Métis in Canada
1.7% of the Canadian population
(including persons of partial Métis parentage)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Christian (Predominantly Roman Catholic), mixed with traditional beliefs|
|Related ethnic groups|
The Métis in Canada (//; Canadian French: [meˈt͡sɪs]; European French: [meˈtis]; Michif: [mɪˈtʃɪf]) are a group of peoples in Canada who trace their descent to First Nations peoples and European settlers. They are recognized as one of Canada's aboriginal peoples under the Constitution Act of 1982, along with First Nations and Inuit peoples. As of 2011, they number over 451,797. Métis in Canada represent the majority of those identifying as Métis (smaller communities also exist in the United States).
While the Métis initially developed as the mixed-race descendants of early unions between First Nations people and colonial-era European settlers (usually indigenous women and settler men), within generations (particularly in central and western Canada), a distinct Métis culture developed. The early mothers were usually Wabanaki, Algonquin, Saulteaux, Cree, Ojibwe, Menominee, or of mixed descent from these peoples. Their unions with European men were often of the type known as Marriage à la façon du pays ("according to the custom of the country").
After New France was ceded to Great Britain's control, there was an important distinction between French Métis born of francophone voyageur fathers, and the Anglo-Métis (known as "countryborn") descended from English or Scottish fathers. Today these two cultures have essentially coalesced into one Métis tradition, which does not preclude a range of other Métis cultural expressions across Canada. Such mixed-race people were historically referred to by other terms, many of which are now considered to be offensive, such as Mixed-bloods, Half-breeds, Bois-Brûlés, Bungi, Black Scots, and Jackatars. However, the contemporary Métis are a specific indigenous people and culture; the term does not apply to every person of "mixed" heritage or ancestry.
While people of Métis culture or heritage are found across Canada, in the more restrictive sense, the traditional Métis "homeland" includes much of the Canadian Prairies centering on southern and central parts of Manitoba. Closely related are the Métis in the United States, primarily those in border areas like northern Michigan, the Red River Valley, and eastern Montana. These were areas in which there was considerable Aboriginal and European mixing due to the 19th-century fur trade.
- 1 Self-identity and legal status
- 2 History
- 3 The Métis Settlements of Alberta – a Distinct Métis Identity
- 4 Culture
- 5 Distribution
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Self-identity and legal status
In 2011, 451,795 people in Canada identified as Métis. They represented 32.3% of the total Aboriginal population and 1.4% of the total Canadian population. Most Métis people today are not the direct result of intermarriage between First Nations and Europeans. The vast majority of those who identify as Métis are the descendants of unions between generations of Métis individuals.
Over the past century, countless Métis have assimilated into the general European Canadian populations, making Métis heritage (and thereby Aboriginal ancestry) more common than is generally realized. Geneticists estimate that 50 percent of today's population in Western Canada have some Aboriginal blood. They could be classified as Métis by any genetic measure but most are not part of its ethnic culture. Unlike First Nations peoples, there is no distinction between "status" and "non-status" Métis. In 2003, the Supreme Court of Canada define Métis as someone who self-identifies as Métis, has an ancestral connection to the historic Métis community, and is accepted by the modern community with continuity to the historic Metis community.
Historical view of identity
The most well-known and historically documented mixed-ancestry population in Canadian history are the groups who developed during the fur trade in south-eastern Rupert's Land, primarily in the Red River Settlement (now Manitoba) and the Southbranch Settlements (Saskatchewan). In the late nineteenth century, they organized politically (led by men who had European educations) and had confrontations with the Canadian government. This was not the only place where métissage (mixing) between European and Indigenous people occurred. It was part of the history of colonization from the earliest days of settlements on the Atlantic Coast throughout the Americas.:2, 5 The strong sense of ethnic national identity among the mostly French- and Michif-speaking Métis along the Red River, demonstrated during the Riel Rebellions, resulted in wider use of the term "Métis" as the main word used by Canadians for all mixed Euro-Native groups.
Continued organizing and political activity resulted in "the Métis" gaining official recognition from the national government as one of the recognized Aboriginal groups in S.35 of the Constitution Act, 1982, which states:
35. (1) The existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the Aboriginal People of Canada are hereby recognized and affirmed.
- (2) In this Act, "Aboriginal Peoples of Canada" includes the Indian, Inuit, and Métis Peoples of Canada.
