Luzon is thought to derive from the Tagalog word lusong, which is a large wooden mortar used in dehusking rice.[4][5]

Records[edit]

The Laguna Copperplate Inscription[edit]

Laguna Copperplate Inscription (c. 900)

The first reference to Tondo occurs in the Philippines' oldest historical record — the Laguna Copperplate Inscription (LCI). This legal document was written in Kawi, and dates back to Saka 822 (c. 900).

The first part of the document says that:

On this occasion, Lady Angkatan, and her brother whose name is Bukah, the children of the Honourable Namwaran, were awarded a document of complete pardon from the King of Tundun, represented by the Lord Minister of Pailah, Jayadewa.

Apparently, the document was a sort of receipt that acknowledged that the man named Namwaran had been cleared of his debt to the King of Tundun, which in today's measure would be about 926.4 grams of gold.[6]

The article mentioned that other places in the Philippines and their Rulers: Pailah (Lord Minister Jayadewa), Puliran Kasumuran (Lord Minister), Binwangan (unnamed). It has been suggested that Pailah, Puliran Kasumuran, and Binwangan are the towns of Paila, Pulilan, and Binwangan in Bulacan,[6] but it has also been suggested that Pailah refers to the town of Pila, Laguna. More recent linguistic research of the Old Malay grammar of the document suggests the term Puliran Kasumuran refers to the large lake now known as Laguna de Ba'y (Puliran), citing the root of kasumuran, *sumur as Old Malay for well, spring or freshwater source. Hence ka-sumur-an defines a water-source (in this case the freshwater lake of Puliran itself).[7] While the document does not describe the exact relationship of the King of Tundun with these other rulers, it at least suggests that he was of higher rank.[8]

Expansionism[edit]

Rajah Alon (c.1200), King of Tondo and son of Lakan Timamanukum, expanded the Kingdom of Tondo by conquering neighboring territories such as Kapampangan chiefoms, Kumintang (Batangas) and Bicol. He was succeeded by his grandson Rajah Gambang. The Tondo dynasty lasted until the end of the 15th century, when the Sultanate of Brunei conquered it so as to strengthen Brunei's Chinese trade links.[9]

The extent of the Tondo dynasty , from 1200-1225.
    The Tondo proper (situated in the modern day NCR).
     The territorial expansion of the kingdom. In the provinces of Ilocandia, Pampanga, Laguna, Tangwai, Kumintang chiefdom , Quezon Province and Bicolandia.

Notable names of places changed through Tondo's history[edit]

Culture and Society[edit]

A portrayal of the Ginu class. From the Boxer Codex, c. 1595

Since at least the 3rd century, The people of Tondo had developed a culture which is predominantly Hindu and Buddhist Society, They are rulled by a Lakan which is belong to a Caste of Maharlika were the feudal warrior class in ancient Tagalog society in Luzon the Philippines translated in Spanish as Hidalgos, and meaning freeman, libres or freedman.[10] They belonged to the lower nobility class similar to the Timawa of the Visayan people.In modern Filipino, however, the term itself has erroneously come to mean "royal nobility", which was actually restricted to the hereditary Maginoo class.[11]

Social Structure[edit]

The different type of culture prevalent in Luzon gave a less stable and more complex social structure to the pre-colonial Tagalog barangays of Manila, Pampanga and Laguna. Enjoying a more extensive commerce than those in Visayas, having the influence of Bornean political contacts, and engaging in farming wet rice for a living, the Tagalogs were described by the Spanish Augustinian friar Martin de Rada as more traders than warriors.[12]

The more complex social structure of the Tagalogs was less stable during the arrival of the Spaniards because it was still in a process of differentiating. A Jesuit priest Francisco Colin made an attempt to give an approximate comparison of it with the Visayan social structure in the middle of the 17th century. The term datu or lakan, or apo refers to the chief, but the noble class to which the datu belonged to was known as the maginoo class. Any male member of the maginoo class can become a datu by personal achievement.[13]

The term timawa referring to freemen came into use in the social structure of the Tagalogs within just twenty years after the coming of the Spaniards. The term, however, was being incorrectly applied to former alipin (commoner and slave class) who have escaped bondage by payment, favor, or flight. Moreover, the Tagalog timawa did not have the military prominence of the Visayan timawa. The equivalent warrior class in the Tagalog society was present only in Laguna, and they were known as the maharlika class.

