Margulis in 2005
|Born||Lynn Petra Alexander
March 5, 1938
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
|Died||November 22, 2011
Amherst, Massachusetts, U.S.
University of Massachusetts Amherst
|Alma mater||University of Chicago
University of Wisconsin-Madison
|Thesis||An Unusual Pattern of Thymidine Incorporation in Euglena' (1965)|
|Doctoral advisor||Max Alfert|
|Notable awards||National Medal of Science (1999)
William Procter Prize for Scientific Achievement (1999)
Darwin-Wallace Medal (2008)
(m. 1957–65, divorced)
(m. 1967–80, divorced)
|Children||Dorion Sagan (1959)
Jeremy Ethan Sagan (1960)
Jennifer Margulis di Properzio
Lynn Margulis (born Lynn Petra Alexander; March 5, 1938 – November 22, 2011) was an American evolutionary theorist, biologist, microscopist, taxonomist, bacteriologist, protistologist, and botanist, with advanced degrees in zoology and genetics, known to the public as a science author, educator, and popularizer, and above all recognized as the primary modern proponent for the significance of symbiosis in biological evolution. Historian Jan Sapp noted that, "Lynn Margulis’s name is as synonymous with symbiosis as Charles Darwin’s is with evolution." In particular, Margulis transformed and fundamentally framed current understanding of the evolution of cells with nuclei – an event Ernst Mayr called "perhaps the most important and dramatic event in the history of life" – by proposing it to have been the result of symbiotic mergers of bacteria. Margulis was also the co-developer of Gaia theory with the British chemist James Lovelock, proposing that the Earth functions as a single self-regulating system, and was the principal defender of the five kingdom classification of Robert Whittaker.
Throughout her career, Margulis’ work could arouse singularly intense objection (one grant application elicited the response, "Your research is crap, do not bother to apply again"), and her formative paper, "On the Origin of Mitosing Cells," appeared in 1967 only after being rejected by about fifteen journals. Still a junior faculty at Boston University at the time, her theory that cell organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts were once independent bacteria continued to be ignored for another decade, becoming widely accepted only after it was powerfully substantiated through genetic evidence. Margulis was elected a member of the US National Academy of Sciences in 1983. President Bill Clinton presented her the National Medal of Science in 1999. The Linnean Society of London awarded her the Darwin-Wallace Medal in 2008.
Called "Science's Unruly Earth Mother", a "vindicated heretic", or a scientific "rebel", Margulis was a strong critic of neo-Darwinism, a position that sparked lifelong debate with leading neo-Darwinian biologists, including Richard Dawkins, George C. Williams, and John Maynard Smith. Margulis' work on symbiosis and her endosymbiotic theory had important predecessors, going back to the mid-19th century – notably Konstantin Mereschkowski, Boris Kozo-Polyansky, and Ivan Wallin – and Margulis took the unusual step of not only trying to promote greater recognition for their contributions, but of personally overseeing the first English translation of Kozo-Polyansky's Symbiogenesis: A New Principle of Evolution (Harvard University Press) which appeared the year before her death. It has sometimes been said that Margulis not only preached symbiosis but actively lived it, a prime example of this being that many of her major works, particularly those intended for a general readership, were collaboratively written with her son Dorion Sagan.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Personal life
- 3 Contributions
- 4 Controversies
- 5 Awards and recognitions
- 6 Select publications and bibliography
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Lynn Margulis was born in Chicago, to Morris Alexander and Leona Wise Alexander. She was the eldest of four daughters. Her father was an attorney who also ran a company that made road paints. Her mother operated a travel agency. She entered the Hyde Park Academy High School in 1952, describing herself as a bad student who frequently had to stand in the corner.
A precocious child, she was accepted at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools at the age of fifteen: In 1957, at age 19, she earned a BA from the University of Chicago in Liberal Arts, and then completed a master's degree at the University of Chicago in genetics and zoology at age 22. She joined the University of Wisconsin to study biology under Hans Ris and Walter Plaut, her supervisor, and graduated in 1960 with an MS in genetics and zoology. (Her first publication was with Plaut, on the genetics of Euglena, published in 1958 in the Journal of Protozoology.) She then pursued research at the University of California, Berkeley, under the zoologist Max Alfert. Before she could complete her dissertation, she was offered research associateship and then lecturership at Brandeis University in Massachusetts in 1964. It was while working there that she obtained her PhD from the University of California, Berkeley in 1965. Her thesis was An Unusual Pattern of Thymidine Incorporation in Euglena. In 1966 she moved to Boston University, where she taught biology for twenty-two years. She was initially an Adjunct Assistant Professor, and appointed to Assistant Professor in 1967. She was promoted to Associate Professor in 1971, to full Professor in 1977, and to University Professor in 1986. In 1988 she was appointed Distinguished Professor of Botany at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. She was Distinguished Professor of Biology in 1993. In 1997 she transferred to the Department of Geosciences at Amherst to become Distinguished Professor of Geosciences "with great delight", the post which she held until her death.
