Lynx Blue Line

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Lynx Blue Line
A Blue and gray train with black glass stands idle with overhead wires and adjoining building visible.
Overview
TypeLight rail
SystemCharlotte Area Transit System
LocaleCharlotte-Mecklenburg, North Carolina
TerminiUNC Charlotte–Main (north)
I-485/South Boulevard (south)
Stations26
Daily ridership16,900 (Q4 2017)[1]
Operation
OpenedNovember 24, 2007
OwnerCharlotte Area Transit System
Operator(s)Charlotte Area Transit System
Rolling stockSiemens S70
Events
OpenedNovember 24, 2007
Extension openedMarch 16, 2018
Technical
Line length19.3 mi (31.1 km)
Number of tracks2
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
ElectrificationOverhead lines, 750 V DC
Route map

UNC Charlotte–Main
Toby Creek
US 29 (North Tryon Street)
JW Clay Blvd/UNC Charlotte
McCullough
University City Blvd
Tom Hunter
Old Concord Road
Sugar Creek
36th Street
25th Street
North Brevard Light Rail Facility
Parkwood
I-277 (Brookshire Freeway)
9th Street
7th Street
Charlotte Transportation Center
3rd Street/Convention Center
Stonewall
I-277 (John Belk Freeway)
Carson
Bland Street
East/West Boulevard
New Bern
South Boulevard Light Rail Facility
Scaleybark
Woodlawn
Tyvola
Archdale
Arrowood
Sharon Road West
I-485/South Boulevard

The Lynx Blue Line is a light rail line in Charlotte, North Carolina. The 19.3-mile (31.1 km) line runs from its northern terminus at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte in University City through NoDa, Uptown, and South End then paralleling South Boulevard to its southern terminus just north of Interstate 485 at the Pineville city limits.[2][3] There are 26 stations in the system, the light rail portion of which carries an average of over 16,900 passenger trips every day.[1] It is the first major rapid rail service of any kind in North Carolina, and began operating seventy years after the previous Charlotte streetcar system was disbanded in 1938, in favor of motorized bus transit.[3][4] It opened on November 24, 2007[2][5] between I-485/South Boulevard and 7th Street as the first rail line of the Charlotte Area Transit System.[2] Fares were not collected as part of the opening celebration.[5] Regular service with fare collection commenced the next day.[5]

An extension from 7th Street, following a northeast path along the existing Norfolk Southern right-of-way along both North Davidson Street and North Tryon Street, to University City and the University of North Carolina at Charlotte (UNCC) opened on March 16, 2018.[6]

History[edit]

Lynx train near Bland Street station

By the mid-1980s, city and county planners were evaluating strategies to both control and focus the region's growing population and expanding development. One strategy considered was the construction of a light rail line to encourage new businesses and housing along its corridor.[7] In 1984, the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Planning Commission made its first recommendation for a light rail line connecting Uptown Charlotte with the UNCC as part of the community's 2005 Vision Plan.[8] In response to this recommendation, mayor Harvey Gantt sought $50,000 from the city council for a feasibility study, only to drop the request due to a lack of council support.[9]

After remaining dormant for nearly three years, the light rail debate once again emerged as a light rail/mass transit task force was established by then-mayor Sue Myrick in early 1988. The task force received $185,000 from a combination of local, state and federal sources for the initial study of a system consisting of three lines radiating from Uptown Charlotte.[10] One line was to run to the UNCC in the northeast; a second was to go to Pineville, with future expansion envisioned to both Fort Mill and Rock Hill to the south; and a third was to connect to Matthews, with future expansion anticipated to Monroe to the southeast.[11]

By September 1988, the result of the initial Barton-Aschman Associates study was a 77-mile (123.9 km) system encompassing a loop around Uptown Charlotte and eight separate corridors radiating from the city center, at a total cost of $467 million.[10] The corridors envisioned included a route along Albemarle Road to the east, connecting with both SouthPark and Matthews to the southeast, Pineville to the south, the Charlotte/Douglas International Airport to the west, UNCC to the northeast, along Brookshire Boulevard to the northwest, and Davidson to the north. The cost of the plan was significantly more than the $101 million in bonds issued by city council which was to be used to start the project. The cost factor, combined with inability to obtain the necessary right-of-way for the lines, led to the project's deferral.[10]

In March 1990, CATS allotted just $14 million for light rail development for the next decade. Once again, construction costs were cited in postponing development of the system. Additionally, at the time the proposal did not anticipate sufficient ridership to qualify for Federal Transit Administration (FTA) grant money for development. Instead, the $14 million would be used for both the purchase of abandoned right-of-way for future light rail development as it became available, and for studying a proposed line connecting the Wilgrove area in east Mecklenburg County with Tyvola Road south of Uptown Charlotte.[12] In 1998 after nearly fifteen years of debate, Mecklenburg County voters approved a one-half cent sales tax to be used for implementing the 2025 Integrated Transit/Land-Use Plan, which included construction of a light rail network.[13][14] Once the tax was approved, Charlotte was able to receive matching funds from FTA grants for financing construction, and planning for the South Corridor to Pineville commenced.[15]

Planning and construction[edit]

A blue and gray train stopped at a side platform station with station black and gray station canopies visible.
Car 112 at Carson station

Although light rail had been envisioned to connect Charlotte and Rock Hill in previous years, official planning for the corridor – later to become the Blue Line – did not commence until 1999. The line was initially to have been a 13.5-mile (21.73 km) route serving as a connection between Uptown Charlotte and Pineville along the Norfolk Southern rail line paralleling South Boulevard, at a cost of $225 million.[16] In February 2000, the Metropolitan Transit Commission unanimously approved the corridor for the region's first light rail line, and by April $8.2 million was allocated for the initial purchase of construction materials.[17] In September Parsons Transportation Group was hired by CATS to complete engineering and environmental studies for the corridor, and at that time costs estimates for the completed line increased to $331 million.[18]