At the bottom of the social hierarchy are the members of the alipin class. There are two main subclasses of the alipin class . The aliping namamahay who owned their own houses and served their masters by paying tribute or working on their fields were the commoners and serfs, while the aliping sa gigilid who lived in their masters' houses were the servants and slaves.

Pottery[edit]

Ruson-tsukuri, Jars where made in Luzon.

Tondo had a rich tradition of pottery Japanese texts mentioned trading expeditions to the island of Rusun (Luzon) for the highly prized Rusun and Namban jars occurred. Japanese texts were very specific about these jars being made in Luzon 呂宋. The Tokiko, for example, calls the Rusun and Namban jars, Ru-sun tsukuru or Lu-sung ch'i (in Chinese), which means simply "made in Luzon."[14] These Rusun jars, which had rokuru (wheel mark), were said to be more precious than gold because of its ability to act as tea canisters and enhance the fermentation process.

clay jars used for storing green tea and rice wine with Japan flourished in the 12th century, and local Tagalog, Kapampangan and Pangasinense potters had marked each jar with Baybayin letters denoting the particular urn used and the kiln the jars were manufactured in. Certain kilns were renowned over others and prices depended on the reputation of the kiln.[15][16] Of this flourishing trade, the Burnay jars of Ilocos are the only large clay jar manufactured in Luzon today with origins from this time.

Economic activities[edit]

The Piloncitos, a type of Gold nuggets with baybayin Ma characters. use as one of the early currency along with Gold rings.
Tondo along with the major neighboring mandalas in classical Southeast Asian history (circa 5th to 15th century). From north to south; Bagan, Ayutthaya, Champa, Angkor, Srivijaya and Majapahit.

The people of Tondo were good agriculturists, they lived through farming, rice planting and aquaculture, (specially in lowland areas). A report during the time of Miguel López de Legazpi noted of the great abundance of rice, fowls, wine as well as great numbers of carabaos, deer, wild boar and goat husbandry in Luzon. In addition, there were also great quantities of cotton and colored clothes, wax, honey and date palms produced by the native peoples, rice, cotton, swine, fowls, wax and honey abound.

Duck culture was also practiced by the natives, particularly those around Pateros and where Taguig City stands today. This resembled the Chinese methods of artificial incubation of eggs and the knowledge of every phase of a duck's life. This tradition is carried on until modern times of making Balut. [14]

Trade to "Silk road"

Many of the barangay municipalities were, to a varying extent, under the de jure jurisprudence of one of several neighboring empires, among them the Malay Srivijaya, Javanese Majapahit, Po-ni, Malacca, Indian Chola , Champa , Burma and Khmer empires.

Trading links with Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Indochina, China, Japan, India and Arabia. A thalassocracy had thus emerged based on international trade.

War with Majapahit[edit]

In 1365 , the Majapahit empire waged a war against Tondo, in vicinity of the Manila Bay, although it still disputed the exact dates and details of this battle remain in dispute, there are claims of the conquest of the area around Saludong (Majapahit term for Luzon and Manila) according to the text Nagarakretagama[17] which claims that Saludong (Luzon) and Solot (Sulu) were parts of Majapahit. This claim however may be mythical because a couple of years earlier warriors from Sulu had successfully attacked Borney (Brunei) which was a Majapahit vassal, and subsequently repulsed a Majapahit invasion force, and because outside of Nagarakretagama, there is no evidence among pre-Hispanic Philippine documents that Saludong or Sulu was ever enslaved by the Majapahit empire. In fact, this claim was only mentioned in passing in a lone Eulogy poem to Maharajah Hayam Wuruk and was not really a part of statecraft.[18] Furthermore, the earlier Laguna Copperplate Inscription mentioned that Dongdu (Kingdom of Tondo) had diplomatic relations with the kingdom of Medang, not with Majapahit. Nevertheless, there may have been a battle for Manila that occurred during that time but it was likely a victory for Luzon kingdom considering that the Kingdom of Tondo had maintained its independence and was not enslaved under another ruler.[19][8] Still, it could have gone either way and scholars are still in dispute over this.