Margulis married astronomer Carl Sagan in 1957 soon after she got her bachelor's degree. Sagan was then a graduate student in physics at the University of Chicago. Their marriage ended in 1964, just before she completed her PhD. They had two sons Dorion Sagan, who later became popular science writer and her collaborator, and Jeremy Sagan, software developer and founder of Sagan Technology. In 1967, she married Thomas N. Margulis, a crystallographer. They had a son Zachary Margulis-Ohnuma, New York City criminal defense lawyer, and a daughter Jennifer Margulis, teacher and author. They divorced in 1980. She commented, "I quit my job as a wife twice," and, "it’s not humanly possible to be a good wife, a good mother and a first-class scientist. No one can do it—something has to go." In the 2000s she had a relationship with fellow biologist Ricardo Guerrero. Her sister Joan Alexander married Nobel Laureate Sheldon Lee Glashow; another sister, Sharon, married mathematician Daniel Kleitman.
She was an agnostic, and a staunch evolutionist. But she totally rejected the modern evolutionary synthesis, and said: "I remember waking up one day with an epiphanous revelation: I am not a neo-Darwinist! It recalled an earlier experience, when I realized that I wasn't a humanistic Jew. Although I greatly admire Darwin's contributions and agree with most of his theoretical analysis and I am a Darwinist, I am not a neo-Darwinist. She argued that "Natural selection eliminates and maybe maintains, but it doesn't create", and maintained that symbiosis was the major driver of evolutionary change.
Margulis died on November 22, 2011 at home in Amherst, Massachusetts, five days after suffering a hemorrhagic stroke. As her wish, she was cremated and her ashes were scattered in her favorite research areas, near her home.
In 1966, as a young faculty member at Boston University, Margulis wrote a theoretical paper titled "On the Origin of Mitosing Cells". The paper however was "rejected by about fifteen scientific journals," she recalled. It was finally accepted by Journal of Theoretical Biology and is considered today a landmark in modern endosymbiotic theory. Weathering constant criticism of her ideas for decades, Margulis is famous for her tenacity in pushing her theory forward, despite the opposition she faced at the time. The descent of mitochondria from bacteria and of chloroplasts from cyanobacteria was experimentally demonstrated in 1978 by Robert Schwartz and Margaret Dayhoff. This formed the first experimental evidence for her theory. The endosymbiosis theory of organogenesis gained further support in the 1980s, when the genetic material of mitochondria and chloroplasts was found to be different from that of the symbiont's nuclear DNA.
In 1995, English evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins had this to say about Lynn Margulis and her work:
|“||I greatly admire Lynn Margulis's sheer courage and stamina in sticking by the endosymbiosis theory, and carrying it through from being an unorthodoxy to an orthodoxy. I'm referring to the theory that the eukaryotic cell is a symbiotic union of primitive prokaryotic cells. This is one of the great achievements of twentieth-century evolutionary biology, and I greatly admire her for it.||”|
Symbiosis as evolutionary force
Margulis later formulated a theory to explain how symbiotic relationships between organisms of often different phyla or kingdoms are the driving force of evolution and genetic variation is proposed to occur mainly as a result of transfer of nuclear information between bacterial cells or viruses and eukaryotic cells. While her organelle genesis ideas are widely accepted, symbiotic relationships as a current method of introducing genetic variation is something of a fringe idea.
She also held a negative view of certain interpretations of Neo-Darwinism that she felt were excessively focused on inter-organismic competition, as she believed that history will ultimately judge them as comprising "a minor twentieth-century religious sect within the sprawling religious persuasion of Anglo-Saxon Biology." She also believed that proponents of the standard theory "wallow in their zoological, capitalistic, competitive, cost-benefit interpretation of Darwin – having mistaken him... Neo-Darwinism, which insists on [the slow accrual of mutations by gene-level natural selection], is in a complete funk."
