Lynn Conway

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lynn Conway
Conway in 2006
Born (1938-01-02) January 2, 1938 (age 86)
Alma materColumbia University
Known for
Charles Rogers
(m. 2002)
Scientific career
InstitutionsIBM Advanced Computing Systems (1964–68), Memorex, Xerox PARC (1970s), DARPA, University of Michigan

Lynn Ann Conway (born January 2, 1938)[3][4] is an American computer scientist, electrical engineer and transgender activist.[5]

She worked at IBM in the 1960s and invented generalized dynamic instruction handling, a key advance used in out-of-order execution, used by most modern computer processors to improve performance. She initiated the Mead–Conway VLSI chip design revolution in very large scale integrated (VLSI) microchip design. That revolution spread rapidly through the research universities and computing industries during the 1980s, incubating an emerging electronic design automation industry, spawning the modern 'foundry' infrastructure for chip design and production, and triggering a rush of impactful high-tech startups in the 1980s and 1990s.[6][7][8][9][10][11]

Early life and education[edit]

Conway grew up in White Plains, New York. Conway was shy and experienced gender dysphoria as a child. She became fascinated by astronomy (building a 6-inch (150 mm) reflector telescope one summer) and did well in math and science in high school. Conway entered MIT in 1955, earning high grades but ultimately leaving in despair after an attempted gender transition, from male to female in 1957–58, failed due to the medical climate at the time.[citation needed] After working as an electronics technician for several years, Conway resumed education at Columbia University's School of Engineering and Applied Science, earning B.S. and M.S.E.E. degrees in 1962 and 1963.[12][13]

Early research at IBM[edit]

Conway was recruited by IBM Research in Yorktown Heights, New York in 1964, and was soon selected to join the architecture team designing an advanced supercomputer, working alongside John Cocke, Brian Randell, Herbert Schorr, Ed Sussenguth, Fran Allen and other IBM researchers on the Advanced Computing Systems (ACS) project, inventing multiple-issue out-of-order dynamic instruction scheduling while working there.[6][7][8][14][15] The Computer History Museum has stated that "the ACS machines appears to have been the first superscalar design, a computer architectural paradigm widely exploited in modern high-performance microprocessors."[9][10][11][16][17]

Gender transition[edit]

After learning of the pioneering research of Harry Benjamin in treating transsexual women[18] and realising that gender affirmation surgery was now possible, Conway sought his help and became his patient. After suffering from severe depression from gender dysphoria, Conway contacted Benjamin, who agreed to provide counseling and prescribe hormones. Under Benjamin's care, Conway began her medical gender transition.[19]

While struggling with life in a male role,[19] Conway had been married to a woman and had two children. Under the legal constraints then in place, she was denied access to their children after transitioning.[19]

Although she had hoped to be allowed to transition on the job, IBM fired Conway in 1968 after she revealed her intention to transition.[20] IBM apologized for this in 2020.[21]

Career as computer scientist[edit]

Upon completing her transition in 1968, Conway took a new name and identity, and restarted her career in what she called "stealth-mode" as a contract programmer at Computer Applications, Inc. She went on to work at Memorex during 1969–1972 as a digital system designer and computer architect.[19][22]

Conway joined Xerox PARC in 1973, where she led the "LSI Systems" group under Bert Sutherland.[23][24] When in PARC, Conway founded the "multiproject wafers" (MPW). This new technology made it possible to pack multiple circuit designs from various sources into one single silicon wafer. Her new invention increased production and decreased costs.[25] Collaborating with Ivan Sutherland and Carver Mead of Caltech on VLSI design methodology, she co-authored Introduction to VLSI Systems, a groundbreaking work that would soon become a standard textbook in chip design, used in nearly 120 universities by 1983.[26][27][28][29] With over 70,000 copies sold, and the new integration of her MPC79/MOSIS innovations, the Mead and Conway revolution became part of VLSI design.[27][30]

In 1978, Conway served as visiting associate professor of electrical engineering and computer science at MIT, teaching a now famous VLSI design course based on a draft of the Mead–Conway text.[19] The course validated the new design methods and textbook, and established the syllabus and instructor's guidebook used in later courses worldwide.[31][32]

Among Conway's contributions were the invention of dimensionless, scalable design rules that greatly simplified chip design and design tools,[7][13][33] and invention of a new form of internet-based infrastructure for rapid prototyping and short-run fabrication of large numbers of chip designs.[7][34] The new infrastructure was institutionalized as the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Implementation Service (MOSIS) system in 1981. Two years into its success, Mead and Conway received Electronics magazine's annual award of achievement.[35] Since then, MOSIS has fabricated more than 50,000 circuit designs for commercial firms, government agencies, and research and educational institutions around the world.[36] VLSI researcher Charles Seitz commented that "MOSIS represented the first period since the pioneering work of Eckert and Mauchley on the ENIAC in the late 1940s that universities and small companies had access to state-of-the-art digital technology."[34]