By July 2002 the overall costs for completing the line escalated to $371 million as a result of increasing land and construction prices. Additionally, the southern terminus for the line was moved from downtown Pineville approximately 1.5 miles (2.41 km) to the north. The station was eliminated after Mayor George Fowler and the Pineville Town Council voted to not receive the line.[19] Also, low projected ridership figures indicated its construction was not warranted at the time.[20] By March 2004, estimates had increased to $398.7 million, and were further revised to $427 million in January 2005.[21] The new estimates were again attributed to rising land and construction costs. After numerous delays caused by growing estimates, the official groundbreaking for the line was held on February 26, 2005.[22]

Because of the amount of traffic at a number of the stations along the route, CATS determined that bridges spanning the busiest road crossings would be necessary to prevent further congestion. Installation of concrete girders ranging in size between 89 and 119 feet (27 and 36 m) began at Tyvola station on January 4, 2006, and was complete by February. Following the Tyvola viaduct, similar beams were later installed at Archdale station from April 5 through May 5; at the Woodlawn station from May 10 through May 30; and at Arrowood station from July 13 through July 23.[23]

In February 2006, after a year of construction progress, CATS unveiled "Lynx" as the official name of the light rail network.[24] Lynx was selected from a list of over 250 possibilities, including City Lynx and Xcel, and was chosen to stay with the big cat theme used by local professional sports teams (the Carolina Panthers and the then-Charlotte Bobcats). It was also homophonous with "links", suggesting connectivity.[24] By September 2006, estimated completion costs for the Blue Line had increased again. This time it was attributed to faulty planning and design by the hired consultants, Parsons Transportation Group. By early 2007 revised estimates for completion were $462.7 million, more than double the original amount of $227 million.[25]

Commencement of service[edit]

Nearly three years after the start of construction, the Lynx Blue Line opened to passengers on November 24, 2007.[5] On the opening weekend of November 24–25, all trips were free, resulting in 24,000 rider trips during the first four hours and 60,000 trips on the first day, well above maximum rated capacity.[5] Revenue service commenced on Monday November 26.[5] Lynx is the first major rapid rail service of any kind in North Carolina, and serves as a revival of rail transit within the city since the original streetcar network was abandoned in 1938 in favor of motor buses.[3][26]

The original system used 16 Siemens S70 light rail cars [27] acquired for $50 million.[28] In 2012, after only four years of operation, the trains had to be repaired at the Siemens facility in California for an estimated cost of $400,000 each[why?].

Extension[edit]

Originally called the Northeast Corridor, the Blue Line Extension connects end-on with the existing line at the 7th Street station in Uptown Charlotte. The extension serves University City and the University of North Carolina at Charlotte (UNCC), following a northeast path along an existing railway right-of-way along both North Davidson Street and North Tryon Street. It is 9.7 miles (15.6 km) long with 11 stations, and cost $1.159 billion ($580 million federal funding plus $299 million state and $280 million local matches).[29] The extension opened seven months late[30][31][32][33] on March 16, 2018, in time for the 2018 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament.

Planning (1985–2011)[edit]

Lynx car at the 7th Street Station

The possibility of developing a light rail line between UNCC and Uptown via Newell was initially evaluated in 1985.[34] The route was proposed for the then Southern Railway tracks, parallel to both North Tryon Street and Old Concord Road, and slated for completion at some point between 1995 and 2000.[34] After years of discussion and delays, the proposed route was chosen in June 2006.[35]

The selected route follows the existing Norfolk Southern right-of-way from Uptown to approximately Sugar Creek Road where it parallels North Tryon Street to its terminus on the southern side of Interstate 485. Along the Norfolk Southern ROW, the light rail tracks parallels existing freight lines (which also carry Amtrak passenger trains). The routing also includes a station on the UNCC campus.[35] The decision end at I-485, short of Salome Church Road, was based on an estimated $30 million bridge and a projected daily passenger count of only 200 riders. Estimates for the line ranged from $928 million to $1.12 billion. This included more grade separations than previous estimates, and 300-foot (91 m) platforms to accommodate longer trains.[36]

By November 2007, the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) gave approval for preliminary engineering work on the corridor, and in January 2008 the Charlotte City Council approved funding, the work to commence by March 2008.[37] The $30 million engineering study was expected to be complete by 2010, at which time the FTA would determine if federal funding was available for half of the project's construction.[37]

In July 2010, CATS announced that funding was being sought to extend the existing line to 9th Street to serve the UNCC Uptown Campus.[38]

Design (2011–2013)[edit]

On December 12, 2011, the FTA issued a record of decision for the line, confirming that the preliminary design passed the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act, and allowing final design work to begin.[39] On the same day, an $18 million federal grant for the project was also approved.[39]

On April 19, 2012, the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) committed to paying 25 percent ($290 million) of the extension's estimated $1.16 billion final cost, with construction set to begin in 2013.[40] A month later on May 16, the North Carolina Railroad Company, CATS and Norfolk Southern signed lease, construction and operating agreements for the Lynx Blue Line Extension along the North Carolina Railroad Corridor.[41]