She opposed such competition-oriented views of evolution, stressing the importance of symbiotic or cooperative relationships between species.
Margulis initially sought out the advice of Lovelock for her own research: she explained that, "In the early seventies, I was trying to align bacteria by their metabolic pathways. I noticed that all kinds of bacteria produced gases. Oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, ammonia — more than thirty different gases are given off by the bacteria whose evolutionary history I was keen to reconstruct. Why did every scientist I asked believe that atmospheric oxygen was a biological product but the other atmospheric gases — nitrogen, methane, sulfur, and so on — were not? 'Go talk to Lovelock,' at least four different scientists suggested. Lovelock believed that the gases in the atmosphere were biological."
Margulis met with Lovelock, who explained his Gaia hypothesis to her, and very soon they began an intense collaborative effort on the concept.  One of the earliest significant publications on Gaia was a 1974 paper co-authored by Lovelock and Margulis, which succinctly defined the hypothesis as follows: "The notion of the biosphere as an active adaptive control system able to maintain the Earth in homeostasis we are calling the ‘Gaia hypothesis.’"
Like other early presentations of Lovelock’s idea, the Lovelock-Margulis 1974 paper seemed to give living organisms complete agency in creating planetary self-regulation, whereas later, as the idea matured, this planetary-scale self-regulation was recognized as an emergent property of the Earth system, life and its physical environment taken together (Lovelock, 1988). When climatologist Stephen Schneider convened the 1989 American Geophysical Union Chapman Conference around the issue of Gaia, the idea of “strong Gaia” and “weak Gaia” was introduced by James Kirchner, after which Margulis was sometimes associated with the idea of “weak Gaia,” incorrectly (her essay "Gaia is a Tough Bitch" dates from 1995 – and it stated her own distinction from Lovelock as she saw it, which was primarily that she did not like the metaphor of Earth as a single organism, because, she said, "No organism eats its own waste"). In her 1998 book Symbiotic Planet, Margulis explored the relationship between Gaia and her work on symbiosis.
In 2001, the Amsterdam Declaration on Global Change (see Global change) was signed by more than 1,000 scientists under the aegis of the United Nations, and states at the outset: "The Earth system behaves as a single, self-regulating system," suggesting that the most basic tenet of Gaia theory, that of global-scale self-regulation, had become mainstream science, despite the fact that leading neo-Darwinists like Richard Dawkins had maintained for decades that such self-regulation was impossible.
Five kingdoms of life
The entire life on earth was traditionally classified into five kingdoms, as introduced by Robert Whittaker in 1969. Margulis became the most important supporter, as well as critic – in the sense that she was the first to recognize the limitations of Whittaker's classification of microbes. But later discoveries of new organisms, such as archaea, and emergence of molecular taxonomy challenged the concept. By the mid-2000s, most scientists began to agree that there are more than five kingdoms. Margulis became the most important defender of the five kingdom classification. She rejected the three-domain system introduced by Carl Woese in 1990, which gained wide acceptance. She introduced an improved classification by which all life forms, including the newly discovered, could be integrated into the classical five kingdoms. According to her the main problem, archaea, falls under the kingdom Prokaryotae alongside bacteria (in contrast to the three-domain system which treat archaea as a higher taxon than kingdom, or the six-kingdom system which holds that it is a separate kingdom). Her concept is given in detail in her book Five Kingdoms, written with Karlene V. Schwartz. It is mainly because of her that this five-kingdom system survives.
It has been suggested that initial rejection of Margulis’ work on the endosymbiotic theory, and the controversial nature of it as well as Gaia theory, made her identify throughout her career with scientific mavericks, outsiders and unaccepted theories generally. In the last decade of her life, while key components of her life’s work began to be understood as fundamental to a modern scientific viewpoint – the widespread adoption of Earth System Science and the incorporation of key parts of endosymbiotic theory into biology curricula worldwide - Margulis if anything became more embroiled in controversy, not less. Journalist John Wilson explained this by saying said that Lynn Margulis “defined herself by oppositional science,” and in the commemorative collection of essays Lynn Margulis: The Life and Legacy of a Scientific Rebel, commentators again and again depict her as a modern embodiment of the "scientific rebel", akin to Freeman Dyson’s 1995 essay, The Scientist as Rebel, a tradition Dyson saw embodied in Benjamin Franklin, and which he believed to be essential to good science. At times, Margulis could make highly provocative comments in interviews that appeared to support her most strident critics’ condemnation. The following describes two of these controversies.