The research methods used to develop the Mead–Conway VLSI design methodology and the MOSIS prototype are documented in a 1981 Xerox report[37] and the Euromicro Journal.[38] The impact of the Mead–Conway work is described in a number of historical overviews of computing.[34][39][40][41][42][43] Conway and her colleagues have compiled an online archive of original papers that documents much of that work.[44][45] The methods also came under ethnographic study in 1980 by PARC anthropologist Lucy Suchman, who published her interviews with Conway in 2021.[46][47]

In the early 1980s, Conway left Xerox to join DARPA, where she was a key architect of the Defense Department's Strategic Computing Initiative, a research program studying high-performance computing, autonomous systems technology, and intelligent weapons technology.[13][48]

In a USA Today article about Conway's joining DARPA, Mark Stefik, a Xerox scientist who worked with her, said "Lynn would like to live five lives in the course of one life" and that she's "charismatic and very energetic".[49] Douglas Fairbairn, a former Xerox associate, said "She figures out a way so that everybody wins."[49]

Conway joined the University of Michigan in 1985 as professor of electrical engineering and computer science, and associate dean of engineering. There she worked on "visual communications and control probing for basic system and user-interface concepts as applicable to hybridized internet/broadband-cable communications".[13] She retired from active teaching and research in 1998, as professor emerita at Michigan.[50]


As sociologist Thomas Streeter discusses in The Net Effect:[51][52] "By taking this job, Conway was demonstrating that she was no antiwar liberal. (In response to critics, she has said, 'if you have to fight, and sometimes you must in order to deal with bad people, history tells us that it really helps to have the best weapons available)".[12] But Conway carried a sense of computers as tools for horizontal communications that she had absorbed at PARC right into DARPA – at one of the hottest moments of the cold war."

In the fall of 2012, the IEEE published a special issue of the IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine devoted to Lynn Conway's career,[53][54] including a career memoir by Conway[20] and peer commentaries by Chuck House,[55] former Director of Engineering at HP, Carlo Séquin, Professor of EECS at U.C. Berkeley,[56] and Ken Shepard, of Columbia University.[57] Subsequently the scope of Conway's contributions gained wider retrospective attention. "Since I didn't #LookLikeanEngineer, few people caught on to what I was really doing back in the 70s and 80s," says Conway.[21]

"Clearly a new paradigm had emerged ... Importantly, imaginative support in terms of infrastructure and idea dissemination proved as valuable as the concepts, tools, and chips. The "electronic book" and the "foundry" were both prescient and necessary, providing momentum and proof-points."[55] James F. "Jim" Gibbons, former dean of engineering at Stanford University, further states that Lynn Conway, from his perspective, "...was the singular force behind the entire 'foundry' development that emerged."[55] Kenneth Shepard, Professor of Biomedical and Electrical Engineering at Columbia University, stated that "Lynn's amazing story of accomplishment and personal triumph in the face of personal adversity and overt discrimination should serve as an inspiration to all young engineers."[57][58]

In 2020, NAE President John L. Anderson stated that "Lynn Conway is not only a revolutionary pioneer in the design of VLSI systems ... But just as important, Lynn has been very brave in telling her own story, and her perseverance has been a reminder to society that it should not be blind to the innovations of women, people of color, or others who don't fit long outdated – but unfortunately, persistent – perceptions of what an engineer looks like."[21]

Transgender activism[edit]

When nearing retirement, Conway learned that the story of her early work at IBM might soon be revealed through the investigations of Mark Smotherman that were being prepared for a 2001 publication.[6] She began quietly coming out in 1999 to friends and colleagues about her past gender transition,[59][60][61] using her personal website to tell the story in her own words.[12] Her story was then more widely reported in 2000 in profiles in Scientific American[14] and the Los Angeles Times.[19] In a later Forbes interview, Conway commented "From the 1970s to 1999 I was recognized as breaking the gender barrier in the computer science field as a woman, but in 2000 it became the transgender barrier I was breaking."[21]

After going public with her story, she began work in transgender activism, intending to "illuminate and normalize the issues of gender identity and the processes of gender transition".[62] She has worked to protect and expand the rights of transgender people. She has provided direct and indirect assistance to numerous other transgender women going through transition and maintains a website providing medical resources and emotional advice. Parts have been translated into most of the world's major languages.[63] She maintained a listing of many successful post-transition transgender people, to, in her words "provide role models for individuals who are facing gender transition".[64] Her website also provided news related to transgender issues and information on sex reassignment surgery for transsexual women, facial feminization surgery, academic inquiries into the prevalence of transsexualism[65] and transgender and transsexual issues in general.[66][67]