- ...— Constitution Act, 1982
Section-35(2) does not define criteria for an individual who is Métis. This has left open the question of whether "Métis" in this context should apply only to the descendants of the Red River Métis or to all mixed-ancestry groups and individuals. Many members of First Nations may have mixed ancestry, but identify primarily by the tribal nation, rather than as Métis. Since passage of the 1982 act, many groups in Canada who are not related to the Red River Métis have adopted the word "Métis" as a descriptor.:7
Lack of a legal definition
It is not clear who has the moral and legal authority to define the word "Métis". There is no comprehensive legal definition of Métis status in Canada; this is in contrast to the Indian Act which creates an Indian Register for all (Status) First Nations people. Some commentators have argued that one of the rights of an indigenous people is to define its own identity, precluding the need for a government-sanctioned definition.:9–10 The question is open as to who should receive Aboriginal rights flowing from Métis identity. No federal legislation defines the Métis.
Alberta is the only province to have defined the term in law. The Métis Settlements Act defines a Métis as "a person of Aboriginal ancestry who identifies with Métis history and culture" in the context of creating a test for legal eligibility for membership in one of Alberta's eight Métis settlements. This test excludes people who are Status Indians (that is, a member of a First Nation), an exclusion which was upheld by the Supreme Court in Alberta v. Cunningham (2011).:10–11
The number of people self-identifying as Métis has risen sharply since the late 20th century: between 1996 and 2006, the population of Canadians who self-identify as Métis nearly doubled to approximately 390,000.:2 Until R v. Powley (2003), there was no legal definition of Métis. The case involved a claim by Steven Powley and his son Rodney, two members of the Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario Métis community, who were asserting Métis hunting rights. The Supreme Court of Canada outlined three broad factors to identify Métis who have rights as Aboriginal peoples:
- self-identification as a Métis individual;
- ancestral connection to an historic Métis community; and
- acceptance by a Métis community.
All three factors must be present for an individual to qualify under the legal definition of Métis. In addition, the court stated that
[t]he term Métis in s. 35 does not encompass all individuals with mixed Indian and European heritage; rather, it refers to distinctive peoples who, in addition to their mixed ancestry, developed their own customs, ways of life, and recognizable group identity separate from their Indian or Inuit and European forebears.:9 The court was explicit that its ten-point test is not a comprehensive definition of Métis.
Questions remain as to whether Métis have treaty rights; this is an explosive issue in the Canadian Aboriginal community today. Some say that as only First Nations could legitimately sign treaties with the government so, by definition, Métis have no Treaty rights. One treaty names Metis in the title: the Halfbreed (Métis in the French version) Adhesion to Treaty 3. Another, the Robinson Superior Treaty of 1850, listed 84 persons classified as "half-breeds" in the Treaty, so included them and their descendants. Hundreds, if not thousands, of Métis were initially included in a number of other treaties, and then excluded under later amendments to the Indian Act.
Definitions used by Métis organizations
Two main groups claim to speak for the Métis in Canada: the Congress of Aboriginal Peoples (CAP) and the Métis National Council (MNC). Each uses different approaches to define Métis individuals. The CAP, which has nine regional affiliates, represents all Aboriginal people who are not part of the reserve system, including Métis and non-Status Indians. It does not define Métis and uses a broad conception based on self-identification.
The MNC broke away from the CAP's predecessor in 1983 because, it says "[i]ts pan-Aboriginal approach to issues did not allow the Métis Nation to effectively represent itself".:11 MNC views the Métis as a single nation with a common history and culture centred on the fur trade of "west central North America" in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
In 2003 the MNC, which has five provincial affiliates, adopted its own "Definition of Métis" as follows:
Métis means a person who self-identifies as a Métis, is distinct from other aboriginal peoples, is of historic Métis Nation ancestry, and is accepted by the Métis Nation.
Besides these two national umbrella groups, several local, independent Métis organizations have been founded in Canada. In Northern Canada neither the CAP nor the MNC have affiliates; here local Métis organizations deal directly with the federal government and are part of the Aboriginal land claims process. Three of the comprehensive settlements (modern treaties) in force in the Northwest Territories include benefits for Métis people who can prove local Aboriginal ancestry prior to 1921 (Treaty 11).:13
Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, the relevant federal ministry, deals with both the CAP and the MNC; it does not support a particular definition of Métis. It has begun to work with the provincial member organizations of the MNC to help build up a registry of their members.:12
In response to the Powley ruling, Métis organizations have begun issuing Métis identification cards to their members, similar to the Status cards used by Registered Indians. Several organizations are registered with the Canadian government to provide Métis cards. The criteria to receive a card and the rights associated with the card vary with each organization. For example, for membership in the Métis Nation of Alberta, an applicant must provide a documented genealogy and family tree dating to the mid 1800s, proving descent from one or more members of historic Métis groups. The Canadian Métis Council will accept persons of mixed blood (European/Aboriginal blood (Indian ancestry)) and that is distinct from Indian and Inuit, and has genealogical ties to Aboriginal ancestry.