In 2009, via a then-standard publication-process known as "communicated submission", she was instrumental in getting the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) to publish a paper by Donald I. Williamson rejecting "the Darwinian assumption that larvae and their adults evolved from a single common ancestor." Williamson's paper provoked immediate response from the scientific community, including a countering paper in PNAS. Conrad Labandeira of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History said, "If I was reviewing [Williamson's paper] I would probably opt to reject it," he says, "but I'm not saying it's a bad thing that this is published. What it may do is broaden the discussion on how metamorphosis works and...[on]...the origin of these very radical life cycles." But Duke University insect developmental biologist Fred Nijhout said that the paper was better suited for the "National Enquirer than the National Academy." In September it was announced that PNAS would eliminate communicated submissions in July 2010. PNAS stated that the decision had nothing to do with the Williamson controversy.
In 2009 Margulis and seven others authored a position paper concerning research on the viability of round body forms of some spirochetes, "Syphilis, Lyme disease & AIDS: Resurgence of 'the great imitator'?", which states that, "Detailed research that correlates life histories of symbiotic spirochetes to changes in the immune system of associated vertebrates is sorely needed," and urging the "reinvestigation of the natural history of mammalian, tick-borne, and venereal transmission of spirochetes in relation to impairment of the human immune system." The paper did not question the existence of HIV or AIDS, nor that HIV causes AIDS, but suggested that syphilis could have been a co-factor in the spread of AIDS. In a Discover Magazine interview with Dick Teresi published less than six months before her death, however, Margulis spoke provocatively of how, "the set of symptoms, or syndrome, presented by syphilitics overlaps completely with another syndrome: AIDS," and also noted that "Kary Mullis [winner of the 1993 Nobel Prize for DNA sequencing, and well known for his unconventional scientific views] said in an interview that he went looking for a reference substantiating that HIV causes AIDS and discovered, 'There is no such document.' "  This elicited widespread suggestions that Margulis was an "AIDS denialist", with Jerry Coyne notably writing on his Why Evolution is True blog about "dreadful stuff" in the Discover Magazine interview and Margulis' supposed "notion that AIDS is really syphilis, not viral in origin at all." Seth Kalichman, a social psychologist who studies behavioral and social aspects of AIDS, cited her 2009 paper as an example of AIDS denialism "flourishing", and argued that her "endorsement of HIV/AIDS denialism defies understanding." In the Discover Magazine interview, Margulis discussed with Teresi the primary grounds for her initial interest in the material of the 2009 "AIDS" paper, being that "I’m interested in spirochetes only because of our ancestry. I’m not interested in the diseases," and stated that to her the fact that both Treponema (the spirochete which causes syphilis) and Borrelia (the spirochete which causes Lyme disease) only have retained about 20% of the genes they need to live freely outside of their human hosts, they should be considered as symbionts.
Awards and recognitions
- Elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1975.
- Guggenheim Fellowship in 1978.
- Elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1983.
- Guest Hagey Lecturer, University of Waterloo, 1985
- Inducted into the World of Art and Science, the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
- Miescher-Ishida Prize in 1986.
- 1989, conferred the Commandeur de l’Ordre des Palmes Académiques de France.
- Has her papers permanently archived in the Library of Congress, Washington, DC.
- 1992, recipient of Chancellor's Medal for Distinguished Faculty of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
- 1995, elected Fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science.
- 1998, recipient of the Distinguished Service Award of the American Institute of Biological Sciences.
- 1998, elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
- 1999, recipient of the William Procter Prize for Scientific Achievement.
- 1999, recipient of the National Medal of Science, awarded by President William J. Clinton.
- 2002–05, Alexander von Humboldt Prize.
- 2005, elected President of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society.
- Profiled in Visionaries: The 20th Century's 100 Most Important Inspirational Leaders, published in 2007.
- Founded Sciencewriters Books in 2006 with her son Dorion.
- Was one of thirteen recipients in 2008 of the Darwin-Wallace Medal, heretofore bestowed every 50 years, by the Linnean Society of London.
- 2009, speaker at the Biological Evolution Facts and Theories Conference, held at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome aimed at promoting dialogue between evolutionary biology and Christianity.
- 2010, inductee into the Leonardo da Vinci Society of Thinking at the University of Advancing Technology in Tempe, Arizona.