She has also advocated for equal opportunities and employment protections for transgender people in high-technology industry,[68][69][70][71][72][73] and for elimination of the pathologization of transgender people by the psychiatric community.[74][75]

Conway has been a critic of the Blanchard, Bailey, and Lawrence theory of male-to-female transsexualism that all trans women are motivated either by feminine homosexuality or autogynephilia.[76] Along with American transgender rights activist Andrea James and University of Chicago economics professor Dierdre McCloskey, she was also a key person in the campaign against J. Michael Bailey's book about the theory, The Man Who Would Be Queen.[77][78] Conway and McCloskey wrote letters to Northwestern University, accusing Bailey of "conducting intimate research observations on human subjects without telling them that they were objects of the study."[76] American bioethicist Alice Dreger in her book Galilieo's Middle Finger criticized Conway for filing a lawsuit against Bailey which had "no legal basis", referring to her allegation that Bailey lacked a license as a clinical psychologist when he wrote letters in support of a young trans woman seeking to transition. According to Dreger, as Bailey did not receive compensation for his services, he would not have needed a license in Illinois, and was "completely forthright in his letters supporting the women, both about the fact that he had only had brief conversations with them (as opposed to having provided them with extensive counseling) and about his own qualifications and expertise... [and] even attached copies of his CV." As Dreger argues, "presumably all this was why [Illinois] never bothered to pursue the charge."[79] In response, Conway argued that Dreger "deflects attention away from Bailey's book and the massive trans community protest, and caricatures the entire controversy as nothing more than a vicious effort by three rather witch-like women to 'ruin the life' of a brilliant scientist.[80]

Conway was a cast member in the first all-transgender performance of The Vagina Monologues in Los Angeles in 2004,[81] and appeared in a LOGO-Channel documentary film about that event entitled Beautiful Daughters.[59][82]

In 2009, Conway was named one of the "Stonewall 40 trans heroes" on the 40th anniversary of the Stonewall riots by the International Court System, one of the oldest and largest predominantly gay organizations in the world, and the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force.[83][84]

In 2013, with support from many thought-leaders in high-technology, Conway and her colleague Leandra Vicci of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill successfully lobbied the board of directors of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for transgender inclusion in the IEEE's Code of Ethics.[85] That Code, known within the profession as much as a code of honor as one of ethics, became fully LGBT inclusive in January 2014, thus impacting the world's largest engineering professional society, with 425,000 members in 160 countries.[86][87][88] In 2014, Time Magazine named Lynn as one of "21 Transgender People Who Influenced American Culture".[5] In 2015 she was selected for inclusion in "The Trans100"[89] and was interviewed in 2020 for inclusion in the Trans Activism Oral History Project.[90]

Personal life[edit]

In 1987, Conway met her husband Charles "Charlie" Rogers, a professional engineer who shares her interest in the outdoors, including whitewater canoeing and motocross racing.[19][91] They soon started living together, and bought a house with 24 acres (9.7 ha) of meadow, marsh, and woodland in rural Michigan in 1994.[19] On August 13, 2002, they were married.[15][59][92] In 2014, the University of Michigan's The Michigan Engineer alumni magazine documented the connections between Conway's engineering explorations and the adventures in her personal life.[93][94]

Awards and honors[edit]

Conway has received a number of awards and distinctions:

IBM's apology[edit]

In 2020, 52 years after IBM fired her for being transgender, IBM officially and publicly apologized to Conway;[151][152][153][154][155][156] IBM held a public event "Tech Trailblazer and Transgender Pioneer Lynn Conway in conversation with Diane Gherson" (IBM's senior VP of HR); IBM's Director of Research Dario Gil said "Lynn was recently awarded the rare IBM Lifetime Achievement Award, given to individuals who have changed the world through technology inventions. Lynn's extraordinary technical achievements helped define the modern computing industry. She paved the way for how we design and make computing chips today – and forever changed microelectronics, devices, and people's lives."[144]

Selected works[edit]


  • US 5046022, Conway, Lynn; Volz, Richard & Walker, Michael, "Teleautonomous System and Method Employing Time/Position Synchrony/Desynchrony", issued September 3, 1991. 
  • US 5444476, Conway, Lynn, "System and Method for Teleinteraction", issued August 22, 1995 
  • US 5652849, Conway, Lynn & Cohen, Charles, "Apparatus and Method for Remote Control Using a Visual Information Stream", issued July 20, 1997 
  • US 5719622, Conway, Lynn, "Visual Control Selection of Remote Mechanisms", issued February 17, 1998 
  • US 5745782, Conway, Lynn, "Method and System for Organizing and Presenting Audio/Visual Information", issued April 28, 1998 


