|Other Alphabets of Asia Minor|
Lydian script was used to write the Lydian language. That the language preceded the script is indicated by names in Lydian, which must have existed before they were written. Like other scripts of Anatolia in the Iron Age, the Lydian alphabet is related to the East Greek alphabet, but it has unique features. The same Greek letters may not represent the same sounds in both languages or in any other Anatolian language (in some cases it may). Moreover, the Lydian script is alphabetic.
Early Lydian texts are written both from left to right and from right to left. Later texts are exclusively written from right to left. One text is boustrophedon. Spaces separate words except that one text uses dots. Lydian uniquely features a quotation mark in the shape of a right triangle.
The first codification was made by Roberto Gusmani in 1964 in a combined lexicon (vocabulary), grammar, and text collection.
The Lydian alphabet is closely related to the other alphabets of Asia Minor as well as to the Greek alphabet. It contains letters for 26 sounds. Some are represented by more than one symbol, which is considered one "letter." Unlike the Carian alphabet, which had an f derived from Φ, the Lydian f has the peculiar 8 shape also found in the Etruscan alphabet.
|Lydian Letter||Transliteration||Sound||Table Notes|
|𐤵||ã||nasal vowel||Perhaps [ãː]. Only occurs accented. Ã or a is found before a nasal consonant: aliksãntru ~ aliksantru.|
|𐤡||b||[p], [b]||Voiced to [b] before nasals and probably [r]|
|𐤹||c||[dz]?||An undetermined voiced affricate or fricative: [z], [dz], or [dʒ], etc. At least one origin is assibilated *d.|
|𐤣||d||[ð]?||Or perhaps some other voiced fricative such as [z].|
|𐤤||e||[eː]||Fairly high and long, like Greek ει; only occurs accented.|
|𐤶||ẽ||nasal vowel||Not [ẽ]; perhaps [ã]. Only occurs accented.|
|𐤢||Ɔ||g||[ɡ]||Occasionally substituted for voiced /k/.|
|𐤧||y||?||Apparently an allophone of /i/, perhaps when unstressed. Attested only 11 times: artymu- ~ artimu-. It may be a borrowing of Carian 𐊹.|
|𐤨||k||[k], [ɡ]||Voiced to [ɡ] before nasals and probably [r]|
|𐤸||ν||[ɲ] or [ŋ]?||Arose from word-final *m and *n; later loss of final vowels caused it to contrast with those sounds.|
|𐤬||o||[oː]||Fairly high and long, like Greek ου; only occurs accented.|
|𐤲||q||[kʷ]||At least historically [kʷ]; it's not clear if this pronunciation was still current.|
|𐤳||s||[ç] or [ʃ]||Palatalized *s.|
|𐤮||ś||[s]||A simple [s], despite its transcription.|
|𐤯||T||t||[t], [d]||Voiced to [d] before nasals and probably [r]|
|𐤴||τ||[ts] or [tʃ]|
Examples of words
The Unicode block for Lydian is U+10920–U+1093F:
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
- Himelfarb, Elizabeth J. "First Alphabet Found in Egypt", Archaeology 53, Issue 1 (Jan./Feb. 2000): 21.
- Adiego (2007) page 769.
- Everson (2006).
- Gérard (2005) page 35.
- Gérard (2005) page36.
- Gērard (2005) page 34.
- Everson, Michael (2006-02-05). "Proposal to encode the Lycian and Lydian scripts in the SMP of the UCS" (pdf). DKUUG Standardization. Danish Unix User Group (DKUUG). Retrieved 2008-03-18.
- Adiego, I. J. (2007). "Greek and Lydian". In Christidis, A.F.; Arapopoulou, Maria; Chriti, Maria. A History of Ancient Greek From the Beginning to Late Antiquity. Chris Markham (trans.). Cambridge University press. ISBN 0-521-83307-8.. Translator Chris Markham.
- Gérard, Raphaël (2005). Phonétique et morphologie de la langue lydienne. Louvain-la-Neuve: Peeters. ISBN 9042915749. French language text.
- Gusmani, R. Lydisches Wörterbuch. Mit grammatischer Skizze und Inschriftensammlung, Heidelberg 1964 (Ergänzungsband 1-3, Heidelberg 1980-1986).
- Melchert, H. Craig (2004) "Lydian", in Roger D. Woodard (ed.), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56256-2. pp. 601–608.
- Shevoroshkin, V. The Lydian Language, Moscow, 1977.