- 2010, NASA Public Service Award for Astrobiology.
- 2012, Lynn Margulis Symposium: Celebrating a Life in Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, March 23–25, 2012
- Honorary doctorate from 15 universities.
Select publications and bibliography
- Margulis, Lynn (2009). "Genome acquisition in horizontal gene transfer: symbiogenesis and macromolecular sequence analysis". In Gogarten, Maria Boekels; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Olendzenski, Lorraine C. Horizontal Gene Transfer:Genomes in Flux 532. Humana Press. pp. 181–191. doi:10.1007/978-1-60327-853-9_10. ISBN 978-1-60327-852-2. PMID 19271185.
- Margulis, Lynn, and Dorion Sagan (2007). Dazzle Gradually: Reflections on the Nature of Nature, Sciencewriters Books, ISBN 978-1-933392-31-8
- Margulis, Lynn, and Eduardo Punset, eds. (2007). Mind, Life and Universe: Conversations with Great Scientists of Our Time, Sciencewriters Books, ISBN 978-1-933392-61-5
- Margulis, Lynn (2007). Luminous Fish: Tales of Science and Love, Sciencewriters Books, ISBN 978-1-933392-33-2
- Margulis, Lynn, and Dorion Sagan (2002). Acquiring Genomes: A Theory of the Origins of Species, Perseus Books Group, ISBN 0-465-04391-7
- Margulis, Lynn, et al. (2002). The Ice Chronicles: The Quest to Understand Global Climate Change, University of New Hampshire, ISBN 1-58465-062-1
- Margulis, Lynn (1998). Symbiotic Planet : A New Look at Evolution, Basic Books, ISBN 0-465-07271-2
- Margulis, Lynn, and Karlene V. Schwartz (1997). Five Kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth, W.H. Freeman & Company, ISBN 0-613-92338-3
- Margulis, Lynn, and Dorion Sagan (1997). What Is Sex?, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 0-684-82691-7
- Margulis, Lynn, and Dorion Sagan (1997). Slanted Truths: Essays on Gaia, Symbiosis, and Evolution, Copernicus Books, ISBN 0-387-94927-5
- Margulis, Lynn, Dorion Sagan and Niles Eldredge (1995) What Is Life?, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 978-0684810874
- Sagan, Dorion, and Margulis, Lynn (1993). The Garden of Microbial Delights: A Practical Guide to the Subvisible World, Kendall/Hunt, ISBN 0-8403-8529-3
- Margulis, Lynn (1992). Symbiosis in Cell Evolution: Microbial Communities in the Archean and Proterozoic Eons, W.H. Freeman, ISBN 0-7167-7028-8
- Margulis, Lynn (1991). "Symbiosis in Evolution: Origins of Cell Motility". In Osawa, Syozo; Honzo, Tasuku. Evolution of Life: Fossils, Molecules and Culture. Japan: Springer. pp. 305–324. doi:10.1007/978-4-431-68302-5_19. ISBN 978-4-431-68304-9.
- Margulis, Lynn, ed. (1991). Symbiosis as a Source of Evolutionary Innovation: Speciation and Morphogenesis, The MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-13269-9
- Margulis, Lynn, and Dorion Sagan (1991). Mystery Dance: On the Evolution of Human Sexuality, Summit Books, ISBN 0-671-63341-4
- Margulis, Lynn, and Dorion Sagan (1987). Microcosmos: Four Billion Years of Evolution from Our Microbial Ancestors, HarperCollins, ISBN 0-04-570015-X
- Margulis, Lynn, and Dorion Sagan (1986). Origins of Sex : Three Billion Years of Genetic Recombination, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-03340-0
- Margulis, Lynn (1982). Early Life, Science Books International, ISBN 0-86720-005-7
- Margulis, Lynn (1970). Origin of Eukaryotic Cells, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-01353-1
- Guerrero, R; Margulis, L; Berlanga, M; Bandi, C; Macallister, J; Margulis, L (2013). "Symbiogenesis: the holobiont as a unit of evolution". International Microbiology 16 (3): 133–143. doi:10.2436/20.1501.01. PMID 24568029.
- Wier, AM; Sacchi, L; Dolan, MF; Bandi, C; Macallister, J; Margulis, L (2010). "Spirochete attachment ultrastructure: Implications for the origin and evolution of cilia". The Biological Bulletin 218 (1): 25–35. PMID 20203251.