  1. ^ "CHM 2014 Fellow "For her work in developing and disseminating new methods of integrated circuit design"". Archived from the original on July 3, 2016. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  2. ^ Saari, Peggy; Allison, Stephen; Ellavich, Marie C. (1996). Scientists: A-F. U-X-L. ISBN 978-0-7876-0960-3.
  3. ^ Lee, John A. N. (1995). International Biographical Dictionary of Computer Pioneers. Fitzroy Dearborn. ISBN 1-884964-47-8.
  4. ^ "Computer Pioneers - Lynn Conway". IEEE. Archived from the original on November 10, 2014. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
  5. ^ a b "21 Transgender People Who Influenced American Culture". Time. May 29, 2014.
  6. ^ a b c Smotherman, Mark. "IBM Advanced Computing Systems (ACS) – 1961–1969".
  7. ^ a b c d e "Lynn Conway: 2009 Computer Pioneer Award Recipient" Archived January 3, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, IEEE Computer Society, January 20, 2010.
  8. ^ a b "IEEE Computer Society Video: Lynn Conway receives 2009 IEEE Computer Society Computer Pioneer Award" on YouTube, July 30, 2010.
  9. ^ a b "Event: IBM ACS System: A Pioneering Supercomputer Project of the 1960s", Computer History Museum, February 18, 2010.
  10. ^ a b "Computer History Museum Events: IBM ACS System: A Pioneering Supercomputer Project of the 1960s" Archived September 28, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Computer History Museum, February 18, 2010.
  11. ^ a b "Historical Reflections: IBM's Single-Processor Supercomputer Efforts – Insights on the pioneering IBM Stretch and ACS projects" by M. Smotherman and D. Spicer, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 53, No. 12, December 2010, pp. 28–30.
  12. ^ a b c Lynn Conway, "Lynn Conway's Retrospective Part I: Childhood and education," February 9, 2005.
  13. ^ a b c d Kilbane, Doris (October 20, 2003). "Lynn Conway: A Trailblazer On Professional, Personal Levels". Products > News. Electronic Design. Archived from the original on 2008-06-08. Retrieved 2023-02-17.
  14. ^ a b Paul Wallich, "Profile: Lynn Conway—Completing the Circuit Archived October 4, 2013, at the Wayback Machine," Scientific American, December 2000.
  15. ^ a b Dianne Lynch, "The Secret Behind 'Project Y': One Woman's Success Story — 'What Works, Works'",, November 29, 2001.
  16. ^ Smotherman, Mark. "IBM ACS Reunion – February 18, 2010, in California".
  17. ^ "The IBM ACS System: A Pioneering Supercomputer Project – Video". YouTube. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021.
  18. ^ Benjamin, Harry (1966). The Transsexual Phenomenon. Julian Press. ISBN 9780446824262.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h Hiltzik, Michael A. (November 19, 2000.) "Through the Gender Labyrinth." Archived October 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles Times Magazine, page 1. (Free reprint. Retrieved on September 19, 2007.)
  20. ^ a b Conway, Lynn (2012). "Reminiscences of the VLSI revolution: How a series of failures triggered a paradigm shift in digital design" (PDF). IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine. IEEE. 4 (4): 8–31. doi:10.1109/MSSC.2012.2215752. ISSN 1943-0582. S2CID 9286356.
  21. ^ a b c d Alicandri, Jeremy. "IBM Apologizes For Firing Computer Pioneer For Being Transgender...52 Years Later". Forbes.
  22. ^ "Lynn Conway's Retrospective PART III: Starting Over". May 12, 1960. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
  23. ^ Goldberg, Adele J. (September 1980). "About This Issue..." ACM Computing Surveys. 12 (3): 257–258. doi:10.1145/356819.356820. ISSN 0360-0300. S2CID 27661653.
  24. ^ Walker, Rob; Tersini, Nancy (1992). Silicon Destiny: The Story of Application Specific Integrated Circuits and LSI Logic Corporation. Walker Research Associates. ISBN 0-9632654-0-7.
  25. ^ "Sense of Wonder Motivates VLSI Chip Revolutionary, Lynn Conway". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
  26. ^ Conway, Lynn (December 31, 2012). "The 'Sutherland Letter' of 1976".
  27. ^ a b "Impact of the Mead-Conway VLSI Design Methodology and of the MOSIS Service". Retrieved March 13, 2020.
  28. ^ Paul Wallich, "Profile: Lynn Conway—Completing the Circuit," Scientific American, December 2000.
  29. ^ Gina Smith,"Unsung innovators: Lynn Conway and Carver Mead: They literally wrote the book on chip design Archived December 26, 2008, at the Wayback Machine," Computerworld, December 3, 2007.
  30. ^ Miller, Chris (2022). Chip War: The Fight for the World's Most Critical Technology. Scribner. pp. 136–137, 140, 166, 378.
  31. ^ The MIT'78 VLSI System Design Course: A Guidebook for the Instructor of VLSI System Design, Lynn Conway, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, August 12, 1979.
  32. ^ Paul Penfield "The VLSI Revolution at MIT" by Paul Penfield 2014 MIT EECS Connector, Spring 2014, pp. 11–13.
