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This article is about the country in North America. For other uses, see Mexico (disambiguation).

Coordinates: 23°N 102°W / 23°N 102°W / 23; -102

United Mexican States
Estados Unidos Mexicanos
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: Himno Nacional Mexicano
(English: "Mexican National Anthem")

and largest city
Mexico City
19°26′N 99°08′W / 19.433°N 99.133°W / 19.433; -99.133
Official languages None at federal level
Recognised regional languages
National language Spanish[b]
Demonym Mexican
Government Federal presidential
constitutional republic[2]
 •  President Enrique Peña Nieto
 •  President of the Senate Roberto Gil Zuarth
 •  President of the Chamber of Deputies Jesús Zambrano Grijalva
Legislature Congress
 •  Upper house Senate
 •  Lower house Chamber of Deputies
Independence from Spain
 •  Declared September 16, 1810[3] 
 •  Consummated September 27, 1821 
 •  Recognized December 28, 1836 
 •  First constitution October 4, 1824 
 •  Second constitution February 5, 1857 
 •  Current constitution February 5, 1917 
 •  Total 1,972,550 km2 (14th)
761,606 sq mi
 •  Water (%) 2.5
 •  2015 estimate 119,530,753[4] (10th)
 •  Density 61/km2 (142nd)
157/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 •  Total $2.224 trillion[5] (11th)
 •  Per capita $18,857[5] (66th)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 •  Total $1.283 trillion[5] (15th)
 •  Per capita $10,174[5] (65th)
Gini (2012) 48.1[6]
HDI (2014) Increase 0.756[7]
high · 74th
Currency Peso (MXN)
Time zone See Time in Mexico (UTC−8 to −5)
 •  Summer (DST) varies (UTC−7 to −5)
Drives on the right
Calling code +52
ISO 3166 code MX
Internet TLD .mx
a. Article 4.° of the General Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Peoples.[8]
b. ^ Spanish is the de facto official language of the Mexican federal government.

Mexico (Spanish: México, pronounced: [ˈme.xi.ko]), officially the United Mexican States (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos, About this sound listen ),[9][10][11][12] is a country in the southern half of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico.[13] Covering almost two million square kilometers (over 760,000 sq mi),[12] Mexico is the sixth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent nation in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million,[14] it is the eleventh most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world while being the second most populous country in Latin America. Mexico is a federation comprising thirty-one states and a Federal District, its capital and largest city.

Pre-Columbian Mexico was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, which was administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Three centuries later, this territory became Mexico following recognition in 1821 after the colony's Mexican War of Independence. The tumultuous post-independence period was characterized by economic instability and many political changes. The Mexican–American War (1846–48) led to the territorial cession of the extensive northern borderlands, one-third of its territory, to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires and a domestic dictatorship occurred through the 19th century. The dictatorship was overthrown in the Mexican Revolution of 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system.

Mexico has the fifteenth largest nominal GDP and the eleventh largest by purchasing power parity. The Mexican economy is strongly linked to those of its North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partners, especially the United States.[15][16] Mexico was the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), joining in 1994. It is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank[17] and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.[18][19][20][21] By 2050, Mexico could become the world's fifth or seventh largest economy.[22][23] The country is considered both a regional power and middle power,[24][25][26][27] and is often identified as an emerging global power.[28] Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and sixth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[29][30][31] In 2015 it was the 9th most visited country in the world, with 32.1 million international arrivals.[32][33] Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus and is an observer of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie since 2014.


Main article: Name of Mexico
Depiction of the founding myth of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Codex Mendoza.

Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely,[34] the Valley of Mexico, and its people, the Mexica, and surrounding territories. This became the future State of Mexico as a division of New Spain prior to independence (compare Latium). It is generally considered to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, or vice versa. After New Spain won independence from Spain, representatives decided to name the new country after its capital, Mexico City. This was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan.

Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl [ˈtetɬ] ("rock") and nōchtli [ˈnoːtʃtɬi] ("prickly pear") and is often thought to mean "Among the prickly pears [growing among] rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain.[35]

The suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain. It has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "Place where Huitzilopochtli lives".[36] Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "Moon" (Mētztli) and navel (xīctli).[37] This meaning ("Place at the Center of the Moon") might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco. The system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the Moon. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the goddess of maguey.[37]

The name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter 'x' in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative [ʃ]. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative [ʒ], represented by a 'j', evolved into a voiceless velar fricative [x] during the 16th century. This led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries México was the preferred spelling. In recent years the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish language, determined that both variants are acceptable in Spanish but that the normative recommended spelling is México.[38] The majority of publications in all Spanish-speaking countries now adhere to the new norm, even though the alternative variant is still occasionally used.[citation needed] In English, the 'x' in Mexico represents neither the original nor the current sound, but the consonant cluster [ks].