The Métis Nation of Ontario requires that successful applicants for what it calls "citizenship", must "see themselves and identify themselves as distinctly Métis. This requires that individuals make a positive choice to be culturally and identifiably Métis". They note that "an individual is not Métis simply because he or she has some Aboriginal ancestry, but does not have Indian or Inuit status". It also requires proof of Métis ancestry: "This requires a genealogical connection to a 'Métis ancestor' – not an Indian or aboriginal ancestor".
Cultural definitions of Métis identity informs legal and political ones.
The 1996 Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples stated:
Many Canadians have mixed Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal ancestry, but that does not make them Métis or even Aboriginal ... What distinguishes Métis people from everyone else is that they associate themselves with a culture that is distinctly Métis.:12
Traditional markers of Métis culture include use of creole Aboriginal-European languages, such as Michif (French-Cree-Dene) and Bungi (Cree-Ojibwa-English); distinctive clothing, such as the arrow sash (ceinture flêchée); and a rich repertoire of fiddle music, jigs and square dances, and practicing a traditional economy based on hunting, trapping, and gathering. But, there is increasing recognition that not all Métis hunted, or wore the sash, or spoke a creole language.:14–15 The term métis is a French adjective meaning "mixed" and in its larger sense applies to all persons of mixed Euro-Indigenous heritage, the noun Métis is specific to the people on the Métis Nation.
During the height of the North American fur trade from 1650 onward, many French Canadian and British fur traders married First Nations and Inuit women, mainly First Nations Cree, Ojibwa, or Saulteaux located in the Great Lakes area and to the west. The majority of these fur traders were French and Scottish; the French were Catholic. These marriages are commonly referred to as marriage à la façon du pays or marriage according to the "custom of the country." Their children often grew up primarily in their mothers' cultures but were often also introduced to Catholicism and indigenous belief systems. In many cases, as the fur traders lived with the native women at the location of their tribes, the children grew up in primarily First Nations societies.
But, as more Métis lived in communities with a fur trapping tradition, they created a new distinct Aboriginal people in North America. First Nations women were the link between cultures; they provided companionship for the fur traders, introductions to their people and culture, and also aided in their survival. First Nations women were able to translate the native languages, sewed new clothing for their husbands, and generally were involved in resolving any cultural issues that arose. The First Peoples had survived in the west for thousands of years, so the fur traders benefited greatly from their First Nations wives' knowledge of the land and its resources. Métis people were thought of as the bond between the Europeans and First Nations and Inuit peoples of Canada. As adults, the men often worked as interpreters as well as fur trappers in their turn.
According to historian Jacob A. Schooley, the Métis developed over at least two generations and with different classes. In the first stage, "servant" (employee) traders of the fur trade companies, known as wintering partners, would stay for the season with First Nations bands, and make a "country marriage" with a high-status native woman. This woman and her children would move to live in the vicinity of a trading post, becoming "House Indians" (as they were called by the company men). House Indians eventually formed distinct bands. Children raised within these "House Indian" bands often became employees of the companies in turn. (Foster cites the legendary York boat captain Paulet Paul as an example). Eventually this second-generation group ended employment with the company and became "freemen" traders and trappers. They lived with their families raising children in a distinct culture that valued free trading and the buffalo hunt in particular. He considered that the third generation, who were sometimes Métis on both sides, were the first true Métis. He suggests that in the Red River region, many "House Indians" (and even some non-"House" First Nations) were assimilated into Métis culture due to the Catholic church's strong presence in that region. In the Fort Edmonton region, many House Indians never adopted a Métis identity but continued to identify primarily as "Cree" and so on.
