Lwów–Warsaw school

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The Lwów–Warsaw school (Polish: Szkoła lwowsko-warszawska) was a Polish school of thought founded by Kazimierz Twardowski in 1895 in Lemberg/Lwów, Austria-Hungary (now Lviv, Ukraine).

Although the members represented a variety of disciplines, from mathematics through logic to psychology, the School is widely considered to have been a philosophical movement.[1] Developed in the 1920s and 1930s, the school's work was interrupted by the outbreak of World War II. Despite this, the members went on and fundamentally influenced modern science, notably mathematics and logic, in the post-war period. The most prominent member of this school, Alfred Tarski, has been ranked as one of the four greatest logicians of all time—along with Aristotle, Gottlob Frege, and Kurt Gödel.[2][3][4]

In modern Polish science, the philosopher Jan Woleński considers himself close to the heritage of the school. In 2013 Woleński was awarded by the Foundation for Polish Science for a comprehensive analysis of the work of the Lwów–Warsaw school and for placing its achievements within the international discourse of contemporary analytic philosophy.[5]


The Lwów–Warsaw school of logic lay at the origin of Polish logic and was closely associated with the Warsaw school of mathematics. It began as a more general philosophical school but steadily moved toward logic. In the 1930s Alfred Tarski initiated contacts with the Vienna Circle. In addition to Brentano, his pupils Anton Marty, Alexius Meinong and Edmund Husserl also considerably influenced Polish philosophy and the Lwów–Warsaw school.

Principal topics of interest to that school included formal ontology, mereology, and universal or categorial grammar.


As mentioned above, many of the school's members worked in more than one field.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Jan Woleński, Filozoficzna szkoła lwowsko-warszawska, Warsaw, PWN, 1985.
  2. ^ Feferman & Feferman, p. 1
  3. ^ Vaught, Robert L. (Dec 1986). "Alfred Tarski's Work in Model Theory". Journal of Symbolic Logic. ASL. 51 (4): 869–882. doi:10.2307/2273900. JSTOR 2273900.
  4. ^ Restall, Greg (2002–2006). "Great Moments in Logic". Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-03. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  5. ^ "Prof. Jan Woleński, PhD hab. – FNP Prize 2013 laureate". Archived from the original on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 2016-08-11.


Bibliographical references
Publications on the School
  • Coniglione, F., Polish Scientific Philosophy: The Lvov–Warsaw School, Amsterdam-Atlanta:Rodopi, 1993.
  • Jadacki Jacek and Paśniczek Jacek (eds.), The Lvov-Warsaw School – The new generation, Poznań Studies in the Philosophy of Science and Humanities Vol. 89, Polish Analytical Philosophy Vol. VI, Rodopi, Amsterdam, 2006, 503 pp, ISBN 978-90-420-2068-9.
  • Lapointe Sandra, Wolenski Jan, Marion Mathieu (eds.), The Golden Age of Polish Philosophy: Kazimierz Twardowski's Philosophical Legacy Dordrecht:Springer ISBN 90-481-2400-X.
  • Smith, Barry, Austrian Philosophy, Chicago, Open Court Publishing Company, 1994.
  • Szaniawski, K., ed., The Vienna Circle and the Lvov–Warsaw School, Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer.
  • Woleński, Jan, Logic and Philosophy in the Lvov–Warsaw School, Dordrecht/Boston/Lancaster: Reidel, 1989.

External links[edit]