In July, the FTA gave its approval for CATS to enter the Final Design stage for the Blue Line Extension, which allowed the project to move from the 65 to 100 percent design level, preparation of final construction plans, right-of-way acquisition, construction cost estimates, bid documents and utility relocation. CATS could then enter into a full funding grant agreement (FFGA) with the FTA, at which stage the FTA would commit to provide 50 percent funding.[42] On October 16, CATS signed the FFGA with the FTA. Of the projected $1.16 billion cost, the FTA was responsible for $580 million, NCDOT would spend $299 million and CATS' share was $281 million.[43]

In May 2013, some property owners along the proposed route expressed concerns over inadequate compensation for their properties.[44]

Construction (2013–2018)[edit]

On July 18, 2013, the official groundbreaking took place near the 9th Street station. Attending the ceremony were Charlotte mayor Patsy Kinsey, UNCC chancellor Philip Dubois, FTA administrator Peter Rogoff and N.C. Governor Pat McCrory, the former mayor of Charlotte and an initial supporter of the Lynx project.[45] By the end of the year work began to shift underground utilities, building retaining walls and initial grading and drainage work.

By January 2014, final design work for the extension was over 95 percent complete, costing nearly $80 million of a total budget of $187 million; the city had also purchased 261 of the 312 properties needed for $69.7 million from a total budget of $121.4 million. The remaining 51 properties were to be acquired by the end of January. Major construction was scheduled to begin in March 2014. Engineering challenges include depressing 36th Street in NoDa (North Davidson) and elevating the railway line in that area to make the intersection safer. The city decided to divide the extension into three segments, split between different contractors. On January 27, the city awarded a civil construction contract to a joint venture of Balfour Beatty Infrastructure and Blythe Development Co., who would be paid $108 million for the first segment, from Uptown Charlotte to Old Concord Road. The joint venture was formed to improve drainage, build bridges, maintain retaining walls, control traffic, and move water and sewer mains. CATS chief executive Carolyn Flowers said the amount was $9 million less than the city had budgeted.[46]

A separate contract was let for the section from Old Concord Road to UNCC; the $119 million contract was awarded to Lane Construction on April 14. In the same month A separate contract for $130.8 million was awarded to Balfour Beatty to lay rails and install power stations and overhead catenary.[47] The contracts had a total budget of $558 million.[48] Because bids were lower than anticipated, CATS restored some previously eliminated items, including additional ticket vending machines, a parking deck at Sugar Creek station, and a fifth level on the J.W. Clay Boulevard station parking deck. CATS also intended to request additional enhancements, including expansion of the North Yard maintenance facility and construction of a pedestrian bridge at Sugar Creek station. In addition, since the original Blue Line was only designed for two-car trains, CATS intended to extend some station platforms since the extension will use three-car trains.

By late 2014, only 20 percent of the $228 million contingency fund had been used. CATS reported encountering difficulties with relocating underground utilities, but said the project remained on schedule. In the uptown area, initial grading had begun, as well as removal of overhead electrical wires originally installed for the Charlotte Trolley in the 1990s. Along the second phase (from uptown to Old Concord Road) the city had started building retaining walls and laying the foundation for the Old Concord Road station. Several temporary street closures were required, including 16th Street (to February 2015) and 36th Street in NoDa (until 2017). CATS also worked with NCDOT to replace the West Mallard Creek Church Road bridge over North Tryon Street.[32]

On June 8, 2015, the Charlotte city council approved a change order to increase three contracts by $19.5 million and keep the project on schedule; however, city council reported still having $170 million in the contingency fund.[49] In September 2015, the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) announced that it had issued a $180 million loan via the Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act for Blue Line construction.[50] According to a December 2015 CATS construction report, most track had been laid and the foundations for the J.W. Clay Boulevard and UNCC stations had been completed. Work continued on the University City Boulevard and Tom Hunter stations, while grading for foundation work was under way for McCullough station.

By January 2016, new rail car deliveries had begun from Siemens in California, with four of the cars undergoing testing during that month.[51]

By early 2017, the extension's stations had been completed and most of the track had been laid. On February 27 John Lewis, the CEO of CATS – citing delays in testing new light rail vehicles and completing the remaining electrical work – announced that the extension would not be opened until March 16, 2018,[30] when it did open in its entirety and dropped the name "extension".

Ridership[edit]

Charlotte Lynx, Average Daily Ridership, Nov 2007 - Oct 2016[52]

Prior to the opening of the line in November 2007, CATS projected ridership for the completed Blue Line to be 9,100 on an average weekday in its first year of operation, gradually increasing to 18,100 by 2025.[2] In its first few months of operation, the Blue Line saw an average daily weekday ridership of 8,700 passengers.[53] By the end of the first quarter of 2008, weekday ridership had increased to 18,600, double first-year projections and ahead of the 2025 projections.[54][55] In March 2008, the single light rail line accounted for 19.5% of total system ridership—402,600 of the 2,061,700 monthly passenger-trips of all lines including bus, dial-a-ride, and vanpool.[55] Daily ridership continued to climb through the fall of 2008 due to increasing gasoline prices, peaking at 22,300 in the third quarter.[56][57][58]

By summer 2009, a CATS survey indicated that 72 percent of Lynx riders did not use public transportation prior to its completion.[59] On December 11, 2009, Lynx celebrated its 10 millionth passenger trip since its opening in November 2007.[60] For 2009, Lynx saw a decrease in daily ridership from 19,700[61] to 19,500 passengers per day.[62] As of the fourth quarter of 2017, the American Public Transportation Association (APTA) has Lynx daily ridership at 16,900, making Lynx the fifth-largest light rail system in the Southern United States by ridership, and the 23rd largest light rail system in the United States in terms of ridership.[1]