The Métis played a vital role in the success of the western fur trade. They were skilled hunters and trappers, and were raised to appreciate both Aboriginal and European cultures. Métis understanding of both societies and customs helped bridge cultural gaps, resulting in better trading relationships. The Hudson's Bay Company discouraged unions between their fur traders and First Nations and Inuit women, while the North West Company (the English-speaking Quebec-based fur trading company) supported such marriages. Trappers typically took First Nations women as wives, too, and operated outside company strictures. The Métis were respected as valuable employees of both fur trade companies, due to their skills as voyageurs, buffalo hunters, and interpreters, and their knowledge of the lands.
In 1812, many immigrants (mainly Scottish farmers) moved to the Red River Valley in present-day Manitoba. The Hudson's Bay Company, which nominally owned the territory then called Rupert's Land, assigned plots of land to the settlers. The allocation of Red River land caused conflict with those already living in the area as well as with the North West Company, whose trade routes had been cut in half. Many Métis were working as fur traders with both the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company. Others were working as free traders, or buffalo hunters supplying pemmican to the fur trade. The buffalo were declining in number, and the Métis and First Nations had to go farther and farther west to hunt them. Profits from the fur trade were declining because a reduction in European demand due to changing tastes, as well as the need for the Hudson's Bay Company to extend its reach farther from its main posts to get furs.
Most references to the Métis in the 19th century applied to the Plains Métis, particularly the Red River Métis. But, the Plains Métis tended to identify by occupational categories: buffalo hunters, and pemmican and fur traders, and "tripmen" in the York boat fur brigades among the men; and moccasin sewers and cooks among the women. The largest community in Assiniboine-Red River district had a different lifestyle and culture from those located in the Saskatchewan, Athabasca, and Peace river valleys to the west.
The Government of Canada exerted its power over the people living in Rupert's Land after it acquired the land in the mid-19th century from the Hudson's Bay Company. The Métis and the Anglo-Métis (commonly known as Countryborn, children of First Nations women and Orcadian, Scottish or English men), joined forces to stand up for their rights. They wanted to protect their traditional way of life against an aggressive and distant Anglo-Canadian government and its local colonizing agents. During this time the Canadian government signed treaties (known as the "Numbered Treaties") with various First Nations. These Nations ceded property rights to almost the entire western plains to the Government of Canada. In return for their ceding traditional lands, the Canadian government promised food, education, medical help, and other kinds of support. While the Métis generally did not sign any treaty as a group, they were sometimes included, even listed as "half-breeds" in some records.
Louis Riel, well educated in Eastern schools, was the son of one leader and became a leader himself of the Métis in the Red River area. He denounced the government in a speech delivered in late August 1869 from the steps of Saint Boniface Cathedral. The Métis became more fearful when the Canadian government appointed the notoriously anti-French William McDougall as the Lieutenant Governor of the Northwest Territories on September 28, 1869, in anticipation of a formal transfer of lands to take effect in December. The Red River Rebellion of 1869 broke out. Riel executed a dissident Protestant, an act that haunted the rest of his career. The government compromised, resulting in the Manitoba Act and that province's entry into the Canadian Confederation. Due to the execution Riel was charged and fled to the United States in exile.
In March 1885, the Métis heard that a contingent of 500 North-West Mounted Police was heading west. They organized using their traditional organizations and formed the Provisional Government of Saskatchewan, with Pierre Parenteau as President and Gabriel Dumont as adjutant-general. Riel took charge of a few hundred armed men. They suffered defeat by Canadian armed forces in a conflict known as the North West Rebellion, which occurred in northern Saskatchewan from March 26 to May 12, 1885. Gabriel Dumont fled to the United States, while Riel, Poundmaker and Big Bear surrendered. Big Bear and Poundmaker each were convicted and received a three-year sentence. On July 6, 1885, Riel was convicted of high treason and was sentenced to hang. Riel appealed but he was executed on November 16, 1885.
During the 1930s, political activism arose in Métis communities in Alberta and Saskatchewan over land rights, and some filed land claims for the return of certain lands. Five men, sometimes dubbed "The Famous Five", (James P. Brady, Malcolm Norris, Peter Tomkins Jr., Joe Dion, Felix Callihoo) were instrumental in having the Alberta government form the 1934 "Ewing Commission", headed by Albert Ewing, to deal with land claims. The Alberta government passed the Métis Population Betterment Act in 1938. The act provided funding and land to the Métis. (The provincial government later rescinded portions of the land in certain areas.)