- Brorson, O.; Brorson, S.-H.; Scythes, J.; MacAllister, J.; Wier, A.; Margulis, L. (2009). "Destruction of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi round-body propagules (RBs) by the antibiotic Tigecycline". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (44): 18656–18661. doi:10.1073/pnas.0908236106. PMC 2774030. PMID 19843691.
- Margulis, Lynn; Chapman, Michael; Dolan, Michael F. (2007). "Semes for analysis of evolution: de Duve's peroxisomes and Meyer's hydrogenases in the sulphurous Proterozoic eon". Nature Reviews Genetics 8 (10): 1. doi:10.1038/nrg2071-c1. PMID 17923858.
- Dolan, MF; Margulis, L (2007). "Advances in biology reveal truth about prokaryotes". Nature 445 (7123): 21. doi:10.1038/445021b. PMID 17203039.
- Margulis, L.; Chapman, M.; Guerrero, R.; Hall, J. (2006). "The last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA): Acquisition of cytoskeletal motility from aerotolerant spirochetes in the Proterozoic Eon". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (35): 13080–13085. doi:10.1073/pnas.0604985103. PMC 1559756. PMID 16938841.
- Margulis, L (2005). "Hans Ris (1914–2004). Genophore, chromosomes and the bacterial origin of chloroplasts". International Microbiology 8 (2): 145–8. PMID 16052465.
- Dolan, Michael F.; Melnitsky, Hannah; Margulis, Lynn; Kolnicki, Robin (2002). "Motility proteins and the origin of the nucleus". The Anatomical Record 268 (3): 290–301. doi:10.1002/ar.10161. PMID 12382325.
- Wier, A.; Dolan, M.; Grimaldi, D.; Guerrero, R.; Wagensberg, J.; Margulis, L. (2002). "Spirochete and protist symbionts of a termite (Mastotermes electrodominicus) in Miocene amber". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99 (3): 1410–1413. doi:10.1073/pnas.022643899. PMC 122204. PMID 11818534.
- Margulis, L.; Dolan, M. F.; Guerrero, R. (2000). "The chimeric eukaryote: Origin of the nucleus from the karyomastigont in amitochondriate protists". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97 (13): 6954–6959. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.13.6954. PMC 34369. PMID 10860956.
- Chapman, MJ; Margulis, L (1998). "Morphogenesis by symbiogenesis". International Microbiology 1 (4): 319–26. PMID 10943381.
- Margulis, L (1996). "Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: phylogenetic classification of life.". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93 (3): 1071–1076. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.3.1071. PMC 40032. PMID 8577716.
- Margulis, L (1990). "Words as battle cries—symbiogenesis and the new field of endocytobiology". BioScience 40 (9): 673–677. doi:10.2307/1311435. PMID 11541293.
- Lazcano, A; Guerrero, R; Margulis, L; Oró, J (1988). "The evolutionary transition from RNA to DNA in early cells.". Journal of Molecular Evolution 27 (4): 283–290. doi:10.1007/bf02101189. PMID 2464698.
- Bermudes, D; Margulis, L; Tzertzinis, G (1987). "Prokaryotic origin of undulipodia. Application of the panda principle to the centriole enigma". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 503: 187–197. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1987.tb40608.x. PMID 3304075.
- Sagan, D; Margulis, L (1987). "Gaia and the evolution of machines.". Whole Earth Review 55: 15–21. PMID 11542102.
- Margulis, L; Bermudes, D (1985). "Symbiosis as a mechanism of evolution: status of cell symbiosis theory". Symbiosis 1: 101–124. PMID 11543608.
- Margulis, L (1980). "Undulipodia, flagella and cilia". Biosystems 12 (1–2): 105–108. doi:10.1016/0303-2647(80)90041-6. PMID 7378551.
- Margulis, L (1976). "Genetic and evolutionary consequences of symbiosis". Experimental Parasitology 39 (2): 277–349. doi:10.1016/0014-4894(76)90127-2. PMID 816668.
- Weber, Bruce (24 November 2011). "Lynn Margulis, Evolution Theorist, Dies at 73". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- Lake, James A (2011). "Lynn Margulis (1938–2011)". Nature 480 (7378): 458–458. doi:10.1038/480458a. PMID 22193092.
- Schaechter, M (2012). "Lynn Margulis (1938–2011)". Science 335 (6066): 302–302. doi:10.1126/science.1218027. PMID 22267805.
