From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Lyra (disambiguation).
Abbreviation Lyr
Genitive Lyrae
Pronunciation /ˈlaɪərə/, genitive /ˈlaɪər/
Symbolism Lyre, harp
Right ascension 18h 14m to 19h 28m
Declination 25.66° to 47.71°
Family Hercules
Quadrant NQ4
Area 286 sq. deg. (52nd)
Main stars 5
Stars brighter than 3.00m 1
Stars within 10.00 pc (32.62 ly) 3[n 1]
Brightest star Vega (α Lyr) (0.03m)
Nearest star Vega
(25.04 ly, 7.68 pc)
Messier objects 2
Meteor showers Lyrids
June Lyrids
Alpha Lyrids
Visible at latitudes between +90° and −40°.
Best visible at 21:00 (9 p.m.) during the month of August.

Lyra (/ˈlaɪərə/; Latin for lyre, from Greek λύρα)[2] is a small constellation. It is one of 48 listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy, and is one of the 88 constellations recognized by the International Astronomical Union. Lyra was often represented on star maps as a vulture or an eagle carrying a lyre, and hence sometimes referred to as Aquila Cadens or Vultur Cadens. Beginning at the north, Lyra is bordered by Draco, Hercules, Vulpecula, and Cygnus. Lyra is visible from the northern hemisphere from spring through autumn, and nearly overhead, in temperate latitudes, during the summer months. From the southern hemisphere, it is visible low in the northern sky during the winter months.

The lucida or brightest star—and one of the brightest stars in the sky—is the white main sequence star Vega, which forms a corner of the Summer Triangle. Beta Lyrae is the prototype of a class of stars known as Beta Lyrae variables. These binary stars are so close to each other that they become egg-shaped and material flows from one to the other. Epsilon Lyrae, known informally as the Double Double, is a complex multiple star system. Lyra also hosts the Ring Nebula, the second-discovered and best-known planetary nebula.


Lyra can be seen on the right of this c. 1825 star map from Urania's Mirror.

In Greek mythology, Lyra represents the lyre of Orpheus. Made by Hermes from a tortoise shell, it was said to be the first lyre ever produced. Orpheus's music was said to be so great that even inanimate objects such as trees, streams, and rocks could be charmed. Joining Jason and the Argonauts, his music was able to quell the voices of the dangerous Sirens, who sang tempting songs to the Argonauts.[3]

At one point, Orpheus married Eurydice, a nymph. While fleeing from an attack by Aristaeus, she stepped on a snake that bit her, killing her. To reclaim her, Orpheus entered the Underworld, where the music from his lyre charmed Hades. Hades relented and let Orpheus bring Eurydice back, on the condition that he never once look back until outside. Unfortunately, near the very end, Orpheus faltered and looked back, causing Eurydice to be left in the Underworld forever. Orpheus spent the rest of his life strumming his lyre while wandering aimlessly through the land, rejecting all marriage offers from women.[3]

There are two competing myths relating to the death of Orpheus. According to Eratosthenes, Orpheus failed to make a necessary sacrifice to Dionysus due to his regard for Apollo as the supreme deity instead. Dionysus then sent his followers to rip Orpheus apart. Ovid tells a rather different story, saying that women, in retribution for Orpheus's rejection of marriage offers, ganged up and threw stones and spears. At first, his music charmed them as well, but eventually their numbers and clamor overwhelmed his music and he was hit by the spears. Both myths then state that his lyre was placed in the sky by the muses.[3]

Vega and its surrounding stars are also treated as a constellation in other cultures. The area corresponding to Lyra was seen by the Arabs as a vulture or an eagle carrying a lyre, either enclosed in its wings, or in its beak.[3] In Wales, Lyra is known as King Arthur's Harp (Talyn Arthur), and King David's harp. The Persian Hafiz called it the Lyre of Zurah. It has been called the Manger of the Infant Saviour, Praesepe Salvatoris.[4] In Australian Aboriginal astronomy, Lyra is known by the Boorong people in Victoria as the Malleefowl constellation.[5] Lyra was known as Urcuchillay by the Incas and was worshipped as an animal deity.[6][7]


Lyra is bordered by Vulpecula to the south, Hercules to the east, Draco to the north, and Cygnus to the west. Covering 286.5 square degrees, it ranks 52nd of the 88 modern constellations in size. It appears prominently in the northern sky during the Nouthern Hemisphere's summer, and the whole constellation is visible for at least part of the year to observers north of latitude 42°S.[8][n 2] Its main asterism consists of six stars,[n 3] and 73 stars in total are brighter than magnitude 6.5.[8] The constellation's boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined by a 17-sided polygon. In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 18h 14m and 19h 28m, while the declination coordinates are between +25.66° and +47.71°.[9] The International Astronomical Union (IAU) adopted the three-letter abbreviation "Lyr" for the constellation in 1922.[10]

Notable features[edit]

The constellation Lyra as it can be seen by the naked eye.


The brightest and by far the most well-known star in the constellation is Vega, a main-sequence star of spectral type A0Va.[11] Only 7.7 parsecs distant,[12] is a Delta Scuti variable, varying between magnitudes −0.02 and 0.07 over 0.2 days.[13] On average, it is the second brightest star of the northern hemisphere (after Arcturus) and the fifth brightest star in all, surpassed only by Arcturus, Alpha Centauri, Canopus, and Sirius. Vega was the pole star in the year 12000 BCE, and will again become the pole star around 14000 CE.