Overall Charlotte had been losing transit riders in 2017-2018 faster than other large U.S. cities, with continued ridership declines (-20% Feb 2018 vs Feb 2017). During the last six months, ridership has dropped 19%.[63]

After the opening of the Blue Line Extension, the entire Blue Line averaged 26,064 trips on an average weekday in March. In April, the entire Blue Line averaged 24,333 weekday passenger trips (-7% from previous month or -27% from projected ridership). The original Lynx line was averaging about 15,500 passenger trips before the extension opened. The Charlotte Area Transit System projected the extension would add nearly 18,000 passenger trips in its first year, for a total of about 33,500 trips.[64]

Operations[edit]

Lynx operates seven days a week. It runs from 5:30 a.m. to 1:30 a.m. Monday through Saturday, and from 6:15 a.m. to midnight Sunday. On weekdays, frequencies range from 10 minutes during rush hour periods to 20 minutes at night, with weekend daytime service running every 15 minutes on Saturdays and 20 minutes on Sundays, with night service 20–30 minutes.[65]

Rolling stock[edit]

Interior of a light rail vehicle with blue seats, gray walls and silver pedestrian supports.
Interior of Lynx car #110

The line operates using Siemens S70 light rail vehicles. When not in use, the vehicles are stored at the South Boulevard Light Rail Facility, located along South Boulevard, between the New Bern and Scaleybark stations in the Sedgefield neighborhood. The facility is approximately 92,000 square feet (8,547.1 m2), and houses the Lynx rail maintenance staff, operations staff and the Rail Operations Control Center. Officially dedicated on June 23, 2007, the facility contains 2.5 miles (4.0 km) of track and 5,200 ties.[66]

In January 2004, CATS began the process of accepting bids for construction of the system's vehicles. Original estimates for the vehicles was $3.5 million per car with the firms Bombardier, Siemens and Kinki Sharyo bidding for the final contract. The $52 million contract for 16 S70 Avanto vehicles was awarded to Siemens on February 25, 2004.[67] The original order was delivered between 2006 and 2007, and these cars are numbered 101–116. Car 101 arrived via flatbed truck on Friday, June 23, 2006, from the Siemens facility in Florin, California.[68] Testing of the vehicles began in August 2006 along a 1.3-mile (2.1 km) stretch of track between Tremont Avenue and the light rail maintenance facility off South Boulevard. During the testing phase, each car logged 1,000 miles (1,600 km) to test the acceleration, braking and overall performance for each vehicle.[68] With an option in place to purchase up to an additional 25 vehicles, and better than expected ridership, in May 2008 CATS announced the purchase of four additional Avanto vehicles to add capacity to the existing 16 vehicles in operation.[69] The trams cost $3.8 million each and were delivered by Siemens between January–March 2010.[69]

Lynx's fleet initially consisted of sixteen, 91.3-foot (27.828 m), 97,470-pound (44,211.6 kg) Siemens-built S70 Avanto vehicles, similar to those in operation for the METRORail in Houston, Texas.[70] Each vehicle contains 68 seats and has a maximum capacity of 236 passengers complete with four bike racks. Each car has a maximum speed of 65 miles per hour (105 km/h), but top speed is restricted to 55 miles per hour (89 km/h). Power comes from a 750-volt overhead wire.[70]

In January 2014, CATS announced it would buy 22 new Siemens S70 light-rail vehicles for the Blue Line Extension at a cost of $96.2 million. Four of those were scheduled to be delivered to CATS in November. This will allow CATS to have more three-car trains on the existing Blue Line.[48]

Fares[edit]

A silver and blue ticket vending machine on a station platform with payment options and digital screen visible.
Typical Lynx ticket machine

Tickets for the Blue Line are purchased on the platform of all stations from self-serve ticket vending machines that accept cash, coins, debit, and credit cards.[71] Transfers from buses, weekly and monthly passes are also accepted. Fares, which are equal to those of the existing bus network, are as follows: $2.20 for a one-way trip, $4.40 for a round-trip ticket, $6.60 for a one-day pass with unlimited rides, $22 for a weekly pass, and $88 ($44 for seniors and ADA) for a monthly pass. No fare to kids below 6 with fare-paying rider (limit 3).[71][72]

Lynx uses a proof-of-payment system, as there are no turnstiles at the entrances to train platforms.[71][73] Instead, fares are enforced by random sweeps through trains and occasional checks for fares as passengers enter and leave the train by CATS Fare Inspectors.[71][73] If a passenger is caught without evidence of proper fare, a citation of $50 is issued in addition to potentially facing a Class 3 misdemeanor charge.[71] CATS estimates between 4 and 5 percent of total fare revenue is lost from passengers who ride without paying.[74]

Following an initial "grace period" between its November 2007 opening and February 2008, CATS took more action with regards to issuing citations for fare jumpers. This was the case as many of the ticket vending machines were not working properly at all stations.[75] As part of Lynx's initial "fare enforcement blitz" during the first week of February 2008, 41 citations were issued with one arrest in the first day of enhanced enforcement.[75] Due to its success, CATS officials announced that future "blitzes" would target individual stations and not be publicized.[75] As of June 2010, CATS estimates 0.5 percent of daily riders are fare jumpers at a daily loss of $300 in revenue.[76]

Stations[edit]