Lusung Warriors[edit]

Main article: Luções

Portuguese accounts

The flag of Lakandula.

Pires noted that they (The Lucoes or people from Luzon) were "mostly heathen" and were not much esteemed in Malacca at the time he was there, although he also noted that they were strong, industrious, given to useful pursuits. Pires' exploration led him to discover that in their own country, the Luções had "foodstuffs, wax, honey, inferior grade gold," had no king, and were governed instead by a group of elders. They traded with tribes from Borneo and Indonesia and Philippine historians note that the language of the Luções was one of the 80 different languages spoken in Malacca[20] When Magellan's ship arrived in the Philippines and East Timor, Pigafetta noted that there were Luções there collecting sandalwood. [21]

The Luções' activities weren't limited to trade however. They also had a reputation for being fierce warriors.

When the Portuguese arrived in Southeast Asia in 1500 AD, they witnessed the Lucoes or the Lusung's active involvement in the political and economic affairs of those who sought to take control of the economically strategic highway of the Strait of Malacca. For instance, the former sultan of Malacca decided to retake his city from the Portuguese with a fleet of ships from Lusung in 1525 AD.[22]

Pinto noted that there were a number of them in the Islamic fleets that went to battle with the Portuguese in the Philippines during the 16th century. The Sultan of Aceh gave one of them (Sapetu Diraja) the task of holding Aru (northeast Sumatra) in 1540. Pinto also says one was named leader of the Malays remaining in the Moluccas Islands after the Portuguese conquest in 1511.[23] Pigafetta notes that one of them was in command of the Brunei fleet in 1521.[24]

However, the Luções did not only fight on the side of the Muslims. Pinto says they were also apparently among the natives of the Philippines who fought the Muslims in 1538.[23]

On Mainland Southeast Asia, Lusung/Lucoes warriors aided the Burmese king in his invasion of Siam in 1547 AD. At the same time, Lusung warriors fought alongside the Siamese king and faced the same elephant army of the Burmese king in the defence of the Siamese capital at Ayuthaya.[25]

Diplomatic relations[edit]

Relations with the Medang Kingdom (900)[edit]

Pre-hispanic History of the Philippines
Boxer codex.jpg
Barangay government
Ten datus of Borneo
States in Luzon
Luyag na Kaboloan (Pangasinan)
Ma-i
Kingdom of Maynila
Namayan
Kingdom of Tondo
States in the Visayas
Kedatuan of Madja-as
Rajahnate of Cebu
States in Mindanao
Rajahnate of Butuan
Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Maguindanao
Sultanate of Lanao
Key figures
Sulaiman II · Lakan Dula · Sulaiman III · Katuna
Tarik Sulayman · Tupas · Kabungsuwan · Kudarat
Humabon · Lapu-Lapu · Alimuddin I
History of the Philippines
Portal: Philippines

The Dutch anthropologist and Hanunó'o script expert Antoon Postma has concluded that the document also mentions the places of Tondo (Tundun); Paila (Pailah), now an enclave of Barangay San Lorenzo, Norzagaray; Binuangan (Binwangan), now part of Obando; and Pulilan (Puliran); and Mdaŋ (the Javanese Kingdom of Medang), in present-day Indonesia.[26] Apparently, the Philippine Kingdom of Tondo and the Medang Kingdom of Indonesia were known allies and trading partners.

Diplomacy with the Ming dynasty (1373)[edit]

The next historical reference to Ancient Tondo can be found in the Ming Shilu Annals (明实录]),[27] which record the arrival of an envoy from Luzon to the Ming Dynasty (大明朝) in 1373.[27] Her rulers, based in their capital, Tondo (Chinese: ; pinyin: dōngdū) were acknowledged not as mere chieftains, but as kings ().[28] This reference places Tondo into the larger context of Chinese trade with the aboriginals of the Philippine archipelago.