Vega is one of the most-studied of all stars, and has been called "arguably the next most important star in the sky after the Sun".[14] Vega was the first star other than the Sun to be photographed,[15] as well as the first to have a clear spectrum recorded, showing absorption lines for the first time.[16] The star was the first single main-sequence star other than the Sun to be known to emit X-rays,[17] and is surrounded by a circumstellar debris disk, similar to the Kuiper Belt.[18] Vega forms one corner of the famous Summer Triangle asterism; along with Altair and Deneb, these three stars form a prominent triangle during the northern hemisphere summer.

Vega also forms one vertex of a much smaller triangle, along with Epsilon and Zeta Lyrae. Zeta forms a wide binary star visible in binoculars, consisting of an Am star and an F-type subgiant. The Am star has an additional close companion, bringing the total number of stars in the system to three.[19] Epsilon is a more famous wide binary that can even be separated by the naked eye under good conditions. Both components are themselves close binaries which can be seen with telescopes to consist of A- and F-type stars, and a faint star was recently found to orbit component C as well, for a total of five stars.[19]

In contrast to Zeta and Epsilon Lyrae, Delta Lyrae is an optical double, with the two stars simply lying along the same line of sight east of Zeta. The brighter and closer of the two, Delta2 Lyrae, is a 4th-magnitude red bright giant that varies semiregularly by around 0.2 magnitudes[20] with a dominant period of 79 days,[21] while the fainter Delta1 Lyrae is a spectroscopic binary consisting of a B-type primary and an unknown secondary.[19] Both systems, however, have very similar radial velocities, and are the two brightest members of a sparse open cluster known as the Delta Lyrae cluster.[22] South of Delta is Gamma Lyrae, a blue giant and the second-brightest star in the constellation. Around 190 parsecs distant,[12] it has been referred to as a "superficially normal" star.[23]

The final star forming the lyre's figure is Beta Lyrae, also a binary composed of a blue bright giant and an early B-type star. In this case, the stars are so close together that the larger giant is overflowing its Roche lobe and transferring material to the secondary, forming a semidetached system. The secondary, originally the less massive of the two, has accreted so much mass that it is now substantially more massive, albeit smaller, than the primary, and is surrounded by a thick accretion disk.[24] The plane of the orbit is aligned with Earth and the system thus shows eclipses, dropping nearly a full magnitude from its 3rd-magnitude baseline every 13 days,[25] although its period is increasing by around 19 seconds per year.[26] It is the prototype of the Beta Lyrae variables, eclipsing semidetached binaries of early spectral types in which there are no exact onsets of eclipses, but rather continuous changes in brightness.[27]

A long-exposure image of Lyra

Another easy-to-spot variable is the bright R Lyrae, north of the main asterism. Also known as 13 Lyrae, it is a 4th-magnitude red giant semiregular variable that varies by several tenths of a magnitude.[28] Its periodicity is complex, with several different periods of varying lengths, most notably one of 46 days and one of 64 days.[29] Even further north is FL Lyrae, a much fainter 9th-magnitude Algol variable that drops by half a magnitude every 2.18 days during the primary eclipse. Both components are main-sequence stars, the primary being late F-type and the secondary late G-type. The system was one of the first main-sequence eclipsing binaries containing G-type star to have its properties known as well as the better-studied early-type eclipsing binaries.[30]

At the very northernmost edge of the constellation is the even fainter V361 Lyrae, an eclipsing binary that does not easily fall into one of the traditional classes, with features of Beta Lyrae, W Ursae Majoris, and cataclysmic variables.[31][32] It may be a representative of a very brief phase in which the system is transitioning into a contact binary.[33] It can be found less than a degree away from the naked-eye star 16 Lyrae, a 5th-magnitude A-type subgiant[34] located around 37 parsecs distant.[12]

The brightest star not included in the asterism and the westernmost cataloged by Bayer or Flamsteed is Kappa Lyrae, a typical red giant[35] around 73 parsecs distant.[12] Similar bright orange or red giants include the 4th-magnitude Theta Lyrae,[36] Lambda Lyrae,[37] and HD 173780.[35] Lambda is located just south of Gamma, Theta is positioned in the east, and HD 173780, the brightest star in the constellation with no Bayer or Flamsteed designation, is more southernly. Just north of Theta and of almost exactly the same magnitude is Eta Lyrae, a blue subgiant with a near-solar metal abundance.[38] Also nearby is the faint HP Lyrae, a post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star that shows variability. The reason for its variability is still a mystery: first cataloged as an eclipsing binary, it was theorized to be an RV Tauri variable in 2002, but if so, it would be by far the hottest such variable discovered.[39]

In the extreme east is RR Lyrae, the prototype of the large class of variables known as RR Lyrae variables, which are pulsating variables similar to Cepheids, but are evolved population II stars of spectral types A and F. Such stars are usually not found in a galaxy's thin disk, but rather in the galactic halo. Such stars serve as standard candles, and thus are a reliable way to calculate distances to the globular clusters in which they reside.[27] RR Lyrae itself varies between magnitudes 7 and 8 while exhibiting the Blazhko effect.[40] The easternmost star designated by Flamsteed, 19 Lyrae, is also a small-amplitude variable, an Alpha2 Canum Venaticorum variable with a period of just over one day.[41]

Another evolved star is the naked-eye variable XY Lyrae, a red bright giant[35] just north of Vega that varies between 6th and 7th magnitudes over a period of 120 days.[42] Also just visible to the naked eye is the peculiar classical Cepheid V473 Lyrae. It is unique in that it is the only known Cepheid in the Milky Way to undergo periodic phase and amplitude changes, analogous to the Blazhko effect in RR Lyrae stars.[43] At 1.5 days, its period was the shortest known for a classical Cepheid at the time of its discovery.[44] W and S Lyrae are two of the many Mira variables in Lyra. W varies between 7th and 12th magnitudes over approximately 200 days,[45] while S, slightly fainter, is a silicate carbon star, likely of the J-type.[46] Another evolved star is EP Lyrae, a faint RV Tauri variable and an "extreme example" of a post-AGB star. It and a likely companion are surrounded by a circumstellar disk of material.[47]