The 19.3-mile (31.06 km) Blue Line provides service to twenty-six stations located within the Charlotte city limits.[77] The initial 1.5-mile (2.4 km) CityLynx Gold Line services an additional five stations.[78] The stations are all open-air structures featuring passenger canopies for protection from adverse weather conditions.[79] Although originally to have been 300 feet (91 m) long, all platforms were reduced to 200 feet (61 m) in length in order to save $6 million in construction costs.[80] The overall design of the stations takes their inspiration from the many oak trees present throughout the city, and are either side or island platformed.[81] All stations between I-485/South Boulevard and Scaleybark have parking available adjacent to the station, with the I-485/South Boulevard station having the line's lone parking garage.[77][82] Additionally, as part of the budget for the Lynx system, a percentage of the overall cost was reserved for both the purchase and display of public art along the route. Through the utilization of approximately one percent of the overall design and construction budget, 13 artists were selected to design displays for each of the Blue Line's fifteen stations.[83]

Controversies[edit]

A blue and gray with black glass train stopped with overhead wires and trees visible.
Car #103 at the South Boulevard Light Rail Facility

Viability and transit tax[edit]

With construction under way, development of light rail and cost overruns associated with it became a major issue between incumbent Charlotte mayor Pat McCrory and Democratic opponent Craig Madans in the 2005 mayoral race.[84] In 2006, following a report by the Americans for Prosperity Foundation, the project was cited as inefficient use of federal taxpayer dollars, and opponents claimed most of the $8.9 billion slated for transit out of a total of $12.7 billion for all transportation projects in the Charlotte Region's Long Range Plan was attributed to rail.[85][86] In response to these concerns, a coalition labeling itself Stop the Train launched a petition drive to put a repeal of the 1998 transit tax on the November 2007 ballot, citing cost-overruns and concerns over CATS management.[86] Mecklenburg County elected officials announced in June 2007 the required number of signatures had been gathered and validated, guaranteeing a referendum on the transit tax.[87]

According to David Hartgen, professor emeritus of Transportation Policy Studies at UNCC, transit would provide a viable means of transportation for just 2–3% of the Charlotte region's travel needs, and 1% of regional travel. This is a similar proportion to most arterial road segments[88][89] Road transportation advocate Wendell Cox also cited similar concerns of a low cost/benefit ratio of both the south corridor line and other urban rail projects proposed for Charlotte-Mecklenburg.[90] Additionally, Sam Staley, Director of Urban and Land Use Policy for the Reason Foundation, stated Lynx struggled to capture riders in a sprawling city like Charlotte, where the majority of trips are not made to the central city.

In 2015, Lynx ridership was back to earlier 2008 levels.[91] During this same time period, the area's population increased 20%. The recent 2015 Urban Mobility Scorecard, rated Charlotte First In Worst Traffic In North Carolina.[92]

A contrary report on the impact of light rail in Sacramento, Baltimore, and St. Louis, indicated that light rail systems had resulted in traffic congestion growing more slowly than before the system was built(from 2.8% annual congestion growth to 1.5%, from 4.5% to 2.2%, and to 0.89% from 0.86% respectively).[93] Further pro-rail arguments emphasize that rail lines were built to areas before development takes place, as is done with superhighway construction. When ignoring the usable life of improvements the construction of roads is less costly than building light rail or subways, excluding land costs, but may contribute to increased sprawl.[94]

A campaign to retain the transit tax garnered more than $650,000, with at least one third coming from local corporations including Duke Energy, Wachovia (now Wells Fargo), Bank of America, McDonald Transit Associates, Parsons Brinckerhoff, and Siemens. An additional twenty major businesses contributed, all of whom profit from CATS operations according to former city council member Don Reid. The group working to repeal the transit tax saw far less support (under $13,000) mostly from individuals.[95] Mecklenburg County voters overwhelmingly rejected the repeal of the tax, 70 percent to 30 percent, on November 6, 2007.[96][97]

Extent of development generated[edit]

In the months following opening, the line was averaging 80% over initial ridership projections, leading Light Rail Now to proclaim the line a "huge success".[98] Jim Puckett, former Mecklenburg County Commissioner and a leader of the campaign to repeal the transit tax, said in the Charlotte Observer: "I have to admit, they are doing better than I expected... Our concern was whether we would have a white elephant, and it doesn't seem we do."[58]

In August 2008, the John Locke Foundation's Carolina Journal reported that taxpayers were subsidizing more than 90% of a rider's trip on what the Journal calls "a lightly used line," and that low ridership estimates did not take into account increasing gasoline costs resulting in higher transit ridership. The analysis of subsidies was flawed by the report's reliance on a 7% discount rate for capital expenditures on the project, since no money was borrowed for the project (at the local and state level) no interest is paid on its capital costs, thus the report overstated costs by a substantial margin. Criticisms of transit on the grounds of subsidies also overlook the fact that all other modes of transportation are subsidized by non-user fees. For example, the Pew Charitable Trust found that highway construction and maintenance requires a 49% subsidy in 2007.[99] UNCC transportation studies professor David Hartgen states that the line does not displace car traffic significantly as about half the ridership consists of prior bus riders. Also, Hartgen dismisses a city report's claims concerning increased land use as a result, stating: "In short, the big winners are about 4,000 prior bus riders, 4,000 commuters living close to the line, and 400 South Carolina drivers."[100] Hartgen's claims of limited benefits are contradicted by the March 2011 report from the Center for Transit Oriented Development which found that the Blue Line generated nearly 10,000,000 square feet (930,000 m2) of new commercial and residential development along its route, more than comparable lines in Denver and Minneapolis.[101]

Extension corruption allegations[edit]

In March 2014, Mayor Patrick Cannon was arrested by the FBI on corruption charges. According to the affidavit, he agreed to help undercover agents posing as developers to "time purchases of real property on the Gold Line," and also discussed development opportunities along the Blue Line Extension. He allegedly boasted of having political clout in Washington, which he said he would use to get further funding for the Gold Line.[102]