- Sagan, Dorion (2012). Lynn Margulis: The Life and Legacy of a Scientific Rebel. White River Junction: Chelsea Green. ISBN 978-1-603-58446-3.
- Mayr, Ernst (2001). What Evolution Is. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 48.
- Mann, C (1991). "Lynn Margulis: Science's Unruly Earth Mother". Science 252 (5004): 378–381. doi:10.1126/science.252.5004.378. PMID 17740930.
- Barlow, Connie (1992). From Gaia to Selfish Genes: Selected Writings in the Life Sciences (1st MIT Press paperback ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-262-52178-9.
- Fiveash, Kelly (24 November 2011). "'Rebel' biologist and neo-Darwinian skeptic Lynn Margulis dies". The Register. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- Gilbert, Scott F.; Sapp, Jan; Tauber, Alfred I. (2012). "A Symbiotic View of Life: We Have Never Been Individuals". The Quarterly Review of Biology 87 (4): 325–341. doi:10.1086/668166.
- "Lynn Margulis, Controversial Evolutionist Remembered". Darwin, Then and Now. 27 November 2011.
- Sagan, Dorion (2012). Lynn Margulis: The Life and Legacy of a Scientific Rebel. White River Junction: Chelsea Green. pp. 30, 67, 74–78, 88–92. ISBN 978-1-603-58446-3.
- Oakes, Elizabeth H. (2007). Encyclopedia of World Scientists (Revised ed.). New York: Facts on File. p. 484. ISBN 978-1-4381-1882-6.
- "Lynn Margulis". NNDB. Soylent Communications. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- di Properzio, James (1 February 2004). "Lynn Margulis: Full Speed Ahead". University of Chicago Magazine. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- Scoville, Heather. "Lynn Margulis". About.com. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- "Lynn Margulis". Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2004. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- BBC Radio 4 "A Life With...(Series 5) – A life with Microbes, Broadcast 16 July 2009"
- Archibald, John (2014). One Plus One Equals One Symbiosis and the Evolution of Complex Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-19-966059-9.
- Margulis, Lynn (2002). Una revolución en la evolución : escritos seleccionados (in Spanish). Valencia: Universitat de Valencia. pp. 45–48. ISBN 978-8-437-05494-0.
- Yount, Lisa (2003). A to Z of biologists. New York, NY: Facts on File. p. 198. ISBN 978-1-4381-0917-6.
- Haskett, Dorothy Regan. "Lynn Petra Alexander Sagan Margulis (1938–2011)". The Embryo Project Encyclopedia. Arizona Board of Regents, Arizona State University. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- "Lynn Margulis". NNDB.com. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- Weil, Martin (26 November 2011). "Lynn Margulis, leading evolutionary biologist, dies at 73". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- Teresi D (April 2011). "Lynn Margulis Says She's Not Controversial, She's Right". Discover Magazine: 3. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
- Lynn Margulis, Gaia Is a Tough Bitch. Chapter 7 in The Third Culture: Beyond the Scientific Revolution by John Brockman (Simon & Schuster, 1995)
- Teresi, Dick (17 June 2011). "Discover Interview: Lynn Margulis Says She's Not Controversial, She's Right". Discover Magazine. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
- Rose, Steven (11 December 2011). "Lynn Margulis obituary". The Guardian (Guardian News and Media Limited). Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- Faulkner, Sean. "Condolences". geo.umass.edu. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
- Patrick J. Keeling (2004). "Diversity and evolutionary history of plastids and their hosts". American Journal of Botany 91 (10): 1481–1493. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1481. PMID 21652304.
- Sagan, Lynn (1967). "On the origin of mitosing cells". Journal of Theoretical Biology 14 (3): 225–274. doi:10.1016/0022-5193(67)90079-3. PMID 11541392.
- Schwartz, R.; Dayhoff, M. (1978). "Origins of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts". Science 199 (4327): 395–403. doi:10.1126/science.202030. PMID 202030.
- Reeve, Eric C.R. (14 January 2014). Encyclopedia of Genetics. Routledge. p. 721. ISBN 978-1-134-26350-9.
- Lovelock, J.E.; Margulis, L. (1974). "Atmospheric homeostasis by and for the biosphere: the Gaia hypothesis". Tellus 26 (1–2): 2–10. doi:10.1111/j.2153-3490.1974.tb01946.x.
- Lovelock, James (1988). The Ages of Gaia: A Biography of Our Living Earth. New York: W.W.Norton & Co.