Rather close to Earth at a distance of only 16 parsecs (52 ly) is Gliese 758. The sunlike pimary star has a brown dwarf companion, the coldest to have been imaged around a sunlike star in thermal light when it was discovered in 2009.[48] Only slightly farther away is V478 Lyrae, an eclipsing[49] RS Canum Venaticorum variable whose primary star shows active starspot activity.[50]

One of the most peculiar systems in Lyra is MV Lyrae, a nova-like star consisting of a red dwarf and a white dwarf.[51] Originally classified as a VY Sculptoris star due to spending most time at maximum brightness, since around 1979 the system has been dominantly at minimum brightness, with periodic outbursts.[52] Its nature is still not fully understood.[53] Another outbursting star is AY Lyrae, an SU Ursae Majoris-type dwarf nova that has undergone several superoutbursts.[54] Of the same type is V344 Lyrae, notable for an extremely short period between superoutbursts coupled with one of the highest amplitudes for such a period.[55] The true nova HR Lyrae flared in 1919 to a maximum magnitude of 6.5, over 9.5 magnitudes higher than in quiescence. Some of its characteristics are similar to those of recurring novae.[56]

Deep-sky objects[edit]

Messier 56 is composed of a large number of stars, tightly bound to each other by gravity.[57] In Lyra are the objects M56, M57, and Kuiper 90. M56 is a rather loose globular cluster at a distance of approximately 32,900 light-years, with a diameter of about 85 light years. Its apparent brightness is 8.3m.

M57, also known as the "Ring Nebula" and NGC 6720,[58] has a diameter of one light-year and is at a distance of 2,000 light-years from Earth. It is one of the best known planetary nebulae and the second to be discovered; its integrated magnitude is 8.8.[59] It was discovered in 1779 by Antoine Darquier, 15 years after Charles Messier discovered the Dumbbell Nebula.[60] Astronomers have determined that it is between 6,000 and 8,000 years old;[59] it is approximately one light-year in diameter.[61] The outer part of the nebula appears red in photographs because of emission from ionized hydrogen. The middle region is colored green; doubly ionized oxygen emits greenish-blue light. The hottest region, closest to the central star, appears blue because of emission from helium. The central star itself is a white dwarf with a temperature of 120,000 Kelvin. In telescopes, the nebula appears as a visible ring with a green tinge; it is slightly elliptical because its three-dimensional shape is a torus or cylinder seen from a slight angle.[59] It can be found halfway between Gamma Lyrae and Beta Lyrae.[61]

Another planetary nebula in Lyra is Abell 46. The central star, V477 Lyrae, is an eclipsing post-common-envelope binary, consisting of a white dwarf primary and an oversized secondary component due to recent accretion. The nebula itself is of relatively low surface brightness compared to the central star,[62] and is undersized for the primary's mass for reasons not yet fully understood.[63]

NGC 6745 is an irregular spiral galaxy in Lyra that is at a distance of 208 million light-years. Several million years ago, it collided with a smaller galaxy, which created a region filled with young, hot, blue stars. Astronomers do not know if the collision was simply a glancing blow or a prelude to a full-on merger, which would end with the two galaxies incorporated into one larger, probably elliptical galaxy.[59]

A remarkable long-duration gamma-ray burst was GRB 050525A, which flared in 2005. The afterglow re-brightened at 33 minutes after the original burst, only the third found to exhibit such an effect in the timeframe,[64] and unable to be completely explained by known phenomena.[65] The light curve observed over the next 100 days was consistent with that of a supernova or even a hypernova, dubbed SN 2005nc.[66] The host galaxy proved elusive to find at first,[67] although it was subsequently identified.[68]


In orbit around the orange subgiant star HD 177830 is one of the earliest exoplanets to be detected. A jovian-mass planet, it orbits in an eccentric orbit with a period of 390 days.[69] A second planet closer to the star was discovered in 2011.[70] Visible to the naked eye are HD 173416, a yellow giant hosting a planet over twice the mass of Jupiter discovered in 2009;[71] and HD 176051, a low-mass binary star containing another high-mass planet.[72] Just short of naked-eye visibility is HD 178911, a triple system consisting of a close binary and a visually separable sunlike star. The sunlike star has a planet with over 6 Jupiter masses discovered in 2001, the second found in a triple system after that of 16 Cygni.[73]

One of the most-studied exoplanets in the night sky is TrES-1b, in orbit around the star GSC 02652-01324. Detected from a transit of its parent star, the planet has around 3/4 the mass of Jupiter, yet orbits its parent star in only three days.[74] The transits have been reported to have anomalies multiple times. Originally thought to be possibly due to the presence of an Earth-like planet, it is now accepted that the irregularities are due to a large starspot.[75] Also discovered by the transit method is WASP-3b, with 1.75 times the mass of Jupiter. At the time of its discovery, it was one of the hottest known exoplanets, in orbit around the F-type main-sequence star WASP-3.[76] Similar to TrES-1b, irregularities in the transits had left open the possibility of a second planet, although this now appears unlikely as well.[77]

Lyra is one of three constellations (along with neighboring Cygnus and Draco) to be in the Kepler Mission's field of view, and as such it contains many more known exoplanets than most constellations. One of the first discovered by the mission is Kepler-7b, an extremely low-density exoplanet with less than half the mass of Jupiter, yet nearly 1.5 times the radius.[78] Almost as sparse is Kepler-8b, only slightly more massive and of a similar radius.[79] The Kepler-20 system contains five known planets; three of them are only slightly smaller than Neptune,[80] and two while the other two are some of the first Earth-sized exoplanets to be discovered.[81] Kepler-37 is another star with an exoplanet discovered by Kepler; the planet is the smallest known extrasolar planet known as of February 2013.