  33. ^ Carliss Y. Baldwin and Kim B. Clark (2000). Design Rules: The Power of Modularity. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-02466-7.
  34. ^ a b c National Research Council (1999), Funding a Revolution: Government Support for Computing Research, National Academy Press (excerpt)
  35. ^ "Impact of the Mead-Conway VLSI Design Methodology and of the MOSIS Service". Retrieved March 22, 2020.
  36. ^ "The MOSIS Service – More than 50,000 designs in 25 years of operation",, 2008
  37. ^ THE MPC Adventures: Experiences with the Generation of VLSI Design and Implementation Methodologies, Lynn Conway, Xerox PARC Technical Report VLSI-81-2, January 19, 1981.
  38. ^ THE MPC Adventures: Experiences with the Generation of VLSI Design and Implementation Methodologies, by Lynn Conway, Microprocessing and Microprogramming – The Euromicro Journal, Vol. 10, No. 4, November 1982, pp 209–228.
  39. ^ Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology, by Committee on Criteria for Federal Support of Research and Development, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington DC, 1995, page 75.
  40. ^ "Figure II.13: Technological Developments in Computing", in Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology, National Academy Press, Washington, DC 1995, page 75.". May 7, 1999. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
  41. ^ Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation's Information Infrastructure, by Committee to Study High Performance Computing and Communications: Status of a Major Initiative, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington DC, 1995, page 20.
  42. ^ "Figure 1.2: Government-sponsored computing research and development stimulates creation of innovative ideas and industries", in Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation's Information Infrastructure, National Academy Press, 1995, page 20.". May 7, 1999. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
  43. ^ Feinstein, Jonathan S. (2023). Creativity in Large-Scale Contexts. Stanford University Press. pp. 196–199, 266–270, 299–304.
  44. ^ The VLSI Archive Archived February 8, 2013, at, by Lynn Conway, Electronic Design News, June 3, 2009.
  45. ^ "VLSI Archive: An online archive of documents and artifacts from the Mead-Conway VLSI design revolution". Archived from the original on December 8, 2007. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
  46. ^ Suchman, Lucy (March 1, 2021). "A Sociotechnical Exchange, Redux". Backchannels | Reflections. Archived from the original on March 4, 2021.
  47. ^ Conway, Lynn; Suchman, Lucy (February 28, 2021). "Conway-Suchman conversation". Conway Suchman Conversation.
  48. ^ Dwight B. Davis "Assessing the Stragetic Computing Initiative," by Dwight B. Davis High Technology, Vol. 5, No. 4, April 1985.
  49. ^ a b "Hi-tech researcher chips in to develop smart computer", Michelle Osborn, USA Today, June 7, 1983, p. 3B.
  50. ^ a b "Lynn Conway awarded Emerita status at the University of Michigan", December 31, 1998
  51. ^ "The Net Effect, Romanticism, Capitalism, and the Internet", Thomas Steeter, New York University Press, 2011, p, 101.
  52. ^ "On Streeter's The Net Effect: A Culture Digitally Dialogue", Gina Neff, Mary Gray, and Thomas Streeter, April 25, 2013.
  53. ^ Lanzerotti, Mary, ed. (2012). "Editor's Note" (PDF). IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine. IEEE. 4: 1. doi:10.1109/MSSC.2012.2214274.
  54. ^ "Solid-State Circuits Publishes Special Issue with Lynn Conway's Memoir of the VLSI Revolution", Michigan EECS News, January 31, 2013.
  55. ^ a b c House, Chuck (2012). "A Paradigm Shift Was Happening All Around Us" (PDF). IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine. IEEE. 4 (4): 32–35. doi:10.1109/MSSC.2012.2215759. ISSN 1943-0582. S2CID 8738682.
  56. ^ Sequin, Carlo (2012). "Witnessing the Birth of VLSI Design" (PDF). IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine. IEEE. 4 (4): 36–39. doi:10.1109/MSSC.2012.2215758. ISSN 1943-0582. S2CID 20280958.
  57. ^ a b Shepard, Ken (2012). ""Covering": How We Missed the Inside-Story of the VLSI Revolution" (PDF). IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine. IEEE. 4 (4): 40–42. doi:10.1109/MSSC.2012.2215757. ISSN 1943-0582. S2CID 25240158.
  58. ^ ACM News (October 12, 2018). "Lynn Conway and the VLSI Revolution in Microchip Design". Communications of the ACM.
  59. ^ a b c "Beautiful Daughters Cast: Lynn Conway", LOGO Channel, 2006
  60. ^ "Class Notes: 2002 Inductees: Here's how many of our 2002 Hall Of Famers enjoy their leisure time and how they still give back to society" Archived October 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Doris Kilbane, Electronic Design, October 20, 2003.
  61. ^ "Secrets Are Out: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender engineers are no longer willing to hide their true selves" Jaimie Schock, Prism Magazine, American Society of Engineering Education, October 2011, pp. 44–47.