- Margulis, Lynn (1998). Symbiotic Planet. New York, NY: Basic Books.
- Moore, Berrien et al. (13 July 2001). "The Amsterdam Declaration on Global Change" (PDF). Retrieved 22 July 2015.
- Lovelock, James (December 2003). "The Living Earth" (PDF). Nature 426: 769–770.
- Whittaker, R.H. (January 1969), "New concepts of kingdoms or organisms. Evolutionary relations are better represented by new classifications than by the traditional two kingdoms", Science 163 (3863): 150–60, Bibcode:1969Sci...163..150W, doi:10.1126/science.163.3863.150, PMID 5762760
- Margulis, Lynn (1974). "Five-kingdom classification and the origin and evolution of cells". Evolutionary Biology 7: 45–78. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-6944-2_2.
- Margulis, Lynn (1971). "Whittaker's Five Kingdoms of Organisms: Minor Revisions Suggested by Considerations of the Origin of Mitosis". Evolution 25 (1): 242–245. JSTOR 2406516.
- Hagen, Joel B. (2012). "Five Kingdoms, More or Less: Robert Whittaker and the Broad Classification of Organisms". BioScience 62 (1): 67–74. doi:10.1525/bio.2012.62.1.11.
- Simpson, Alastair G.B. & Roger, Andrew J. (2004), "The real ‘kingdoms’ of eukaryotes", Current Biology 14 (17): R693–6, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2004.08.038, PMID 15341755
- Adl, SM; Simpson, AG; Farmer, MA; Andersen, RA; Anderson, OR; Barta, JR; Bowser, SS; Brugerolle, G et al. (2005). "The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists.". The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 52 (5): 399–451. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00053.x. PMID 16248873.
- Tao, Amy (22 October 2013). "Lynn Margulis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- Wilson, John (December 16, 2011). "The Last Word with John Wilson". BBC Radio 4.
- Dyson, Freeman (2006). The Scientist as Rebel. New York: New York Review of Books. ISBN 978-1-59017-216-2.
- Williamson, D. I. (2009). "Caterpillars evolved from onychophorans by hybridogenesis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (47): 19901–19905. doi:10.1073/pnas.0908357106. PMC 2785264. PMID 19717430.
- Controversial caterpillar-evolution study formally rebutted, Scientific American Online
- Borrell, Brendan. "National Academy as National Enquirer ? PNAS Publishes Theory That Caterpillars Originated from Interspecies Sex". Scientific American. Retrieved 2011-11-23.
- Syphilis, Lyme disease & AIDS: Resurgence of "the great imitator"?, SYMBIOSIS Vol. 47, No. 1 (2009), pp. 51–58
- Kalichman, S. C.; Eaton, L.; Cherry, C. (2010). ""There is no Proof that HIV Causes AIDS": AIDS Denialism Beliefs among People Living with HIV/AIDS". Journal of Behavioral Medicine 33 (6): 432–440. doi:10.1007/s10865-010-9275-7. PMC 3015095. PMID 20571892.
- Seth C. Kalichman (16 January 2009). Denying AIDS: Conspiracy Theories, Pseudoscience, and Human Tragedy. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 181–82. ISBN 978-0-387-79476-1.
- Guest Lecturers
- "Lynn Margulis | World Academy of Art & Science". Worldacademy.org. 2011-11-18. Retrieved 2011-11-23.
- "Lynn Margulis Scatters the Evolution Industry". Darwinthenandnow.com. 2011-05-01. Retrieved 2011-11-23.
- Margulis, Lynn. "Curriculum Vitae" (PDF). Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "Launches Sciencewriters Imprint". Chelsea Green. 2006-07-22. Retrieved 2011-11-23.
- "Lynn Margulis". University of Advancing Technology. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- "The Code Online". International Council of Zoological Nomenclature.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lynn Margulis.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Lynn Margulis|
- The Endosymbiotic Theory
- Lynn Margulis Rutgers Interview (Part 1) on YouTube
- Lynn Margulis Rutgers Interview (Part 2) on YouTube
- Lynn Margulis Rutgers Interview (Part 3) on YouTube
- 911:Explosive Evidence, Experts Speak Out (excerpt) on YouTube
- Works by or about Lynn Margulis in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- San Jose Science, Technology and Society, 2004–2005 Linus Pauling Memorial Lectures
- UMass Bio Dept.