In April 2013, it was announced that of the five planets orbiting Kepler-62, at least two—Kepler-62e and Kepler-62f—are within the boundaries of the habitable zone of that star, where scientists think liquid water could exist, and are both candidates for being a solid, rocky, earth-like planet. The exoplanets are 1.6 and 1.4 times the diameter of Earth respectively, with their star Kepler-62 at a distance of 1,200 light-years.[82]


  1. ^ The nearby stars are Vega, the red dwarf double star GJ 747, and the brown dwarf 2MASS 1835+3259.
  2. ^ While parts of the constellation technically rise above the horizon to observers between 42°S and 64°S, stars within a few degrees of the horizon are to all intents and purposes unobservable.
  3. ^ Assuming the visual binary Epsilon is counted as single stars, and only one of Delta1 and Delta2 Lyrae is counted as part of the pattern.


  1. ^ Ian Ridpath and Wil Tirion (2007). Stars and Planets Guide, Collins, London. ISBN 978-0-00-725120-9. Princeton University Press, Princeton. ISBN 978-0-691-13556-4.
  2. ^ Lesley Brown: The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. Vol. 1: A−M. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1993, p. 1651
  3. ^ a b c d Ridpath, Ian. "Star Tales - Lyra". Star Tales. self-published. Retrieved 26 August 2015. 
  4. ^ Allen, Richard Hinckley (1963) [1899]. Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning. Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-486-21079-0. Retrieved 26 August 2015. 
  5. ^ "World_Archaeological_Congress.pdf" (PDF). The Astronomy of the Boorong. Retrieved 2007-10-17. [dead link]
  6. ^ Allen, Richard Hinckley (2003) [1936]. Star Names and Their Meanings. Kessenger Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7661-4028-8. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  7. ^ D'Altroy, Terence N. (2002). "The Inca Pantheon". The Incas. The Peoples of America. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-631-17677-0. 
  8. ^ a b Ridpath, Ian. "Constellations: Lacerta–Vulpecula". Star Tales. self-published. Retrieved 25 July 2015. 
  9. ^ "Lyra, Constellation Boundary". The Constellations (International Astronomical Union). Retrieved 25 July 2015. 
  10. ^ Russell, H. N. (1922). "The New International Symbols for the Constellations". Popular Astronomy 30: 469–71. Bibcode:1922PA.....30..469R. 
  11. ^ Gray, R. O.; Corbally, C. J.; Garrison, R. F.; McFadden, M. T.; Robinson, P. E. (2006). "Contributions to the Nearby Stars (NStars) Project: Spectroscopy of Stars Earlier than M0 within 40 parsecs: The Northern Sample I". The Astronomical Journal 132 (1): 161–170. arXiv:astro-ph/0603770. Bibcode:2006AJ....132..161G. doi:10.1086/504637. 
  12. ^ a b c d van Leeuwen, F. (2007). "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction". Astronomy and Astrophysics 474 (2): 653–664. arXiv:0708.1752. Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357. 
  13. ^ Breger, M. (1979). "Delta Scuti and related stars". Astronomical Society of the Pacific 91: 5–26. Bibcode:1979PASP...91....5B. doi:10.1086/130433. 
  14. ^ Gulliver, A. F.; Hill, G.; Adelman, S. J. (1994). "Vega: A rapidly rotating pole-on star". The Astrophysical Journal 429 (2): L81–L84. Bibcode:1994ApJ...429L..81G. doi:10.1086/187418. 
  15. ^ Holden, E. S.; Campbell, W. W. (1890). "Photographs of Venus, Mercury and Alpha Lyræ in Daylight". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 2 (10): 249–250. Bibcode:1890PASP....2..249H. doi:10.1086/120156. 
  16. ^ Barker, G. F. (1887). "On the Henry Draper Memorial Photographs of Stellar Spectra". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 24: 166–172. 
  17. ^ Topka, K.; et al. (1979), "Detection of soft X-rays from Alpha Lyrae and Eta Bootis with an imaging X-ray telescope", Astrophysical Journal 229: 661, Bibcode:1979ApJ...229..661T, doi:10.1086/157000 
  18. ^ Su, K. Y. L.; et al. (2005), "The Vega Debris Disk: A Surprise from Spitzer", The Astrophysical Journal 628 (1): 487–500, arXiv:astro-ph/0504086, Bibcode:2005ApJ...628..487S, doi:10.1086/430819 
  19. ^ a b c Eggleton, P. P.; Tokovinin, A. A. (September 2008). "A catalogue of multiplicity among bright stellar systems". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 389 (2): 869–879. arXiv:0806.2878. Bibcode:2008MNRAS.389..869E. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13596.x. 
  20. ^ Bakos, G. A.; Tremko, J. (1991). "A photometric and spectroscopic study of δ2 Lyrae". Contrib. Astron. Obs. Skalnaté Pleso 21: 99–106. Bibcode:1991CoSka..21...99B. 
  21. ^ Lloyd, C.; West, K. W. (1996). "Observations of Low-amplitude Late-Type Variables". Information Bulletin on Variable Stars (4335): 1. Bibcode:1996IBVS.4335....1L. 
  22. ^ Eggen, O. J. (1968). "Photometric evidence for the existence of a delta Lyrae cluster". Astrophysical Journal 152: 77. Bibcode:1968ApJ...152...77E. doi:10.1086/149525. 
