Lynestrenol phenylpropionate

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Lynestrenol phenylpropionate
Lynestrenol phenylpropionate.svg
Clinical data
Other namesLPP; 17α-Ethynylestr-4-en-17β-ol 17β-(3-phenylpropionate); 19-Nor-17α-pregn-4-en-20-yn-17-ol benzenepropanoate
Routes of
Intramuscular injection
Drug classProgestogen; Progestin; Progestogen ester
  • [(8R,9S,10R,13S,14S,17R)-17-Ethynyl-13-methyl-2,3,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl] 3-phenylpropanoate
CAS Number
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass416.605 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • O(C(CCC1C=CC=CC=1)=O)[C@](C#C)1CC[C@]([H])2[C@@]([H])3CCC4=CCCC[C@]4([H])[C@@]3([H])CC[C@@]21C
  • InChI=1S/C29H36O2/c1-3-29(31-27(30)16-13-21-9-5-4-6-10-21)20-18-26-25-15-14-22-11-7-8-12-23(22)24(25)17-19-28(26,29)2/h1,4-6,9-11,23-26H,7-8,12-20H2,2H3/t23-,24+,25+,26-,28-,29-/m0/s1

Lynestrenol phenylpropionate (LPP), also known as ethynylestrenol phenylpropionate, is a progestin and a progestogen ester which was developed for potential use as a progestogen-only injectable contraceptive by Organon but was never marketed.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] It was assessed at doses of 25 to 75 mg in an oil solution once a month by intramuscular injection.[1][4] LPP was associated with high contraceptive failure at the low dose and with poor cycle control.[3] The medication was found to produce estrogenic effects in the endometrium in women due to transformation into estrogenic metabolites.[4]

A single intramuscular injection of 50 to 100 mg LPP in oil solution has been found to have a duration of action of 14 to 30 days in terms of clinical biological effect in the uterus and on body temperature in women.[9]

LPP has a long biological half-life in rats when given as an intramuscular depot injection; its half-life was similar to that of nandrolone laurate (nandrolone dodecanoate) and was about 2-fold longer than that of nandrolone decanoate, 10-fold longer than that of lynestrenol and nandrolone phenylpropionate, 50-fold longer than that of progesterone, and 430-fold longer than that of nandrolone.[5][6]

Parenteral potencies and durations of progestogens[a][b]
Compound Form Dose for specific uses (mg)[c] DOA[d]
Algestone acetophenide Oil soln. - 75–150 14–32 d
Gestonorone caproate Oil soln. 25–50 8–13 d
Hydroxyprogest. acetate[h] Aq. susp. 350 9–16 d
Hydroxyprogest. caproate Oil soln. 250–500[i] 250–500 5–21 d
Medroxyprog. acetate Aq. susp. 50–100 150 25 14–50+ d
Megestrol acetate Aq. susp. - 25 >14 d
Norethisterone enanthate Oil soln. 100–200 200 50 11–52 d
Progesterone Oil soln. 200[i] 2–6 d
Aq. soln. ? 1–2 d
Aq. susp. 50–200 7–14 d
Notes and sources:
  1. ^ Sources: [10][11][12][13][14][15][9][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]
  2. ^ All given by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection.
  3. ^ Progesterone production during the luteal phase is ~25 (15–50) mg/day. The OID of OHPC is 250 to 500 mg/month.
  4. ^ Duration of action in days.
  5. ^ Usually given for 14 days.
  6. ^ Usually dosed every two to three months.
  7. ^ Usually dosed once monthly.
  8. ^ Never marketed or approved by this route.
  9. ^ a b In divided doses (2 × 125 or 250 mg for OHPC, 10 × 20 mg for P4).