The Métis Settlements of Alberta – a Distinct Métis Identity
- OUR PEOPLE, OUR LAND, OUR CULTURE, OUR FUTURE – Metis Settlements Motto
The Métis settlements in Alberta are the only recognized land base of Métis in Canada and are represented and governed collectively by a unique Métis government known as the Métis Settlements General Council (MSGC), also known as the "All-Council". The MSGC is the provincial, national, and international representative of the Federated Metis Settlements and holds fee simple land title via Letters Patents of 1.25 million acres of land, making the MSGC the largest land holder in the province other than the Crown in the Right of Alberta. The MSGC is the only recognized Metis Governerment in Canada with prescribed land, power, and jurisdiction via the Metis Settlements Act (legislation arising from legal action taken up by the Metis Settlemetns against the Crown in the 1970’s). The Métis Settlements consist of predominantly Indigenous Métis populations native to Northern Alberta – unique from those of the Red River, the Great Lakes, and other migrant Métis from further east. However, following the Riel and Dumont Resistances some Red-River Métis fled westward, marrying into the contemporary Métis Settlement populations during the end of the 19th century and into the early 20th century. Historically referred to as the "Nomadic Half-breeds", the Métis of Northern Alberta have a unique history and their fight for land is still evident today with the eight contemporary Métis settlements.
During the 1930s, political activism arose in Métis communities in Alberta and Saskatchewan over land rights, and some filed land claims for the return of certain lands.
Following the formal establishment of the Métis Settlements, then called Half-Breed Colonies, in the 1930's by distinct Métis political organization, the Metis populations in Northern Alberta would become the only Metis to secure collectively-held Metis lands. During renewed Indigenous activism during the 1960s into the 1970s, political organizations were formed or revived among the Métis. In Alberta, the Métis Settlements united as: The "Alberta Federation of Métis Settlement Associations" in the mid-1970s. Today, the Federation is represented by the Métis Settlements General Council. During the constitutional talks of 1982, the Métis were recognized as one of the three Aboriginal peoples of Canada, in part by the Federation of Metis Settlements. In 1990, the Alberta government, following years of conferences and negotiations between the Federation of Métis Settlements (FMS) and the Crown in the Right of Alberta, restored land titles to the northern Métis communities through the "Métis Settlement Act", replacing the Métis Betterment Act. Originally the first Métis settlements in Alberta were called colonies and consisted of:
- Buffalo Lake (Caslan) or Beaver River
- Cold Lake
- East Prairie (south of Lesser Slave Lake)
- Elizabeth (east of Elk Point)
- Fishing Lake (Packechawanis)
- Gift Lake (Ma-cha-cho-wi-se) or Utikuma Lake
- Goodfish Lake
- Paddle Prairie (or Keg River)
- Peavine (Big Prairie, north of High Prairie)
- Wolf Lake (north of Bonnyville)
In the 1960s, the settlements of Marlboro, Touchwood, Cold Lake, and Wolf Lake were dissolved by Order-and-Council by the Alberta Government and the remaining Metis Settlers were forced to move into one of the eight remaining Metis Settlements – leaving the 8 contemporary Métis Settlements.
The position of Federal Interlocutor for Métis and Non-Status Indians was created in 1985 as a portfolio in the Canadian Cabinet. The Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development is officially responsible only for Status Indians and largely with those living on Indian reserves. The new position was created in order provide a liaison between the federal government and Métis and non-status Aboriginal peoples, urban Aboriginals, and their representatives.
The Provisional Government of Saskatchewan was the name given by Louis Riel to the independent state he declared during the North-West Rebellion of 1885 in what is today the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The governing council was named the Exovedate, Latin for "of the flock". The council debated issues ranging from military policy to local bylaws and theological issues. It met at Batoche, Saskatchewan, and exercised real authority only over the Southbranch Settlement. The provisional government collapsed that year after the Battle of Batoche.
The Métis National Council was formed in 1983, following the recognition of the Métis as an Aboriginal Peoples in Canada, in Section Thirty-five of the Constitution Act, 1982. The Métis National Council is composed of five provincial Métis organizations, namely,
- Métis Nation British Columbia
- Métis Nation of Alberta
- Métis Nation-Saskatchewan
- Manitoba Métis Federation
- Métis Nation of Ontario
The Métis people hold province-wide ballot box elections for political positions in these associations, held at regular intervals, for regional and provincial leadership. Métis citizens and their communities are represented and participate in these Métis governance structures by way of elected Locals or Community Councils, as well as provincial assemblies held annually.