  23. ^ Adelman, S. J.; Caliskan, H.; Kocer, D.; Kablan, H.; Yüce, K.; Engin, S. (2001). "Elemental abundance analyses with DAO spectrograms". Astronomy and Astrophysics 371 (3): 1078–1083. Bibcode:2001A&A...371.1078A. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20010408. 
  24. ^ Harmanec, P. (2002). "The ever challenging emission-line binary β Lyrae". Astronomische Nachrichten 323 (2): 87–98. Bibcode:2002AN....323...87H. doi:10.1002/1521-3994(200207)323:2<87::AID-ASNA87>3.0.CO;2-P. 
  25. ^ European Space Agency (1997). The HIPPARCOS and TYCHO catalogues. Astrometric and photometric star catalogues derived from the ESA HIPPARCOS Space Astrometry Mission 1200. Netherlands: Noordwijk. Bibcode:1997ESASP1200.....E. ISBN 9290923997. 
  26. ^ Zhao, M.; et al. (2008), "First Resolved Images of the Eclipsing and Interacting Binary β Lyrae", The Astrophysical Journal 684 (2): L95–L98, arXiv:0808.0932, Bibcode:2008ApJ...684L..95Z, doi:10.1086/592146 
  27. ^ a b Otero, S. A.; Watson, C.; Wils, P. "Variable Star Type Designations in the VSX". AAVSO Website. American Association of Variable Star Observers. Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  28. ^ Koen, Chris; Eyer, Laurent (2002). "New periodic variables from the Hipparcos epoch photometry". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 331 (1): 45–59. Bibcode:2002MNRAS.331...45K. doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05150.x. 
  29. ^ Percy, John R.; Wilson, Joseph B.; Henry, Gregory W. (2001). "Long‐TermVRIPhotometry of Small‐Amplitude Red Variables. I. Light Curves and Periods". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 113 (786): 983–996. Bibcode:2001PASP..113..983P. doi:10.1086/322153. 
  30. ^ Popper, D. M.; Lacy, C. H.; Frueh, M. L.; Turner, A. E. (1986). "Properties of main-sequence eclipsing binaries - Into the G stars with HS Aurigae, FL Lyrae, and EW Orionis". The Astronomical Journal 91: 383. Bibcode:1986AJ.....91..383P. doi:10.1086/114018. 
  31. ^ Andronov, I. L.; Richter, G. A. (1987). "V 361 Lyrae: An exotic binary system with a "Hot Spot" between the components?". Astronomische Nachrichten: A Journal on all Fields of Astronomy 308 (4): 235–238. Bibcode:1987AN....308..235A. doi:10.1002/asna.2113080403. 
  32. ^ Shugarov, S. Y.; Goranskij, V. P.; Galkina, M. P.; Lipunova, N. A. (1990). "The Unique Manifestation of the Matter Outflow in the Eclipsing Binary System V361 Lyr" (3472). p. 1. Bibcode:1990IBVS.3472....1S. 
  33. ^ Hilditch, R. W.; Collier Cameron, A.; Hill, G.; Bell, S. A.; Harries, T. J. (1997). "Spectroscopy and eclipse-mapping of the mass-exchanging binary star V361 LYR". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 291: 749–792. Bibcode:1997MNRAS.291..749H. 
  34. ^ Abt, H. A.; Morrell, N. I. (1995). "The Relation between Rotational Velocities and Spectral Peculiarities among A-Type Stars". Astrophysical Journal Supplement 99: 135. Bibcode:1995ApJS...99..135A. doi:10.1086/192182. 
  35. ^ a b c Keenan, P.; McNeil, R. (October 1989). "The Perkins catalog of revised MK types for the cooler stars". Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 71: 245–266. Bibcode:1989ApJS...71..245K. doi:10.1086/191373. 
  36. ^ Montes, D.; López-Santiago, J.; Gálvez, M.C.; Fernández-Figueroa, M.J.; De Castro, E.; Cornide, M. (2001). "Late-type members of young stellar kinematic groups - I. Single stars". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 328 (1): 45–63. Bibcode:2001MNRAS.328...45M. doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04781.x. 
  37. ^ Garcia, B. (1989). "A list of MK standard stars". Bulletin d'Information du Centre de Donnees Stellaires 36: 27. Bibcode:1989BICDS..36...27G. 
  38. ^ Adelman, S. J. (1998). "Elemental abundance analyses with DAO spectrograms - XIX. The superficially normal B stars ζ Draconis, η Lyrae, 8 Cygni and 22 Cygni". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 296 (4): 856–862. Bibcode:1998MNRAS.296..856A. doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.1998.01426.x. 
  39. ^ Graczyk, D.; Mikolajewski, M.; Leedjarv, L.; Frackowiak, S. M.; Osiwala, J. P.; Puss, A.; Tomov, T. (2002). "HP Lyr - Possibly the Hottest RV Tau Type Object". Acta Astronomica 52: 293–304. arXiv:astro-ph/0210448. Bibcode:2002AcA....52..293G. 
  40. ^ Nemec, James M.; Cohen, Judith G.; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Derekas, Aliz; Moskalik, Pawel; Sesar, Branimir; Chadid, Merieme; Bruntt, Hans (2013). "METAL ABUNDANCES, RADIAL VELOCITIES, AND OTHER PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE RR LYRAE STARS IN THE KEPLER FIELD". The Astrophysical Journal 773 (2): 181. Bibcode:2013ApJ...773..181N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/773/2/181. 
  41. ^ Burke, E. W., Jr.; Barr, T. H. (1981). "Photometric UBV period study of eight AP stars". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 93: 344. Bibcode:1981PASP...93..344B. doi:10.1086/130836. 
  42. ^ Percy, J. R.; Dunlop, H.; Kassim, L.; Thompson, R. R. (2001). "Periods of 25 Pulsating Red Giants". Information Bulletin on Variable Stars (5041): 1. Bibcode:2001IBVS.5041....1P. 