The official name of the country has changed as the form of government has changed. On three occasions (1325–1521, 1821–1823, and 1863–1867), the country was known as Imperio Mexicano (Mexican Empire). All three federal constitutions (1824, 1857 and 1917, the current constitution) used the name Estados Unidos Mexicanos[39]—or the variant Estados-Unidos Mexicanos,[40] all of which have been translated as "United Mexican States". The phrase República Mexicana, "Mexican Republic", was used in the 1836 Constitutional Laws.[41] On November 22, 2012, president Felipe Calderón sent to the Mexican Congress a piece of legislation to change the country's name officially to simply Mexico. To be implemented, the bill needed to be passed by both houses of Congress, as well as a majority of Mexico's 31 State legislatures. As this legislation was proposed just a week before Calderón turned power over to Enrique Peña Nieto, Calderón's critics saw this as a symbolic gesture.[42]


Main article: History of Mexico
Cuauhxicalli in the shape of an eagle, from the Templo Mayor

Ancient cultures

Main article: Pre-Columbian Mexico

The earliest human artifacts in Mexico are chips of stone tools found near campfire remains in the Valley of Mexico and radiocarbon-dated to circa 10,000 years ago.[43] Mexico is the site of the domestication of maize, tomato and beans, which produced an agricultural surplus. This enabled the transition from paleo-Indian hunter-gatherers to sedentary agricultural villages beginning around 5000 BCE.[44]

In the subsequent formative eras, maize cultivation and cultural traits such as a mythological and religious complex, and a vigesimal numeric system, were diffused from the Mexican cultures to the rest of the Mesoamerican culture area.[45] In this period, villages became more dense in terms of population, becoming socially stratified with an artisan class, and developing into chiefdoms. The most powerful rulers had religious and political power, organizing construction of large ceremonial centers developed.[46]

Among the earliest complex civilizations in Mexico was the Olmec culture, which flourished on the Gulf Coast from around 1500 BCE. Olmec cultural traits diffused through Mexico into other formative-era cultures in Chiapas, Oaxaca and the Valley of Mexico. The formative period saw the spread of distinct religious and symbolic traditions, as well as artistic and architectural complexes.[47]

In the subsequent pre-classical period, the Maya and Zapotec civilizations developed complex centers at Calakmul and Monte Albán, respectively. During this period the first true Mesoamerican writing systems were developed in the Epi-Olmec and the Zapotec cultures. The Mesoamerican writing tradition reached its height in the Classic Maya Hieroglyphic script.[48]

In Central Mexico, the height of the classic period saw the ascendancy of Teotihuacan, which formed a military and commercial empire whose political influence stretched south into the Maya area as well as north. Teotihuacan, with a population of more than 150,000 people, had some of the largest pyramidal structures in the pre-Columbian Americas.[49] After the collapse of Teotihuacán around 600 CE, competition ensued between several important political centers in central Mexico such as Xochicalco and Cholula. At this time, during the Epi-Classic, Nahua peoples began moving south into Mesoamerica from the North, and became politically and culturally dominant in central Mexico, as they displaced speakers of Oto-Manguean languages.

Post-classic period (700–1519 AD)

Mural by Diego Rivera depicting the view from the Tlatelolco markets into Mexico-Tenochtitlan, one of the largest cities in the world at the time.