Further allegations filed in the federal corruption probe revealed Cannon had accepted payments from a local strip club owner, David Baucom, from at least 2009; Baucom's business lay in the path of the light-rail extension and was slated for demolition as a result. Both Baucom and Cannon were members of the city Hospitality and Tourism Board. According to the federal bill of information outlining the charges against Cannon, Cannon, then a city councilman, used his position to influence Charlotte zoning, planning and transportation officials to allow the club to be rebuilt on the remaining property after the original building had been demolished and the required land for the extension appropriated.[103] In January 2013, Baucom's club received a zoning variance to allow its continued operation at the same site, as a church and a residential area were both within 1000 feet of the adult establishment. Cannon had also consulted about Baucom with the councilman for Baucom's district, Michael Barnes, who subsequently became mayor pro tem of Charlotte. While Barnes said he had contacted the CATS chief executive on Baucom's behalf to see if his business could remain open for longer, the request for an extension had been turned down, as the club had already received extensions to remain open. Barnes said he had "made an inquiry just as I would for any citizen," and apart from a $500 campaign contribution from Baucom in October 2012, had had no other contacts with him.

Baucom said he didn't know Cannon well and denied requesting him for help with permits; he declined comment on the federal allegations and has neither been charged nor named in court documents.[103] On June 3, 2014, Cannon pleaded guilty to one count of honest services wire fraud, a charge commonly used when a public official takes kickbacks or bribes. The charge referenced a $2,000 bribe Cannon had received from Baucom in January 2013, according to prosecutors. After learning about the new federal allegations relating to Cannon and the light-rail extension, several business owners who had also been forced to give up property along the path of the extension said they were surprised. Some expressed frustration with disruption from construction and with compensation for their properties; they also said the corruption probe deepened their doubts about the fairness of the construction process. Other business owners felt the temporary disruptions would be worth it, as the new light-rail line would improve their business.[104]