  43. ^ Molnar, L.; Szabados, L. (2014). "V473 Lyrae, a unique second-overtone Cepheid with two modulation cycles". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 442 (4): 3222–3234. Bibcode:2014MNRAS.442.3222M. doi:10.1093/mnras/stu1091. 
  44. ^ Breger, M. (1981). "The unusual Cepheid HR 7308 with a variable amplitude". The Astrophysical Journal 249: 666. Bibcode:1981ApJ...249..666B. doi:10.1086/159327. 
  45. ^ Isles, J. E.; Saw, D. R. B. (1989). "Mira Stars - IV: R Cam, R Cas, W Cas, S Cep, T Cep, U Cyg, and S Del". Journal of the British Astronomical Association 99 (6): 275–281. Bibcode:1989JBAA...99..275I. 
  46. ^ Chen, P.-S.; Wang, X.-H. (2001). "IRAS 19111+2555(=S Lyr): A Possible Silicate Carbon Star". Chinese Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics 1: 344–348. Bibcode:2001ChJAA...1..344C. 
  47. ^ Gielen, C.; Van Winckel, H.; Matsuura, M.; Min, M.; Deroo, P.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Dominik, C. (2009). "Analysis of the infrared spectra of the peculiar post-AGB stars EP Lyrae and HD 52961". Astronomy and Astrophysics 503 (3): 843–854. Bibcode:2009A&A...503..843G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200912060. 
  48. ^ Thalmann, C.; Carson, J.; Janson, M.; Goto, M.; McElwain, M.; Egner, S.; Feldt, M.; Hashimoto, J.; Hayano, Y.; Henning, T.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kandori, R.; Klahr, H.; Kudo, T.; Kusakabe, N.; Mordasini, C.; Morino, J.-I.; Suto, H.; Suzuki, R.; Tamura, M. (2009). "DISCOVERY OF THE COLDEST IMAGED COMPANION OF A SUN-LIKE STAR". The Astrophysical Journal 707 (2): L123–L127. Bibcode:2009ApJ...707L.123T. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/707/2/L123. 
  49. ^ Hall, D. S.; Sowell, J. R.; Henry, G. W. (1989). "Discovery of Eclipses in the Chromospherically Active Binary V478 Lyrae = HD 178450". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 21: 709. Bibcode:1989BAAS...21..709H. 
  50. ^ Horne, J. D. (2006). "V478 Lyrae Revisited: a Current Look at Eclipses and Star Spots". The Journal of the American Association of Variable Star Observers 34 (2): 177–187. Bibcode:2006JAVSO..34..177H. 
  51. ^ Skillman, David R.; Patterson, Joseph; Thorstensen, John R. (1995). "Superhumps in Cataclysmic Binaries. IV. MV Lyrae". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 107: 545. Bibcode:1995PASP..107..545S. doi:10.1086/133590. 
  52. ^ Pavlenko, E. P.; Shugarov, S. Y. (1999). "Photometric study of the nova-like variable MV Lyrae during an enormous outburst in 1997". Astronomy and Astrophysics 343: 909–915. Bibcode:1999A&A...343..909P. 
  53. ^ Linnell, Albert P.; Szkody, Paula; Gansicke, Boris; Long, Knox S.; Sion, Edward M.; Hoard, D. W.; Hubeny, Ivan (2005). "MV Lyrae in Low, Intermediate, and High States". The Astrophysical Journal 624 (2): 923–933. Bibcode:2005ApJ...624..923L. doi:10.1086/429143. 
  54. ^ Szymanski, M.; Udalski, A. (1987). "AY Lyrae Superoutburst Photometry". Information Bulletin on Variable Stars 3105: 1. Bibcode:1987IBVS.3105....1S. 
  55. ^ Kato, T.; Poyner, G.; Kinnunen, T. (2002). "V344 Lyr: an unusual large-amplitude SU UMa-type dwarf nova with a short supercycle". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 330 (1): 53–57. Bibcode:2002MNRAS.330...53K. doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05015.x. 
  56. ^ Shears, J.; Poyner, G. (2007). "HR Lyrae (Nova Lyr 1919): from outburst to active quiescence". Journal of the British Astronomical Association 117 (3): 136–141. Bibcode:2007JBAA..117..136S. 
  57. ^ "A Collection of Ancient Stars". ESA/Hubble Picture of the Week. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  58. ^ Levy 2005, p. 123.
  59. ^ a b c d Wilkins, Jamie; Dunn, Robert (2006). 300 Astronomical Objects: A Visual Reference to the Universe. Buffalo, New York: Firefly Books. ISBN 978-1-55407-175-3. 
  60. ^ Levy 2005, p. 125.
  61. ^ a b Levy 2005, p. 124.
  62. ^ Pollacco, D. L.; Bell, S. A. (1994). "A preliminary analysis of the planetary nebula central star V477 Lyrae". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 267 (2): 452–464. Bibcode:1994MNRAS.267..452P. 
  63. ^ Corradi, Romano L. M.; García-Rojas, Jorge; Jones, David; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo (2015). "BINARITY AND THE ABUNDANCE DISCREPANCY PROBLEM IN PLANETARY NEBULAE". The Astrophysical Journal 803 (2): 99. Bibcode:2015ApJ...803...99C. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/803/2/99. 
  64. ^ Klotz, A.; Boër, M.; Atteia, J. L.; Stratta, G.; Behrend, R.; Malacrino, F.; Damerdji, Y. (2005). "Early re-brightening of the afterglow of GRB 050525a". Astronomy and Astrophysics 439 (3): L35–L38. Bibcode:2005A&A...439L..35K. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200500153. 