Theories such as Wilhelm Solheim's Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network (NMTCN) suggest that cultural links between what are now China and the nations of Southeast Asia, including what is now the Philippines, date back to the peopling of these lands.[29] But the earliest archeological evidence of trade between the Philippine aborigines and China takes the form of pottery and porcelain pieces dated to the Tang and Song Dynasties.[30]

The rise of the Ming dynasty saw the arrival of the first Chinese settlers in the archipelago. They were well received and lived together in harmony with the existing local population — eventually intermarrying with them so that today, numerous Filipinos have Chinese blood in their veins.[30]

This connection was important enough that when the Ming Dynasty emperors enforced the Hai jin laws which closed China to maritime trade from 1371 to about 1567, trade with the Kingdom of Tondo was officially allowed to continue, masqueraded as a tribute system, through the seaport at Fuzhou.[31] Aside from this, a more extensive clandestine trade from Guangzhou and Quanzhou also brought in Chinese goods to Luzon.[32]

Luzon and Tondo thus became a center from which Chinese goods were traded all across Southeast Asia. Chinese trade was so strict that Luzon traders carrying these goods were considered "Chinese" by the people they encountered.[32]

This powerful presence in the trade of Chinese goods in 16th-century East Asia was also felt strongly by Japan.[33] The Ming Empire treated Luzon traders more favorably than Japan by allowing them to trade with China once every two years.

Diplomacy with Japan[edit]

Japan was only allowed to trade once every 10 years. Japanese merchants often had to resort to piracy in order to obtain much sought after Chinese products such as silk and porcelain. Famous 16th-century Japanese merchants and tea connoisseurs like Shimai Soushitsu (島井宗室) and Kamiya Soutan (神屋宗湛) established branch offices on the island of Luzon. One famous Japanese merchant, Luzon Sukezaemon (呂宋助左衛門), went as far as to change his surname from Naya (納屋) to Luzon (呂宋).

Attack by the Bruneian Empire (1500)[edit]

By the 15th century, the Bruneian Empire controlled western shores of the Philippines

Around the year 1500, the Sultanate of Brunei under Sultan Bolkiah attacked the kingdom of Tondo and established a city with the Malay name of Selurong (later to become the city of Maynila)[34][35] on the opposite bank of Pasig River. The traditional Rajahs of Tondo, the Lakandula, retained their titles and property but the real political power came to reside in the House of Soliman, the Rajahs of Manila.[36]

Islamization by forced conversion to the citizens of Tondo and Manila make the divisions into Muslim domains and installed Rajah Suleyman and Rajah Matanda in the south (now the Intramuros district) and the Buddhist-Hindu settlement under Raja Lakandula in northern Tundun (now Tondo.)[37] With the rise of Islam, other religions in the archipelago gradually disappeared.

Incorporation into the Sultanate of Brunei (1500)

Tondo became so prosperous that around the year 1500, the Sultanate of Brunei under Sultan Bolkiah merged it by a royal marriage of Gat Lontok, who later became Rajah of Namayan, and Dayang Kaylangitan to establish a city with the Malay name of Selurong (later to become the city of Maynila)[34][35]

on the opposite bank of Pasig River. The traditional rulers of Tondo, the Lakandula, retained their titles and property upon embracing Islam but the real political power transferred to the master trader House of Sulayman, the Rajahs of Manila.[36]

Spanish contact (1570–1591)[edit]

Spanish colonizers first came to the Manila Bay area and its settlements in June 1570, while Miguel López de Legazpi was searching for a suitable place to establish a capital for the new territory. Having heard from the natives of a prosperous Moro settlement on the island of Luzon, López de Legazpi had sent Martín de Goiti to investigate. When Maynila's ruler, Rajah Sulaiman II, refused to submit to Spanish sovereignty, de Goiti attacked. He eventually defeated Rajah Sulaiman, claimed Maynila in the name of the King of Spain, then returned to report his success to López de Legazpi, who was then based on the island of Panay.

López de Legazpi himself returned to take the settlement on 19 June 1571. When the Spanish forces approached, the natives burned Maynila down and fled to Tondo and other neighboring towns.

López de Legazpi began constructing a fort on the ashes of Maynila and made overtures of friendship to Lakandula of Tondo, who accepted. The defeated Sulaiman refused to submit to the Spaniards, but failed to get the support of Lakandula or of the Kapampangan and Pangasinan settlements to the north. When Sulaiman and a force of Muslim warriors attacked the Spaniards in the battle of Bangcusay, he was finally defeated and killed.