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Elsayed Saad Eldin Hafez (1980). Human reproduction: conception and contraception. Harper and Row. p. 607,614. ISBN 978-0-06-141066-6.
  2. ^ Mokhtar K. Toppozada (1983). "Monthly Injectable Contraceptives". In Alfredo Goldsmith; Mokhtar Toppozada (eds.). Long-Acting Contraception. pp. 93–103. OCLC 35018604.
  3. ^ a b Toppozada M (June 1977). "The clinical use of monthly injectable contraceptive preparations". Obstet Gynecol Surv. 32 (6): 335–47. doi:10.1097/00006254-197706000-00001. PMID 865726.
  4. ^ a b c Badawy S, Makhlouf A (1975). "The contraceptive action of lynestrenol phenylpropionate". Adv Plan Parent. 10 (3): 149–53. PMID 789155.
  5. ^ a b van der Vies J (1985). "Implications of basic pharmacology in the therapy with esters of nandrolone". Acta Endocrinol Suppl (Copenh). 271 (3_Suppla): 38–44. doi:10.1530/acta.0.109S0038. PMID 3865480.
  6. ^ a b Van der Vies, J (1969). "Mechanism of action of long-acting hormone preparations". Organorama. 6 (5): 4–8. ISSN 0369-7762. Studies were made with nandrolone phenpropionate (Durabolin), nandrolone decanoate, and 16α-ethylprogesterone in peanut oil injected into the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. The free steroid was much more rapidly resorbed than the esters, explaining the action-prolonging effects obtained with the latter. Generally, resorption rates correlated well with duration of action. Resorption from the muscle was followed by transport to the receptor site in the body, during which time ester hydrolysis may occur, releasing the free steroid. Resorption and hydrolysis take place independently, since plasma with inactivated enzymes (heated to 55°) eluted the compds. from a filter paper strip as rapidly as did normal plasma.
  7. ^ van der Vies J (August 1970). "Model studies in vitro with long-acting hormonal preparations". Acta Endocrinol. 64 (4): 656–69. doi:10.1530/acta.0.0640656. PMID 5468664.
  8. ^ Hobbelen PM, Coert A, Geelen JA, van der Vies J (January 1975). "Interactions of steroids with serum lipoproteins". Biochem. Pharmacol. 24 (2): 165–72. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(75)90273-7. PMID 163092.
  9. ^ a b Ferin J (September 1972). "Effects, Duration of Action and Metabolism in Man". In Tausk M (ed.). Pharmacology of the Endocrine System and Related Drugs: Progesterone, Progestational Drugs and Antifertility Agents. Vol. II. Pergamon Press. pp. 13–24. ISBN 978-0080168128. OCLC 278011135.
  10. ^ Knörr K, Beller FK, Lauritzen C (17 April 2013). Lehrbuch der Gynäkologie. Springer-Verlag. pp. 214–. ISBN 978-3-662-00942-0.
  11. ^ Knörr K, Knörr-Gärtner H, Beller FK, Lauritzen C (8 March 2013). Geburtshilfe und Gynäkologie: Physiologie und Pathologie der Reproduktion. Springer-Verlag. pp. 583–. ISBN 978-3-642-95583-9.
  12. ^ Labhart A (6 December 2012). Clinical Endocrinology: Theory and Practice. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 554–. ISBN 978-3-642-96158-8.
  13. ^ Horský J, Presl J (1981). "Hormonal Treatment of Disorders of the Menstrual Cycle". In Horsky J, Presl K (eds.). Ovarian Function and its Disorders: Diagnosis and Therapy. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 309–332. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-8195-9_11. ISBN 978-94-009-8195-9.
  14. ^ Ufer J (1969). The Principles and Practice of Hormone Therapy in Gynaecology and Obstetrics. de Gruyter. p. 49. ISBN 9783110006148. 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate is a depot progestogen which is entirely free of side actions. The dose required to induce secretory changes in primed endometrium is about 250 mg. per menstrual cycle.
  15. ^ Pschyrembel W (1968). Praktische Gynäkologie: für Studierende und Ärzte. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 598, 601. ISBN 978-3-11-150424-7.
  16. ^ Henzl MR, Edwards JA (10 November 1999). "Pharmacology of Progestins: 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone Derivatives and Progestins of the First and Second Generation". In Sitruk-Ware R, Mishell DR (eds.). Progestins and Antiprogestins in Clinical Practice. Taylor & Francis. pp. 101–132. ISBN 978-0-8247-8291-7.
  17. ^ Brotherton J (1976). Sex Hormone Pharmacology. Academic Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-12-137250-7.
  18. ^ Sang GW (April 1994). "Pharmacodynamic effects of once-a-month combined injectable contraceptives". Contraception. 49 (4): 361–385. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(94)90033-7. PMID 8013220.
  19. ^ Toppozada MK (April 1994). "Existing once-a-month combined injectable contraceptives". Contraception. 49 (4): 293–301. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(94)90029-9. PMID 8013216.
  20. ^ Bagade O, Pawar V, Patel R, Patel B, Awasarkar V, Diwate S (2014). "Increasing use of long-acting reversible contraception: safe, reliable, and cost-effective birth control" (PDF). World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 3 (10): 364–392. ISSN 2278-4357. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-08-10. Retrieved 2016-08-24.
  21. ^ Goebelsmann U (1986). "Pharmacokinetics of Contraceptive Steroids in Humans". In Gregoire AT, Blye RP (eds.). Contraceptive Steroids: Pharmacology and Safety. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 67–111. doi:10.1007/978-1-4613-2241-2_4. ISBN 978-1-4613-2241-2.
  22. ^ Becker H, Düsterberg B, Klosterhalfen H (1980). "[Bioavailability of cyproterone acetate after oral and intramuscular application in men (author's transl)]" [Bioavailability of Cyproterone Acetate after Oral and Intramuscular Application in Men]. Urologia Internationalis. 35 (6): 381–385. doi:10.1159/000280353. PMID 6452729.
  23. ^ Moltz L, Haase F, Schwartz U, Hammerstein J (May 1983). "[Treatment of virilized women with intramuscular administration of cyproterone acetate]" [Efficacy of Intra muscularly Applied Cyproterone Acetate in Hyperandrogenism]. Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde. 43 (5): 281–287. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1036893. PMID 6223851.
  24. ^ Wright JC, Burgess DJ (29 January 2012). Long Acting Injections and Implants. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 114–. ISBN 978-1-4614-0554-2.
  25. ^ Chu YH, Li Q, Zhao ZF (April 1986). "Pharmacokinetics of megestrol acetate in women receiving IM injection of estradiol-megestrol long-acting injectable contraceptive". The Chinese Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. The results showed that after injection the concentration of plasma MA increased rapidly. The meantime of peak plasma MA level was 3rd day, there was a linear relationship between log of plasma MA concentration and time (day) after administration in all subjects, elimination phase half-life t1/2β = 14.35 ± 9.1 days.
  26. ^ Runnebaum BC, Rabe T, Kiesel L (6 December 2012). Female Contraception: Update and Trends. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 429–. ISBN 978-3-642-73790-9.
  27. ^ Artini PG, Genazzani AR, Petraglia F (11 December 2001). Advances in Gynecological Endocrinology. CRC Press. pp. 105–. ISBN 978-1-84214-071-0.
  28. ^ King TL, Brucker MC, Kriebs JM, Fahey JO (21 October 2013). Varney's Midwifery. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 495–. ISBN 978-1-284-02542-2.