  65. ^ Resmi, L.; Misra, K.; Jóhannesson, G.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Jelínek, M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Kubánek, P.; Anupama, G. C.; Sota, A.; Sahu, D. K.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Pandey, S. B.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Bremer, M.; Sagar, R. (2012). "Comprehensive multiwavelength modelling of the afterglow of GRB 050525A". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 427 (1): 288–297. Bibcode:2012MNRAS.427..288R. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21713.x. 
  66. ^ Della Valle, M.; Malesani, D.; Bloom, J. S.; Benetti, S.; Chincarini, G.; D'Avanzo, P.; Foley, R. J.; Covino, S.; Melandri, A.; Piranomonte, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Stella, L.; Gilmozzi, R.; Antonelli, L. A.; Campana, S.; Chen, H.-W.; Filliatre, P.; Fiore, F.; Fugazza, D.; Gehrels, N.; Hurley, K.; Mirabel, I. F.; Pellizza, L. J.; Piro, L.; Prochaska, J. X. (2006). "Hypernova Signatures in the Late Rebrightening of GRB 050525A". The Astrophysical Journal 642 (2): L103–L106. Bibcode:2006ApJ...642L.103D. doi:10.1086/504636. 
  67. ^ Zinn, P.-C.; Grunden, P.; Bomans, D. J. (2011). "Supernovae without host galaxies?". Astronomy & Astrophysics 536: A103. Bibcode:2011A&A...536A.103Z. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201117631. 
  68. ^ Heng, Kevin; Lazzati, Davide; Perna, Rosalba; Garnavich, Peter; Noriega‐Crespo, Alberto; Bersier, David; Matheson, Thomas; Pahre, Michael (2008). "A Direct Measurement of the Dust Extinction Curve in an Intermediate‐Redshift Galaxy". The Astrophysical Journal 681 (2): 1116–1122. Bibcode:2008ApJ...681.1116H. doi:10.1086/588279. 
  69. ^ Vogt, Steven S.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Butler, R. Paul; Apps, Kevin (2000). "Six New Planets from the Keck Precision Velocity Survey". The Astrophysical Journal 536 (2): 902–914. Bibcode:2000ApJ...536..902V. doi:10.1086/308981. 
  70. ^ Meschiari, Stefano; Laughlin, Gregory; Vogt, Steven S.; Butler, R. Paul; Rivera, Eugenio J.; Haghighipour, Nader; Jalowiczor, Peter (2011). "THE LICK-CARNEGIE SURVEY: FOUR NEW EXOPLANET CANDIDATES". The Astrophysical Journal 727 (2): 117. Bibcode:2011ApJ...727..117M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/727/2/117. 
  71. ^ Liu, Yu-Juan; Sato, Bun'ei; Zhao, Gang; Ando, Hiroyasu (2009). "A planetary companion orbiting the intermediate-mass G Giant HD 173416". Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics 9 (1): 1–4. Bibcode:2009RAA.....9....1L. doi:10.1088/1674-4527/9/1/001. 
  72. ^ Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Lane, Benjamin F.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Konacki, Maciej; Burke, Bernard F.; Colavita, M. M.; Shao, M.; Hartkopf, William I.; Boss, Alan P.; Williamson, M. (2010). "THE PHASES DIFFERENTIAL ASTROMETRY DATA ARCHIVE. V. CANDIDATE SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO BINARY SYSTEMS". The Astronomical Journal 140 (6): 1657–1671. Bibcode:2010AJ....140.1657M. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/140/6/1657. 
  73. ^ Zucker, S.; Naef, D.; Latham, D. W.; Mayor, M.; Mazeh, T.; Beuzit, J. L.; Drukier, G.; Perrier‐Bellet, C.; Queloz, D.; Sivan, J. P.; Torres, G.; Udry, S. (2002). "A Planet Candidate in the Stellar Triple System HD 178911". The Astrophysical Journal 568 (1): 363–368. Bibcode:2002ApJ...568..363Z. doi:10.1086/338892. 
  74. ^ Alonso, Roi; Brown, Timothy M.; Torres, Guillermo; Latham, David W.; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Mandushev, Georgi; Belmonte, Juan A.; Charbonneau, David; Deeg, Hans J.; Dunham, Edward W.; O'Donovan, Francis T.; Stefanik, Robert P. (2004). "TrES-1: The Transiting Planet of a Bright K0 V Star". The Astrophysical Journal 613 (2): L153–L156. Bibcode:2004ApJ...613L.153A. doi:10.1086/425256. 
  75. ^ Dittmann, Jason A.; Close, Laird M.; Green, Elizabeth M.; Fenwick, Mike (2009). "A TENTATIVE DETECTION OF A STARSPOT DURING CONSECUTIVE TRANSITS OF AN EXTRASOLAR PLANET FROM THE GROUND: NO EVIDENCE OF A DOUBLE TRANSITING PLANET SYSTEM AROUND TrES-1". The Astrophysical Journal 701 (1): 756–763. Bibcode:2009ApJ...701..756D. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/701/1/756. 
  76. ^ Pollacco, D.; Skillen, I.; Collier Cameron, A.; Loeillet, B.; Stempels, H. C.; Bouchy, F.; Gibson, N. P.; Hebb, L.; Hébrard, G.; Joshi, Y. C.; McDonald, I.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Street, R. A.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.; Wilson, D. M.; Wheatley, P. J.; Aigrain, S.; Alsubai, K.; Benn, C. R.; Bruce, V. A.; Christian, D. J.; Clarkson, W. I.; Enoch, B.; Evans, A.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Haswell, C. A.; Hellier, C.; Hickey, S.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Horne, K.; Hrudková, M.; Irwin, J.; Kane, S. R.; Keenan, F. P.; Lister, T. A.; Maxted, P.; Mayor, M.; Moutou, C.; Norton, A. J.; Osborne, J. P.; Parley, N.; Pont, F.; Queloz, D.; Ryans, R.; Simpson, E. (2008). "WASP-3b: a strongly irradiated transiting gas-giant planet". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 385 (3): 1576–1584. Bibcode:2008MNRAS.385.1576P. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.12939.x. 