This defeat marked the end of rebellion against the Spanish among the Pasig river settlements, and Lakandula's Tondo surrendered its sovereignty, submitting to the authority of the new Spanish capital, Manila.[38]

Tondo Conspiracy[edit]

The Conspiracy of the Maharlikas, also referred to as the Revolt of the Lakans from 1587–1588 was a plot against Spanish colonial rule by the Tagalog and Kapampangan noblemen, or Datus, of Manila and some towns of Bulacan and Pampanga, in the Philippines. They were the indigenous rulers of their area or an area yet upon submission to the might of the Spanish was relegated as mere collector of tributes or at best Encomenderos that need to report to a Spanish Governor. It was led by Agustín de Legazpi, the son of a Maginoo of Tondo (one of the chieftains of Tondo), born of a Spanish mother given a Hispanized name to appease the colonizers, grandson of conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi, nephew of Lakan Dula, and his first cousin, Martin Pangan. The datus swore to rise up in arms. The uprising failed when they were betrayed to the Spanish authorities by Antonio Surabao (Susabau) of Calamianes.[39]

Historical theories associated with Ancient Tondo[edit]

Lakan as a title[edit]

While most historians think of Lakan Dula as a specific person, with Lakan meaning Lord, King or Paramount Ruler and Dula being a proper name, one theory suggests that Lakandula is a hereditary title for the Monarchs of the Kingdom of Tondo.[40]

The heirs of Lakan Banao Dula[edit]

In 1587, Magat Salamat, one of the children of Lakan Dula, and with his Spanish enforced name Augustin de Legazpi, Lakan Dula's nephew, and the lords of the neighboring areas of Tondo, Pandakan, Marikina, Kandaba, Nabotas and Bulakan were martryed for secretly conspiring to overthrow the Spanish colonizers. Stories were told that Magat Salamat's descendants settled in Hagonoy, Bulacan and many of his descendants spread from this area.[41]

David Dula y Goiti, a grandson of Lakan Dula with a Spanish mother escaped the persecution of the descendants of Lakan Dula by settling in Isla de Batag, Northern Samar and settled in the place now called Candawid (Kan David). Due to hatred for the Spaniards, he dropped the Goiti in his surname and adopted a new name David Dulay. He was eventually caught by the Guardia Civil based in Palapag and was executed together with seven followers. They were charged with planning to attack the Spanish detachment.[41]

Notable monarchs of Tondo[edit]

Image Name Title held From Until
Jayadeva Senapati (Admiral) 900? ?
Lakan Timamanukum 1150? ?
Alon Lakan Alon 1200? ?
Gambang Lakan Gambang 1390? 1417?
Suko Lakan Suko 1417? 1430?
Lontok Lakan Lontok 1430? 1450?
Kalangitan Dayang Kaylangitan, Queen of Namayan and Tondo 1450? 1515?
Salalila Rajah Salalila or Rajah Sulayman I 1515? 1558?
Matanda Rajah Matanda or Rajah Sulayman II or Rajah Ache, King of Namayan 1558? 1571
Lakan Dula Banaw Lakandula, King of Tondo and Sabag 1558? 1571
Sulayman Rajah Sulayman, King of Tondo 1571 1585
Magat Salamat 1575 1587

Connection to Mayi[edit]

There was nearby state, Ma-i or Mayi, whose ruler used 30 people as human sacrifices in his funeral, the subordinates of Mayi were Baipuyan (Babuyan Islands), Bajinong (Busuanga), Liyin(Lingayen) and Lihan (present day Malolos City).Malolos is a coastal town and one of the ancient settlement around Manila Bay near Tondo.[42][43]

See also[edit]

Additional reading[edit]

Bolkiah Era[edit]