  62. ^ "Lynn Conway's homepage".
  63. ^ "Status of translations of Lynn's webpages, 12-10-13". December 10, 2013. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  64. ^ "Transsexual Women's Successes".
  65. ^ Olyslager F, Conway L (2008). Transseksualiteit komt vaker voor dan u denkt [Transsexualism is more common than you think]. Tijdschrift voor Genderstudies, Vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 39–51, 2008. (abstract in English)
  66. ^ ""Profile: Lynn Conway," Human Rights Campaign (HRC) website". HRC. Archived from the original on November 3, 2013. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
  67. ^ "Biographies of famous LGBT people: Science: Professor Lynn Conway, Lesbian Gay Bisexual Trans History Month website". Archived from the original on April 6, 2014. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
  68. ^ "Embracing Diversity – HP employees in Fort Collins, Colorado, welcome Dr. Lynn Conway", hpNOW, February 8, 2001.
  69. ^ "Computer pioneer speaks from the heart about diversity: Transsexual talks at HP, CSU", by Kate Forgach, Fort Collins Coloradoan, January 26, 2001.
  70. ^ "Chipping Away at Prejudice", by Sarah Wildman, The Advocate, March 13, 2001.
  71. ^ "What's pride got to do with it?", by Teri Warner, Employee Communications, Circuit for Employees@Intel, July 1, 2003.
  72. ^ "Why HR should wake up to the needs of transsexual employees", by Christine Burns, Personnel Today, November 18, 2003.
  73. ^ "Professor Lynn Conway, Guest at Out & Equal". Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  74. ^ "Dr. Kenneth Zucker's War on Transgenders". Queerty. February 6, 2009.
  75. ^ Antoine, Chagmion (March 6, 2009). "Transgender Crusader – A professor at the University of Michigan is taking on the psychiatric community's ideas about transgendered people and mental illness". CBS News / YouTube. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021.
  76. ^ a b Carey, Benedict (August 21, 2007). "Criticism of a Gender Theory, and a Scientist Under Siege". New York Times.
  77. ^ Dreger, A. D. (2008). "The controversy surrounding The man who would be queen: A case history of the politics of science, identity, and sex in the Internet age". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 37 (3): 366–421. doi:10.1007/s10508-007-9301-1. PMC 3170124. PMID 18431641.
  78. ^ Conway, Lynn (July 16, 2003). "Shockingly defamatory official publicity by the US National Academies for Bailey's book".
  79. ^ Dreger, Alice (March 10, 2015). "Galileo's Middle Finger: Heretics, Activists, and One Scholar's Search for Justice".
  80. ^ Conway, Lynn (June 18, 2008). "Dreger's Defense of J. Michael Bailey: The Peer Commentary Papers Tear It Apart".
  81. ^ VDay LA 2004 Commemorative Page, DeepStealth Productions, Los Angeles CA, 2004.
  82. ^ "Beautiful Daughters", a documentary by Josh Aronson and Ariel Orr Jordan, LOGO Channel, 2006.
  83. ^ a b "Trans Hero: Lynn Conway". Stonewall 40: Trans Heroes. International Court System. 2009. Archived from the original on June 15, 2009. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
  84. ^ a b "Recognizing Outstanding Transgender and Gender-Nonconforming Individuals in the Struggle for LGBT Equality". National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. June 10, 2009. Archived from the original on September 30, 2009. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
  85. ^ Beyer, Dana (January 8, 2014). "Leadership and the Value of Exceptional Allies". Huffington Post.
  86. ^ "IEEE at a Glace". IEEE.
  87. ^ "IEEE Code of Ethics". IEEE.
  88. ^ McCarty, Maureen (January 13, 2014). "The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Adopts LGBT-Inclusive Code of Ethics". HRC. Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
  89. ^ "The 2015 Trans 100".
  90. ^ Taylor, Evan (February 4, 2020). "Trans Activism Oral History Project - Lynn Conway Full Interview". The ArQuives.
  91. ^ Forman, Ross (September 18, 2013) "Transgender pioneer reflects on sports past". Windy City Times.
  92. ^ "A Wedding Trip to Mackinac Island". 2002. Archived from the original on September 28, 2002.
  93. ^ Nicole Casal Moore,"Life, Engineered: How Lynn Conway reinvented her world and ours Archived January 6, 2018, at the Wayback Machine," The Michigan Engineer, College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Fall 2014, pp. 42–49.
  94. ^ Marcin Szczepanski and Evan Dougherty,"A Place to Be Wild," Michigan Engineering, October 8, 2014.
  95. ^ "The 1981 Achievement Award – Lynn Conway, Carver Mead" by Martin Marshall, Larry Waller, and Howard Wolff, Electronics, October 20, 1981
  96. ^ "Penn Engineering: The Harold Pender Award". Archived from the original on July 5, 2008.