In a statement issued after the new allegations were revealed, Ryan Daniels, a spokesman for the U.S. Department of Transportation, said the corruption probe would not affect federal funding for the light-rail extension. "Decisions to fund major transit projects are part of a multiyear, multistep process. Funding decisions are based solely on the merits of the project, which in this case, were determined well before these allegations arose."[105]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c APTA Q4 2017 Light Rail Transit Ridership Report
  2. ^ a b c d Harrison, Steve (November 24, 2007). "A momentous arrival: After opening-day hoopla, what's ahead for Lynx?". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1A.
  3. ^ a b c "LYNX Blue Line South Corridor Light Rail Project Description". Charlotte Area Transit System. Archived from the original on June 5, 2008. Retrieved February 23, 2007.
  4. ^ Rhee, Foon (January 19, 1988). "Is a light rail system in Charlotte's future?". The Charlotte Observer. pp. 1B.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Harrison, Steve; Valle, Kristen (November 25, 2007). "Light rail, heavy traffic: Thousands wait in lines for a free ride on 1st day". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1A. Available at Red Orbit
  6. ^ "Charlotte announces opening date for light rail expansion". The News & Observer. January 9, 2018. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
  7. ^ Israel, Mae (July 9, 1985). "Planners propose strategies for shifting Charlotte-Mecklenburg growth balance". The Charlotte Observer. p. 8A.
  8. ^ Israel, Mae (August 8, 1985). "County rail system ahead?". The Charlotte Observer. p. Metro 1.
  9. ^ Rhee, Food (January 19, 1988). "Is a light rail system in Charlotte's future?". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1B.
  10. ^ a b c Rhee, Foon (December 3, 1988). "Light rail has heavy price tag, transit system cost put at $467 million". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1B.
  11. ^ Mellnik, Ted (July 14, 1988). "Charlotte to push rail idea: Uptown-Matthews may be first route". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1A.
  12. ^ Braun, John (March 4, 1990). "Transit officials see mostly buses, carpools ahead: Their $83 million capital projects list includes just $14 million for light rail development". The Charlotte Observer. p. 2.
  13. ^ "Rapid Transit Planning". Charlotte Area Transit System. Archived from the original on January 11, 2007. Retrieved January 13, 2007.
  14. ^ Griffin, Anna; Whitacre, Dianne (November 4, 1998). "Voters O.K. transit tax, bond issue". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1A.
  15. ^ Whitacre, Dianne (January 28, 1999). "Light rail work may begin in 2001". The Charlotte Observer. p. 3C.
  16. ^ Whitacre, Dianne (January 25, 1999). "Meeting to help decide when, where trains will be comin' down track". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1C.
  17. ^ Whitacre, Dianne (April 27, 2000). "$8.2 million will get the ball rolling on light rail". The Charlotte Observer. p. 2B.
  18. ^ Whitacre, Dianne (September 21, 2000). "Contract awarded for light rail engineering". The Charlotte Observer. p. 4B.
  19. ^ Lowrey, Michael (June 11, 2004). "Charlotte, Triangle Transit Delayed". Carolina Journal. Retrieved January 20, 2010.
  20. ^ Whitacre, Dianne (July 25, 2002). "Cost of light rail to the south up 11%". The Charlotte Observer. p. 3B.
  21. ^ Whitacre, Dianne (January 11, 2005). "Light rail: Higher prices, later arrival". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1A.
  22. ^ Whitacre, Dianne (February 27, 2005). "Celebration marks start of work on light rail line". The Charlotte Observer. p. 2B.
  23. ^ Whitacre, Dianne (January 3, 2006). "Light-rail reaches key stage, installation of bridge girders to start this week". The Charlotte Observer. pp. 1B.
  24. ^ a b "Light rail name keeps the CATS theme going". The Charlotte Observer. February 23, 2006. p. 1B.
  25. ^ LaCour, Greg (October 2, 2006). "Light rail tab unveiled". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1B.
  26. ^ Rhee, Foon (January 19, 1988). "Is a light rail system in Charlotte's future?". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1B.
  27. ^ "Siemens S70 Data Sheet" (PDF).
  28. ^ "Repairs for LYNX trains to cost $6.5M". wsoctv.com. January 6, 2012. Retrieved January 23, 2017.
  29. ^ "Republicans fight back against light rail accusation". WSOCTV.com. May 29, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  30. ^ a b Harrison, Steve (February 27, 2017). "Lynx Blue Line to UNC Charlotte won't open in August as planned". The Charlotte Observer. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
  31. ^ "Blue Line Home Page"
  32. ^ a b Harrison, Steve (November 10, 2014). "CATS pushes some light-rail crews for overtime". The Charlotte Observer.
  33. ^ "Project Overview"
  34. ^ a b Israel, Mae (August 8, 1985). "County rail system ahead?". The Charlotte Observer. pp. Metro 1.
  35. ^ a b Cimino, Karen (June 29, 2006). "Rail route: UNCC, Yes—Crossing I-485, No". The Charlotte Observer. pp. 1B.
  36. ^ LYNX Transitions Newsletter, Summer/Fall 2009
  37. ^ a b Harrison, Steve (January 29, 2008). "Light Rail Extension Study to Start in March". The Charlotte Observer. pp. 1A.
  38. ^ Harrison, Steve (July 22, 2010). "City wants federal grant for shorter Lynx extension". The Charlotte Observer.
  39. ^ a b "CATS' light-rail line lands federal funds, nets favorable FTA decision". Progressive Railroading. December 14, 2011. Archived from the original on December 16, 2011. Retrieved December 16, 2011.
  40. ^ "State commits to funding Lynx Blue Line Extension to UNCC
  41. ^ "Charlotte LYNX Blue Line Light Rail Project Reaches Milestone With North Carolina Railroad Agreement"
  42. ^ "CATS Receives Green Light for Blue Line Extension to Enter Final Design "
  43. ^ "Light-rail extension moves to fast track". charlotteobserver.com. October 16, 2012. Archived from the original on January 2, 2013.
  44. ^ Milicevic, Jessica (May 12, 2013). "Residents worry about proposed Blue Line path". The Charlotte Observer: Lake Norman News.
  45. ^ Haggerty, Neil (July 18, 2013). "LYNX Blue Line light rail extension breaks ground". The Charlotte Observer.
  46. ^ Harrison, Steve (January 27, 2014). "Charlotte makes $12 million bet on streetcar". The Charlotte Observer.
  47. ^ Harrison, Steve (April 23, 2014). "CATS hopes to avoid construction pitfalls". The Charlotte Observer.
  48. ^ a b Harrison, Steve (January 13, 2014). "Light-rail construction for Blue Line extension to begin in March". The Charlotte Observer.
  49. ^ Harrison, Steve (June 9, 2015). "Council approves nearly $20 m. in changes to Lynx Blue Line contract". The Charlotte Observer.
  50. ^ "Feds sending money to Charlotte for light rail expansion". Trains Magazine. September 21, 2015. Retrieved September 22, 2015.
  51. ^ Sullivan, Karen (January 16, 2016). "Charlotte light rail extension's stations taking shape". The Charlotte Observer.
  52. ^ Federal Transit Administration. "NTD Database".
  53. ^ "Light Rail Transportation Ridership Report Fourth Quarter 2007" (PDF). American Public Transportation Association. March 5, 2008. Retrieved April 2, 2008.
  54. ^ "Transit Ridership Report First Quarter 2008" (PDF). American Public Transportation Association. June 27, 2008. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
  55. ^ a b Harrison, Steve (May 29, 2008). "Light rail line rolls along: More riders, continued development and few glitches mark Lynx's first 6 months". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1B.