Spanish Era[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Abinales, Patricio N. and Donna J. Amoroso, State and Society in the Philippines. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005. as referred to in http://malacanang.gov.ph/75832-pre-colonial-manila/#_ftn1
  2. ^ Joaqiun, Nick (1990). Manila, My Manila: A History for the Young. City of Manila: Anvil Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-9715693134. 
  3. ^ Potet, Jean-Paul G. (2013). Arabic and Persian Loanwords in Tagalog. p. 444. ISBN 9781291457261. 
  4. ^ Keat Gin Ooi (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. p. 798. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2. 
  5. ^ Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 59. 
  6. ^ a b Morrow, Paul (2006-07-14). "The Laguna Copperplate Inscription". Retrieved 2008-02-05. 
  7. ^ Tiongson, Jaime (2006-11-29). "Pailah is Pila, Laguna". Retrieved 2008-02-05. [unreliable source?]
  8. ^ a b Santos, Hector (1996-10-26). "The Laguna Copperplate Inscription". Retrieved 2008-02-05.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "santos" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  9. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/philippines/history-tondo.htm
  10. ^ Scott, William Henry (1992). Looking for the Prehispanic Filipino and Other Essays in the Philippine History. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. ISBN 971-10-0524-7. 
  11. ^ Paul Morrow (January 16, 2009). "Maharlika and the ancient class system". Pilipino Express. Retrieved July 18, 2012. 
  12. ^ Cf. William Henry Scott, Cracks in the Parchment Curtain, Quezon City: 1998, pp. 124-125.
  13. ^ Cf. William Henry Scott, Cracks in the Parchment Curtain, Quezon City: 1998, p. 125.
  14. ^ a b Ancient Philippine Civilization. Accessed January 7, 2013.(archived from the original on 2007-12-01}[unreliable source?]
  15. ^ Kekai, Paul. (2006-09-05) Quests of the Dragon and Bird Clan: Luzon Jars (Glossary). Sambali.blogspot.com. Retrieved on 2010-12-19.
  16. ^ South East Asia Pottery – Philippines. Seapots.com. Retrieved on 2010-12-19. Archived October 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ Malkiel-Jirmounsky, Myron (1939). "The Study of The Artistic Antiquities of Dutch India". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. Harvard-Yenching Institute. 4 (1): 59–68. doi:10.2307/2717905. JSTOR 2717905. 
  18. ^ Day, Tony & Reynolds, Craig J. (2000). "Cosmologies, Truth Regimes, and the State in Southeast Asia". Modern Asian Studies. Cambridge University Press. 34 (1): 1–55. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00003589. JSTOR 313111. 
  19. ^ Tiongson, Jaime (2006-11-29). "Pailah is Pila, Laguna". Retrieved 2008-02-05. [unreliable source?]
  20. ^ Chinese Muslims in Malaysia, History and Development by Rosey Wang Ma
  21. ^ Pigafetta, Antonio (1969) [1524]. "First voyage round the world". Translated by J.A. Robertson. Manila: Filipiniana Book Guild. 
  22. ^ Barros, Joao de, Decada terciera de Asia de Ioano de Barros dos feitos que os Portugueses fezarao no descubrimiento dos mares e terras de Oriente [1628], Lisbon, 1777, courtesy of William Henry Scott, Barangay: Sixteenth-Century Philippine Culture and Society, Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1994, page 194.
  23. ^ a b Pinto, Fernao Mendes (1989) [1578]. "The travels of Mendes Pinto.". Translated by Rebecca Catz. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 
  24. ^ Pigafetta, Antonio (1969) [1524]. "First voyage round the world". Translated by J.A. Robertson. Manila: Filipiniana Book Guild. 
  25. ^ Ibidem, page 195.
  26. ^ Antoon, Postma. "The Laguna Copper-Plate Inscription: Text and Commentary". Loyola Heights, Quezon City, the Philippines: Philippine Studies, Ateneo de Manila University. p. 200. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  27. ^ a b Ming Annals (Chinese {archived from the original on 2008-04-11)
  28. ^ Volume 5 of 東西洋考 (A study of the Eastern and Western Oceans) mentions that Luzon first sent tribute to Yongle Emperor in 1406.
  29. ^ Solheim, Wilhelm G., II (2006). Archaeology and Culture in Southeast Asia: Unraveling the Nusantao. Diliman, Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. p. 316. ISBN 971-542-508-9. 
  30. ^ a b "Embassy Updates: China-Philippine Friendly Relationship Will Last Forever" (Press release). Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the Republic of the Philippines. October 15, 2003. Retrieved 2008-02-05. 
  31. ^ Ebrey, Patricia Buckley (1999). Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge University Press. p. 211. ISBN 0-521-66991-X. 
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Coordinates: 14°37′38″N 120°58′17″E / 14.62722°N 120.97139°E / 14.62722; 120.97139