During the early post-classic, Central Mexico was dominated by the Toltec culture, Oaxaca by the Mixtec, and the lowland Maya area had important centers at Chichén Itzá and Mayapán. Toward the end of the post-Classic period, the Mexica established dominance.[clarification needed]

Alexander von Humboldt originated the modern usage of "Aztec" as a collective term applied to all the people linked by trade, custom, religion, and language to the Mexica state and Ēxcān Tlahtōlōyān, the Triple Alliance. In 1843, with the publication of the work of William H. Prescott, it was adopted by most of the world, including 19th-century Mexican scholars who considered it a way to distinguish present-day Mexicans from pre-conquest Mexicans. This usage has been the subject of debate since the late 20th century.[50]

The Aztec empire was an informal or hegemonic empire because it did not exert supreme authority over the conquered lands; it was satisfied with the payment of tributes from them. It was a discontinuous empire because not all dominated territories were connected; for example, the southern peripheral zones of Xoconochco were not in direct contact with the center. The hegemonic nature of the Aztec empire was demonstrated by their restoration of local rulers to their former position after their city-state was conquered. The Aztec did not interfere in local affairs, as long as the tributes were paid.[51]

The Aztec of Central Mexico built a tributary empire covering most of central Mexico.[52] The Aztec were noted for practicing human sacrifice on a large scale. Along with this practice, they avoided killing enemies on the battlefield. Their warring casualty rate was far lower than that of their Spanish counterparts, whose principal objective was immediate slaughter during battle.[53] This distinct Mesoamerican cultural tradition of human sacrifice ended with the Spanish conquest in the 16th century. Over the next centuries Mexican indigenous cultures were gradually subjected to Spanish colonial rule.[54]

Spanish conquest (1519)

Further information: Spanish conquest of Mexico
Hernán Cortés and La Malinche meet Moctezuma II. The image is from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, created c. 1550 by the Tlaxcalans to remind the Spanish of their loyalty and the importance of Tlaxcala during the conquest.

The Spanish first learned of Mexico during the Juan de Grijalva expedition of 1518. The natives kept "repeating: Colua, Colua, and Mexico, Mexico, but we [explorers] did not know what Colua or Mexico meant", until encountering Montezuma's governor at the mouth of the Rio de las Banderas.[55]:33–36 The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire began in February 1519 when Hernán Cortés arrived at the port in Veracruz with ca. 500 conquistadores. After taking control of that city, he moved on to the Aztec capital. In his search for gold and other riches, Cortés decided to invade and conquer the Aztec empire.[56]

Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his troops. Emanuel Leutze. Painting, 1848

When the Spaniards arrived, the ruler of the Aztec empire was Moctezuma II, who was later killed. His successor and brother Cuitláhuac took control of the Aztec empire, but was among the first to fall from the first smallpox epidemic in the area a short time later.[57] Unintentionally introduced by Spanish conquerors, among whom smallpox was endemic, the infectious disease ravaged Mesoamerica in the 1520s. It killed more than 3 million natives as they had no immunity.[58] Other sources, however, mentioned that the death toll of the Aztecs might have reached 15 million (out of a population of less than 30 million) although such a high number conflicts with the 350,000 Aztecs who ruled an empire of 5 million or 10 million.[59] Severely weakened, the Aztec empire was easily defeated by Cortés and his forces on his second return with the help of state of Tlaxcala whose population estimate was 300,000.[60] The native population declined 80–90% by 1600 to 1–2.5 million. Any population estimate of pre-Columbian Mexico is bound to be a guess but 8–12 million is often suggested for the area encompassed by the modern nation.

Smallpox was a devastating disease: it generally killed Aztecs but not Spaniards, who as Europeans had already been exposed to it in their cities for centuries and therefore had developed acquired immunity.[61] The deaths caused by smallpox are believed to have triggered a rapid growth of Christianity in Mexico and the Americas. At first, the Aztecs believed the epidemic was a punishment from an angry god, but they later accepted their fate and no longer resisted the Spanish rule.[62] Many of the surviving Aztecs believed that smallpox could be credited to the superiority of the Christian god, which resulted in their acceptance of Catholicism and yielding to the Spanish rule throughout Mexico.[63]

The territory became part of the Spanish Empire under the name of New Spain. Mexico City was systematically rebuilt by Cortés following the Fall of Tenochtitlan in 1521. Much of the identity, traditions and architecture of Mexico developed during the 300-year colonial period.[64]

Colonial period (1521–1821)

The capture of Tenochtitlan marked the beginning of a 300-year-long colonial period, during which Mexico was known as "New Spain".

Period of the conquest (1521–1650)

Equestrian statue of Charles IV in Mexico City, the king was the maximum authority of the Viceroyalty of New Spain

Contrary to a widespread misconception, Spain did not conquer all of the Aztec Empire nor the rest of Mesoamerica when Cortes took Tenochtitlan. It required another two centuries to complete the conquest: rebellions broke out within the old empire and wars continued with other native peoples. After the fall of Tenochtitlan, it took the Spaniards decades of sporadic warfare to subdue the rest of Mesoamerica. Particularly fierce was the Chichimeca War (1576–1606) and the Tepehuán Revolt (1616–1620) in the north.