  77. ^ Maciejewski, G.; Niedzielski, A.; Wolszczan, A.; Nowak, G.; Neuhäuser, R.; Winn, J. N.; Deka, B.; Adamów, M.; Górecka, M.; Fernández, M.; Aceituno, F. J.; Ohlert, J.; Errmann, R.; Seeliger, M.; Dimitrov, D.; Latham, D. W.; Esquerdo, G. A.; McKnight, L.; Holman, M. J.; Jensen, E. L. N.; Kramm, U.; Pribulla, T.; Raetz, St.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Ginski, Ch.; Mottola, S.; Hellmich, S.; Adam, Ch.; Gilbert, H.; Mugrauer, M.; Saral, G.; Popov, V.; Raetz, M. (2013). "CONSTRAINTS ON A SECOND PLANET IN THE WASP-3 SYSTEM". The Astronomical Journal 146 (6): 147. Bibcode:2013AJ....146..147M. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/146/6/147. 
  78. ^ Latham, David W.; Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Brown, Timothy M.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Cochran, William D.; Dunham, Edward W.; Fűrész, Gabor; Gautier, Thomas N.; Geary, John C.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Howell, Steve B.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Monet, David G.; Rowe, Jason F.; Sasselov, Dimitar D. (2010). "KEPLER-7b: A TRANSITING PLANET WITH UNUSUALLY LOW DENSITY". The Astrophysical Journal 713 (2): L140–L144. Bibcode:2010ApJ...713L.140L. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/713/2/L140. 
  79. ^ Jenkins, Jon M.; Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Cochran, William D.; Welsh, William F.; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie M.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Brown, Timothy M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Dunham, Edward W.; Endl, Michael; Fischer, Debra A.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Geary, John C.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Howell, Steve B.; Isaacson, Howard; Johnson, John Asher; Latham, David W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Monet, David G.; Rowe, Jason F.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Howard, Andrew W.; MacQueen, Phillip; Orosz, Jerome A.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Twicken, Joseph D.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Li, Jie; Allen, Christopher; Tenenbaum, Peter; Wu, Hayley; Meibom, Søren; Klaus, Todd C.; Middour, Christopher K.; Cote, Miles T.; McCauliff, Sean; Girouard, Forrest R.; Gunter, Jay P.; Wohler, Bill; Hall, Jennifer R.; Ibrahim, Khadeejah; Kamal Uddin, AKM; Wu, Michael S.; Bhavsar, Paresh A.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Pletcher, David L.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Haas, Michael R. (2010). "DISCOVERY AND ROSSITER-McLAUGHLIN EFFECT OF EXOPLANET KEPLER-8b". The Astrophysical Journal 724 (2): 1108–1119. Bibcode:2010ApJ...724.1108J. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/724/2/1108. 
  80. ^ Gautier, Thomas N.; Charbonneau, David; Rowe, Jason F.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, Francois; Rogers, Leslie A.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Buchhave, Lars A.; Latham, David W.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Ciardi, David R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Fischer, Debra A.; Howell, Steve B.; Horch, Elliott P.; Barclay, Thomas; Batalha, Natalie; Borucki, William J.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Geary, John C.; Henze, Christopher E.; Holman, Matthew J.; Ibrahim, Khadeejah; Jenkins, Jon M.; Kinemuchi, Karen; Koch, David G.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Sanderfer, Dwight T.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Seager, Sara; Silverio, Kathryn; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Still, Martin; Stumpe, Martin C.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Van Cleve, Jeffrey (2012). "KEPLER-20: A SUN-LIKE STAR WITH THREE SUB-NEPTUNE EXOPLANETS AND TWO EARTH-SIZE CANDIDATES". The Astrophysical Journal 749 (1): 15. Bibcode:2012ApJ...749...15G. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/749/1/15. 
  81. ^ Fressin, Francois; Torres, Guillermo; Rowe, Jason F.; Charbonneau, David; Rogers, Leslie A.; Ballard, Sarah; Batalha, Natalie M.; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Ciardi, David R.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Dressing, Courtney D.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Gautier III, Thomas N.; Henze, Christopher E.; Holman, Matthew J.; Howard, Andrew; Howell, Steve B.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Koch, David G.; Latham, David W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Ragozzine, Darin; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Seager, Sara; Barclay, Thomas; Mullally, Fergal; Seader, Shawn E.; Still, Martin; Twicken, Joseph D.; Thompson, Susan E.; Uddin, Kamal (2011). "Two Earth-sized planets orbiting Kepler-20". Nature 482 (7384): 195–198. Bibcode:2012Natur.482..195F. doi:10.1038/nature10780. 
  82. ^ Grant, Andrew (18 April 2013). "Most Earthlike planets yet seen bring Kepler closer to its holy grail". Retrieved 19 April 2013. 

Coordinates: Sky map 19h 00m 00s, +40° 00′ 00″