The Congress of Aboriginal Peoples (CAP) and its nine regional affiliates represent all Aboriginal people who are not part of the reserve system, including Métis and non-Status Indians.
Due to differences, the Métis Nation of Canada was founded on January 21, 2009, by Bryce Fequet. The Métis Nation of Canada states that it "is a 'National' organization with a growing membership from all regions of Canada and is the 'national representative' of its members". They are not affiliated with the Métis National Council.
Due to political differences to the MNBC, a separate Métis organization in British Columbia was formed in June 2011; it is called the British Columbia Métis Federation (BCMF). They have no affiliation with the Métis National Council and have not been officially recognized by the government.
The Canadian Métis Council–Intertribal is based in New Brunswick and is not affiliated with the Métis National Council.
The Ontario Métis Aboriginal Association–Woodland Métis is based in Ontario and is not affiliated with the Métis National Council. Its representatives think the MNC is too focused on the Métis of the prairies.
The Nation Métis Québec is not affiliated with the Métis National Council.
None of these claim to represent all Métis. Other Métis registry groups also focus on recognition and protection of their culture and heritage. They reflect their communities' particular extensive kinship ties and culture that resulted from settlement in historic villages along the fur trade.
A majority of the Métis once spoke, and many still speak, either Métis French or an indigenous language such as Mi'kmaq, Cree, Anishinaabemowin, Denésoliné, etc. A few in some regions spoke a creole or mixed language called Michif. Michif, Mechif or Métchif is a phonetic spelling of the Métis pronunciation of Métif, a variant of Métis. The Métis today predominantly speak French, with English a strong second language, as well as numerous Aboriginal tongues. Métis French is best preserved in Canada.
Michif is most used in the United States, notably in the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation of North Dakota. There Michif is the official language of the Métis who reside on this Chippewa (Ojibwe) reservation. After years of decline in use of these languages, the provincial Métis councils are encouraging their revival, teaching in schools and use in communities. The encouragement and use of Métis French and Michif is growing due to outreach after at least a generation of decline.
The 19th-century community of Anglo-Métis, more commonly known as Countryborn, were children of people in the Rupert's Land fur trade; they were typically of Orcadian, Scottish, or English paternal descent and Aboriginal maternal descent. Their first languages would have been Aboriginal (Cree language, Saulteaux language, Assiniboine language, etc.) and English. The Gaelic and Scots spoken by Scots and Orcadians became part of the creole language referred to as "Bungee".
The Métis flag is one of the oldest patriotic flags originating in Canada. The Métis have two flags. Both flags use the same design of a central infinity symbol, but are different colours. The red flag was the first flag used. It is currently the oldest flag made in Canada that is still in use. The first red flag was given to Cuthbert Grant in 1815 by the North-West Company. The red flag was also used at the Battle of Seven Oaks, "La Grnoullière" in 1816. Contrary to popular beliefs the red and blue are not cultural or linguistique identifiers and do not represent the companies. 
Distinction of lower-case m versus upper-case M
The term Métis was originally used simply to refer to mixed-race children of the union of Frenchmen (Europeans) and Native women. The first records of "Métis" were made by 1600 on the East Coast of Canada (Acadia), where French exploration and settlement started.
As French Canadians followed the fur trade to the west, they made more unions with different First Nations women, including the Cree. Descendants of English or Scottish and natives were historically called "half-breeds" or "country born". They sometimes adopted a more agrarian culture of subsistence farming and tended to be reared in Protestant denominations. The term eventually evolved to refer to all 'half-breeds' or persons of mixed First Nations-European ancestry, whether descended from the historic Red River Métis or not.
Lower case 'm' métis refers to those who are of mixed native and other ancestry, recognizing the many people of varied racial ancestry. Capital 'M' Métis refers to a particular sociocultural heritage and an ethnic self-identification that is based on more than racial classification. Some argue that people who identify as métis should not be included in the definition of 'Métis'. Others view this distinction as recent, artificial, and offensive, criticized for creating from what are newly imagined and neatly defined ethnological boundaries, justification to exclude "other Métis".