The Council of Indies and the mendicant religious, which arrived in Mesoamerica as early as 1524, labored to generate capital for the crown of Spain and convert the Indian populations to Catholicism. During this period and the following Colonial periods, the efforts of the mendicant friars resulted in religious syncretism which combined the Pre-Hispanic cultures with Spanish socio-religious concepts.

The result was mixed culture in multi-ethnic State that relied on the "repartimiento" system of peasant "Republics of Indians" which performed the work. The pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican system was replaced by the encomienda feudal-style system of Spain probably adapted to the pre-Hispanic tradition. This in turn was replaced in the 19th century by a debt-based inscription of labor. Its burden was a catalyst for political revitalization movements and prompted the revolution that ended colonial New Spain in 1821.

According to West,[who?] "the first gold and silver that the Spaniards obtained in Mexico came not from mining but in the form of native Indian artifacts looted from palaces, temples, graves and other sacred places, where the Aztec and Tarascan nobility had accumulated such treasures for generations." Cortes soon claimed the Tamazula area as a source of silver. Silver lodes were discovered by the 1530s and mined in Zumpango del Rio and an area called the "Provincia de la Plata". The Provincia consisted of five major asientos de minas in the areas of Amatepec, Sultepec, Taxco, Zacualpan, and Temascaltepec.[65]

The colonial period (1650–1821)

Portrait of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, oil on canvas, 1772.

During this period, Mexico was part of the much larger Viceroyalty of New Spain, which included Cuba, Puerto Rico, Central America as far south as Costa Rica, Florida, the southwestern United States and the Philippines. Spain during the 16th century focused its energies on areas with dense populations that had produced Pre-Columbian civilizations, since these areas could provide the settlers with a disciplined labor force and a population to catechize.

Territories populated by nomadic peoples were hard to conquer and hold. Europeans were a low percentage of the population, from 100,000 in 1600 of 2 million, perhaps only 5% of 4 million by 1700, though 1.5 million of 8 million population by 1800 due to natural increase and immigration from Spain. The 18th century sees a great increase in the percentage of mestizos (The Penguin Atlas of World Population History, pp. 291–92). The Spanish explored a good part of North America, even seeking the fabled "El Dorado." They made no concerted effort to settle the northern desert regions in what is now the United States until the end of the 16th century (Santa Fe, 1598).

Colonial law with Spanish roots was introduced and attached to native customs creating a hierarchy between local jurisdiction (the Cabildos) and the Crown, whereby upper administrative offices were closed to the natives, even those of pure Spanish blood. Administration was based on the racial separation of the population among "Republics" of Spaniards, Indians and Mestizos, autonomous and directly dependent on the king himself.

From an economic point of view, New Spain was administered principally for the benefit of the Empire and its military and defensive efforts. Mexico provided more than half of the Empire's taxes and supported the administration of all North and Central America. Competition with Spain was discouraged to the extent that activities like cultivation of grapes and olives, introduced by Cortez himself, was banned out of fear that these crops would compete with Spain's.

In order to protect Mexico from the attacks of English, French and Dutch pirates and protect the Crown's monopoly of revenue only two ports were open to foreign trade—Veracruz on the Atlantic and Acapulco on the Pacific. The pirates attacked, plundered and ravaged several cities like Campeche (1557), Veracruz (1568) and Alvarado (1667).

Education was encouraged by the Crown from the very beginning. Mexico boasts the first primary school (Texcoco, 1523), first university (1551) and the first printing house (1524) in the Americas. Indigenous languages were studied mainly by the religious orders during the first centuries. They became official languages in the so-called Republic of Indians to be outlawed and ignored after independence by the prevailing Spanish-speaking creoles.

Mexico produced important cultural achievements during the colonial period, like the literature of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz and Ruiz de Alarcón, as well as cathedrals, civil monuments, forts and colonial cities such as Puebla, Mexico City, Querétaro, Zacatecas and others, today part of Unesco's World Heritage.

The syncretism between indigenous and Spanish cultures in New Spain gave birth to many of today's Mexican cultural traits like tequila (first distilled in the 16th century), mariachi (18th), jarabe (17th), charros (17th) and Mexican cuisine – a mixture of European and indigenous ingredients and techniques.