  56. ^ "Light Rail Transit Ridership Report Third Quarter 2008" (PDF). American Public Transportation Association. December 4, 2008. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
  57. ^ "Public Transportation Ridership Report Fourth Quarter 2008" (PDF). American Public Transportation Association. March 5, 2009. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
  58. ^ a b Harrison, Steve (December 31, 2008). "Ridership on Lynx dipped in November: Drop follows plunge in gas prices". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1B.
  59. ^ Harrison, Steve (December 31, 2008). "Most on Lynx new to transit". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1B.
  60. ^ Muth, John M. (Dec 2009). "LYNX celebrates 10 millionth rider". In Transit: Charlotte Area Transit System Employee Newsletter. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2010.
  61. ^ "Light Rail Transit Ridership Report First Quarter 2009" (PDF). American Public Transportation Association. June 8, 2009. Retrieved July 24, 2010.
  62. ^ "Light Rail Public Transportation Ridership Report Fourth Quarter 2009" (PDF). American Public Transportation Association. March 2, 2010. Retrieved July 24, 2010.
  63. ^ Harrison, Steve (May 1, 2018). "Charlotte has been losing transit riders faster than any other large U.S. city". Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  64. ^ Harrison, Steve (May 25, 2018). "First full month of light-rail extension ridership is out. Here's what it shows". The Charlotte Observer. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  65. ^ "Routes and schedules". Charlotte Area Transit System. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
  66. ^ Charlotte Area Transit System. "Join CATS for the grand opening of the South Boulevard Light Rail Facility" (Press release).
  67. ^ Whitacre, Dianne (February 26, 2004). "Planners OK buying 16 trains for $53 million". The Charlotte Observer. p. 4B.
  68. ^ a b Rubin, Richard (June 24, 2006). "1st Lynx car arrives, but 1000 miles of tests await". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1B.
  69. ^ a b Leier, Jean (January 20, 2010). "Light rail vehicle makes a stop in Atlanta". Charlotte Area Transit System. Retrieved October 4, 2010.
  70. ^ a b "Light Rail Vehicles". Charlotte Area Transit System. Archived from the original on January 10, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2007.
  71. ^ a b c d e "LYNX Fares". Charlotte Area Transit System. Retrieved July 1, 2012.
  72. ^ "Passes & Fares". Charlotte Area Transit System. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
  73. ^ a b Whitacre, Dianne (September 29, 2005). "Light rail to use honor system". The Charlotte Observer. p. 5B.
  74. ^ Harrison, Steve (November 19, 2007). "Want to ride? Please help yourself". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1B.
  75. ^ a b c Harrison, Steve (February 6, 2008). "Lynx blitz catches 41 without tickets". The Charlotte Observer. p. 2B.
  76. ^ Berky, Rad (June 21, 2010). "CATS plans to target light rail riders who don't pay". The Charlotte Observer.
  77. ^ a b "LYNX Blue Line". Charlotte Area Transit System. Archived from the original on August 4, 2008. Retrieved January 20, 2010.
  78. ^ Harrison, Portillo, Steve, Ely (July 14, 2015). "Anthony Foxx gives passionate speech to open streetcar; service starts at 1 p.m.". The Charlotte Observer.
  79. ^ Whitacre, Dianne (February 17, 2001). "Initial signs of city's light rail future just ahead". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1A.
  80. ^ Whitacre, Dianne (March 24, 2004). "Light rail: Add $28 million". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1B.
  81. ^ Whitacre, Dianne (September 16, 2001). "Cast a vote now for your favorite shelter". The Charlotte Observer. p. 7B.
  82. ^ Whitacre, Dianne (July 31, 2002). "Novel idea carries day for light-rail line: Parking deck can go under school land with playing field on top". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1B.
  83. ^ "LYNX Blue Line public art". Charlotte Area Transit System. Retrieved October 4, 2010.
  84. ^ Rubin, Richard (October 13, 2005). "Madans takes 3rd bid to shops and churches: Charlotte mayoral candidate has firm 'no' for light rail and arena". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1B.
  85. ^ "Conservative group criticizes light-rail funding". Charlotte Business Journal. June 15, 2006. Retrieved February 23, 2007.
  86. ^ a b Spanberg, Erik (February 28, 2007). "City is preparing for a battle over transit tax". Charlotte Business Journal.
  87. ^ Harrison, Steve (June 1, 2007). "Signatures clear the way for revote on transit tax: Anti-light rail group reaches petition goal". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1A.
  88. ^ Mecklenburg-Union Metropolitan Planning Organization (May 16, 2007). "2030 Long-Range Transportation Plan Amendment" (PDF).
  89. ^ CATS Metropolitan Transit Commission (October 26, 2006). "2030 Transit Corridor System Plan: Implementation Scenarios and Preliminary Financial Results" (PDF).
  90. ^ Cox, Wendell. "Breach of Faith: Light Rail and Smart Growth in Charlotte". Retrieved March 14, 2013.
  91. ^ Harrison, Steve (January 21, 2015). "Lynx light rail ridership back to 2008 levels". The Charlotte Observer.
  92. ^ Bullock, Tom (August 31, 2015). "Charlotte First In Worst Traffic In North Carolina". WFAE / NPR.
  93. ^ Litman, Todd. "Smart Congestion Reductions II" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2011.
  94. ^ Harrison, Steve (September 20, 2007). "Development along rail a focus of transit tax debate". The Charlotte Observer. p. 3B.
  95. ^ Harrison, Steve (October 30, 2007). "Transit tax is popular with big business". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1B.
  96. ^ Mecklenburg County Board of Elections (November 6, 2007). "Mecklenburg County, NC 11/06/2007 General Election: Repeal of the 1/2% Transportation Tax".
  97. ^ Harrison, Steve (November 7, 2007). "Tax supporters, foes surprised by margin of victory: Light rail, buses score overwhelming endorsement". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1A.
  98. ^ "Charlotte's New Lynx Light Rail:Ridership, Development, and Energy Benefits=Huge Success". Light Rail Now Project. Retrieved May 26, 2009.
  99. ^ "Analysis Finds Shifting Trends in Highway Funding: User Fees Make Up Decreasing Share". Subsidyscope: Pew Charitable Trust. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
  100. ^ "Taxpayers Pay Price For Lightly Used Charlotte Light-Rail Line". John Locke Foundation. Retrieved May 26, 2009.
  101. ^ "Rails to Real Estate Final Report" (PDF). Center for Transit Oriented Development. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
  102. ^ Rothacker, Rick; Frazier, Eric; Portillo, Ely (March 26, 2014). "Case against Patrick Cannon touches on Charlotte development, transit projects". The Charlotte Observer.
  103. ^ a b Rothacker, Rick; Harrison, Steve (June 2, 2014). "Documents: Patrick Cannon accepted payments to help adult club owner near Blue Line". The Charlotte Observer.
  104. ^ Frazier, Dunn, Eric, Andrew (June 3, 2014). "Patrick Cannon corruption case highlights disruption for businesses along Blue Line extension". The Charlotte Observer.
  105. ^ Rothacker, Rick; Ordoñez, Franco (June 4, 2014). "US won't pull Blue Line funding after strip club allegations". The Charlotte Observer.

External links[edit]

Route map:

KML is from Wikidata