Some Métis have proposed that only the descendants of the Red River Métis should be constitutionally recognized, as they had developed the most distinct culture as a people in historic times. Such a limitation would result in excluding some of the Maritime, Quebec, and Ontario Métis, classifying them simply by the lower case m métis status. In a recent decision (Daniels v Canada (Indian Affairs and Northern Development) 2016 SCC 12), the Supreme Court of Canada has rejected such homogenizing and essentializing definition of Métis identity based on a narrow nationalistic interpretation of Métis identity, recognizing the diversity of Métis communities across Canada, including the existence of Métis communities in Nova Scotia at para 17:
 There is no consensus on who is considered Métis or a non-status Indian, nor need there be. Cultural and ethnic labels do not lend themselves to neat boundaries. ‘Métis’ can refer to the historic Métis community in Manitoba’s Red River Settlement or it can be used as a general term for anyone with mixed European and Aboriginal heritage. Some mixed-ancestry communities identify as Métis, others as Indian:
- There is no one exclusive Metis People in Canada, anymore than there is no one exclusive Indian people in Canada. The Metis of eastern Canada and northern Canada are as distinct from Red River Metis as any two peoples can be ... As early as 1650, a distinct Metis community developed in LeHeve [sic], Nova Scotia, separate from Acadians and Micmac Indians. All Metis are aboriginal people. All have Indian ancestry.:12
According to the 2006 census in Canada, a total of 389,780 individuals identified as Métis. Alberta had the largest Métis population among the provinces and territories, with 85,495 self-identifying as Métis; of these 7,990 are members of one of Alberta's unique Métis settlements.
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The Numbered Treaties—also called the Land Cession or Post-Confederation Treaties—were signed between 1871 and 1921, and granted the federal government large tracts of land throughout the Prairies, Canadian North and Northwestern Ontario for white settlement and industrial use. In exchange for the land, Canada promised to give the Aboriginal peoples various items: cash, blankets, tools, farming supplies, and so on. The disruptive effects of these treaties can be still felt in modern times.
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- Barkwell, Lawrence J., Leah Dorion, and Audreen Hourie. Métis legacy Michif culture, heritage, and folkways. Métis legacy series, v. 2. Saskatoon: Gabriel Dumont Institute, 2006. ISBN 0-920915-80-9
- Barkwell, Lawrence J. Women of the Métis Nation. Winnipeg: Louis Riel Institute, 2010. ISBN 978-0-9809912-5-3
- Barnholden, Michael. (2009). Circumstances Alter Photographs: Captain James Peters' Reports from the War of 1885. Vancouver, BC: Talonbooks. ISBN 978-0-88922-621-0.
- Dumont, Gabriel. GABRIEL DUMONT SPEAKS. Talonbooks, 2009. ISBN 978-0-88922-625-8.
- Hogue, Michel (2015). Métis and the Medicine Line: Creating a Border and Dividing a People. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
- Huel, Raymond Joseph Armand (1996), Proclaiming the Gospel to the Indians and the Métis, University of Alberta Press, ISBN 0-88864-267-9
- Martha Harroun, Foster (2006), We Know Who We Are: Métis Identity in a Montana Community, University of Oklahoma Press, ISBN 0806137053
- James Rodger Miller, "From Riel to the Métis" (2004). Reflections on Native-newcomer Relations: Selected Essays. University of Toronto Press. pp. 37–60., historiography
- Peterson, Jacqueline; Brown, Jennifer S.H. (2001), The New Peoples: Being and Becoming Métis in North America, Minnesota Historical Society Press, ISBN 0-87351-408-4
- Quan, Holly (2009), Native Chiefs and Famous Métis: Leadership and Bravery in the Canadian West, Heritage House, ISBN 978-1-894974-74-5
- Sprague, Douglas N (1988), Canada and the Métis, 1869–1885, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, ISBN 0-88920-958-8
- Wall, Denis (2008), The Alberta Métis letters, 1930–1940: policy review and annotations, DWRG Press, ISBN 978-0-9809026-2-4
- Sylvia Van Kirk (1983). Many Tender Ties: Women in Fur-Trade Society, 1670–1870. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-1847-5.
- Marcel, Giraud, Le Métis canadien / Marcel Giraud ; introduction du professeur J.E. Foster avec Louise Zuk (in French), Saint-Boniface, Man. : Éditions du Blé, 1984., ISBN 0920640451
- Canadian Métis
- Métis Are a People, Not a Historical Process. Métis voices, commissioned by the Canadian Encyclopedia.
- A History of Aboriginal Treaties and Relations in Canada. Site includes contextual materials, links to digitized primary sources and summaries of primary source documents.
- Métis Museum (Gabriel Dumont Institute)
- Milan Métis Healing Art Project—MMHAP
- Métis in the Courts. Site includes interviews with legal and history experts on Métis issues.