  97. ^ "IEEE EAB Major Educational Innovation Award, 1984". Retrieved December 5, 2013.
  98. ^ "Services Update". Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  99. ^ "Franklin Institute honors eight physicists", Physics Today, July 1985.
  100. ^ "Secretary of Defense Meritorious Achievement Award, May 1985", Meritorious Service Award, May 1985.
  101. ^ NAE Member Directory, Section 05. Archived October 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine (year from The White House Office of the Press Secretary Archived October 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine)
  102. ^ "Society of Women Engineers: Achievement Award Winners". Archived from the original on February 16, 2012.
  103. ^ President Clinton Names Lynn Conway to the Air Force Academy Board of Visitors" Archived October 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, The White House Office of the Press Secretary, January 31, 1996.
  104. ^ "100 years of engineering excellence". Archived from the original on June 15, 2002. Retrieved August 17, 2008.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link), Trinity Reporter, Trinity College, Hartford, CN, Winter 98.
  105. ^ "Electronic Design Hall of Fame – 2002 Inductees", Electronic Design, October 21, 2002.
  106. ^ "NOGLSTP to Honor Aberson, Conway, and Raytheon at Awards Ceremony in February" Archived October 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Press Release, National Organization of Gay and Lesbian Scientists and Technical Professionals, January 25, 2005.
  107. ^ "The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Members of the Corporation". Archived from the original on December 10, 2013. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
  108. ^ ""Lynn Conway: 2014 Fellow", Computer History Museum, 2014 Fellow Awards". Archived from the original on July 3, 2016. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  109. ^ Computer History Museum (May 29, 2014). "Computer History Museum 2014 Fellow Lynn Conway". YouTube. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  110. ^ ""Lynn Conway: Fellow Award Acceptance Speech", Computer History Museum, April 26, 2014" (PDF). Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  111. ^ Computer History Museum (May 20, 2014). "2014 Fellow Lynn Conway". YouTube. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  112. ^ "Oral History of Lynn Conway" (PDF). Computer History Museum. February 24, 2014.
  113. ^ ""Thank Lynn Conway for your cell phone" by Nicole Casal Moore, Michigan Engineering, 2014-04-24". Archived from the original on July 1, 2017. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  114. ^ "Illinois Institute of Technology, ITT Commencement", May 17, 2014.
  115. ^ "Electrical & Computer Engineering ‹ Log In". Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  116. ^ Gregg Millett (March 17, 2015). "Steinmetz Memorial Lecture on Schenectady Today". Archived from the original on December 21, 2021. Retrieved April 10, 2018 – via YouTube.
  117. ^ "Technology innovator to headline Steinmetz Memorial Lecture". Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  118. ^ ""IEEE Online (Slideshow): Our Travels Through Time: Envisioning Historical Waves of Technological Innovation", The 2015 Steinmetz Memorial Lecture by Lynn Conway, Union College, Apr 21, 2015" (PDF). Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  119. ^ "Steinmetz Memorial Lecture". Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  120. ^ "IEEE/RSE James Clerk Maxwell Medal", December 2014.
  121. ^ "Lynn Conway to receive 2015 IEEE/RSE James Clerk Maxwell Medal" Archived April 2, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Michigan Engineering News, December 15, 2014.
  122. ^ "2015 IEEE Honors: IEEE-RSE James Clerk Maxwell Medal – Lynn Conway", IEEE TV, July 2, 2015.
  123. ^ "IEEE/RSE 2015 James Clerk Maxwell Medal Ceremony and Lecture – Professor Lynn Conway". IEEE-TV. November 12, 2015.
  124. ^ Conway, Lynn (November 12, 2015), "Our travels through time: envisioning historical waves of technological innovation", IEEE/RSE James Clerk Maxwell Medal Lecture, Royal Society of Edinburgh
  125. ^ Shoop, Barry (November 12, 2015). "IEEE/RSE Maxwell Medal Citation for Lynn Conway" (PDF). Royal Society of Edinburgh.
  126. ^ Farrar, Steve (November 12, 2015). "Review of Professor Lynn Conway's 2015 IEEE/RSE James Clerk Maxwell Medal Lecture" (PDF). Royal Society of Edinburgh. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 24, 2016. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
  127. ^ Linklater, Magnus (November 14, 2015). "'Life in stealth' of a microchip pioneer who migrated to a new identity: Lynn Conway beat transgender bias and began a revolution" (PDF). The Times (UK), Scotland Edition. pp. 36–37.
  128. ^ Conway, Lynn (March 23, 2016), "Our Travels Through Techno-Social Space-Time: Envisioning Incoming Waves of Technological Innovation", 2016 Magill Lecture in Science, Technology and the Arts, Columbia University
  129. ^ Adams, Jesse (April 7, 2016). "Magill Lecture: Visionary Engineer Lynn Conway BS'62, MS'63 Heralds Dawn of the Techno-Social Age". Columbia University.
  130. ^ "University of Victoria News, Leaders in computing, athletics, telecommunications and public service receive honorary degrees", September 14, 2016.
  131. ^ UVic Transgender Archives (November 22, 2016). "Lynn Conway UVic Convocation Nov. 9, 2016". YouTube. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021.
  132. ^ "Lynn Conway: Honorary Doctor of Engineering". University of Victoria. November 9, 2016.
  133. ^ Mary Sanseverino, orator (November 9, 2016). "Professor Lynn Conway's Citation for the Degree Doctor of Engineering, Honoris Causa" (PDF). University of Victoria. Original physical document archived at University of Victoria Libraries, Transgender Archives. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2017.
  134. ^ "What Words Will You Leave to Guide Them" (PDF). University of Victoria. Lynn Conway Honorary Degree Comments & Convocation Quoem. November 9, 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2017.
  135. ^ "Lynn Conway. AAAS". Archived from the original on March 7, 2018. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  136. ^ "2016 Fellow". AAAS". Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  137. ^ "O'Hara, Delia (28 August 2017). "Sense of Wonder Motivates VLSI Chip Revolutionary, Lynn Conway". AAAS". Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  138. ^ "Member Spotlight. "Lynn Conway". AAAS". Archived from the original on March 7, 2018. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  139. ^ Robertson, Zach (October 18, 2018). "Computing pioneer to receive honorary U-M doctorate". Michigan Engineering News. Archived from the original on June 15, 2019.
  140. ^ University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Winter 2018 Commencement: Honorary Degree Recipients (December 16, 2018). "University of Michigan Video". YouTube. (t = 0:46:22 to 0:56:56).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: location (link) CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  141. ^ "Citation: Lynn Conway, honorary Doctor of Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Winter 2018 Commencement" (PDF). December 16, 2018.
  142. ^ University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Winter 2018 Commencement: Lynn Conway Commencement Address (December 16, 2018). "University of Michigan Video". YouTube. (t = 1:11:40 to 1:20:52).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: location (link) CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  143. ^ "2019 NCWIT Summit: Lynn Conway – Pioneer Award Ceremony". Nashville, TN. May 16, 2019.
  144. ^ a b Alicandri, Jeremy (November 18, 2020). "IBM Apologizes For Firing Computer Pioneer For Being Transgender...52 Years Later". Forbes. Retrieved November 21, 2020.
  145. ^ "Prof. Emerita Lynn Conway to be inducted into National Inventors Hall of Fame". Computer Science & Engineering News. University of Michigan. January 6, 2023.
  146. ^ "Lynn Conway, Very Large-Scale Integration (VLSI)". National Inventors Hall of Fame. January 6, 2023.
  147. ^ "10 Things You Need to Know About Lynn Conway" (PDF). National Inventors Hall of Fame. January 6, 2023.
  148. ^ "Providing Freedom: The Lynn Conway Story". National Inventors Hall of Fame (Video). October 26, 2023.
  149. ^ Dodds, Io (November 25, 2023). "'I lived a pretty adventurous life': Meet Lynn Conway, the hidden figure behind the smartphone in your pocket". The Telegraph (US Edition).
  150. ^ Princeton awards five honorary degrees. (2023, May 30). Princeton University.
  151. ^ Maurice, Emma Powys (November 20, 2020). "Business giant IBM finally apologises for firing a computer pioneer 52 years ago just because she was trans". PinkNews.
  152. ^ Hiltzik, Michael (November 30, 2020). "Column: IBM apologizes for firing a transgender pioneer, a half-century later". Los Angeles Times.
  153. ^ Page, Sydney (November 23, 2020). "In 1968, IBM fired Lynn Conway for being transgender – She finally got an apology". The Lily (Washington Post).
  154. ^ Kane, Roni (November 29, 2020). "IBM fired U-M professor Lynn Conway for coming out as trans in 1968. 52 years later, the company apologized". The Michigan Daily.
  155. ^ Assunção, Muri (November 20, 2020). "IBM apologizes to 'tech trailblazer' Lynn Conway for firing her for being transgender, 52 years after the fact". New York Daily News.
  156. ^ Cramer, Maria (November 21, 2020). "52 Years Later, IBM Apologizes for Firing Transgender Woman". The New York Times.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Media related to Lynn Conway at Wikimedia Commons