Independence from Spain (1821)

The Territorial evolution of Mexico after independence, noting losses to the US (red, white and orange), Chiapas annexed from Guatemala (blue), the annexation of the Republic of Yucatan (red) and the secession of Central America (purple)

On September 16, 1810, a "loyalist revolt" against the ruling Junta was declared by priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, in the small town of Dolores, Guanajuato.[66] The first insurgent group was formed by Hidalgo, the Spanish viceregal army captain Ignacio Allende, the militia captain Juan Aldama and "La Corregidora" Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez. Hidalgo and some of his soldiers were captured and executed by firing squad in Chihuahua, on July 31, 1811. Following his death, the leadership was assumed by priest José María Morelos, who occupied key southern cities.

In 1813 the Congress of Chilpancingo was convened and, on November 6, signed the "Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America". Morelos was captured and executed on December 22, 1815.

In subsequent years, the insurgency was near collapse, but in 1820 Viceroy Juan Ruiz de Apodaca sent an army under the criollo general Agustín de Iturbide against the troops of Vicente Guerrero. Instead, Iturbide approached Guerrero to join forces, and on August 24, 1821 representatives of the Spanish Crown and Iturbide signed the "Treaty of Córdoba" and the "Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire", which recognized the independence of Mexico under the terms of the "Plan of Iguala".

Birth of Mexico (1821)

Territorial losses and Juárez reforms (1821–1876)

Emperor Agustin I
President Benito Juárez

Agustín de Iturbide immediately proclaimed himself emperor of the First Mexican Empire. A revolt against him in 1823 established the United Mexican States. In 1824, a Republican Constitution was drafted and Guadalupe Victoria became the first president of the newly born country. In 1829 president Guerrero abolished slavery.[67] The first decades of the post-independence period were marked by economic instability, which led to the Pastry War in 1836. There was constant strife between liberales, supporters of a federal form of government, and conservadores, who proposed a hierarchical form of government.[citation needed]

During this period, the frontier borderlands to the north became quite isolated from the government in Mexico City, and its monopolistic economic policies caused suffering. With limited trade, the people had difficulty meeting tax payments and resented the central government's actions in collecting customs. Resentment built up from California to Texas. Both the mission system and the presidios had collapsed after the Spanish withdrew from the colony, causing great disruption especially in Alta California and New Mexico. The people in the borderlands had to raise local militias to protect themselves from hostile Native Americans. These areas developed in different directions from the center of the country.[68]

Wanting to stabilize and develop the frontier, Mexico encouraged immigration into present-day Texas, as they were unable to persuade people from central Mexico to move into those areas. They allowed for religious freedom for the new settlers, who were primarily Protestant English speakers from the United States. Within several years, the Anglos far outnumbered the Tejano in the area. Itinerant traders traveled through the area, working by free market principles. The Tejano grew more separate from the government and due to its neglect, many supported the idea of independence and joined movements to that end, collaborating with the English-speaking Americans.[68]

General Antonio López de Santa Anna, a centralist and two-time dictator, approved the Siete Leyes in 1836, a radical amendment that institutionalized the centralized form of government. When he suspended the 1824 Constitution, civil war spread across the country. Three new governments declared independence: the Republic of Texas, the Republic of the Rio Grande and the Republic of Yucatán.

Texas successfully achieved independence as a republic in 1836 and joined the United States. A border dispute between the US and Mexico led to the Mexican–American War, which began in 1846 and lasted for two years. Many Southerners intended that slavery should be extended to the west in these newly acquired territories but the United States generally would not permit it, except in Texas. The War was settled via the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Mexico was forced to give up more than one-third of its land to the U.S., including Alta California, New Mexico, and the disputed parts of Texas. A much smaller transfer of territory in what is today southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico—known as the Gadsden Purchase—occurred in 1854.[69]

The Caste War of Yucatán, the Mayan uprising that began in 1847, was one of the most successful modern Native American revolts.[70][71] Maya rebels, or Cruzob, maintained relatively independent enclaves in the peninsula until the 1930s.[72]

Dissatisfaction with Santa Anna's return to power led to the liberal "Plan of Ayutla", initiating an era known as La Reforma. The new Constitution drafted in 1857 established a secular state, federalism as the form of government, and several freedoms. As the conservadores refused to recognize it, the Reform War began in 1858, during which both groups had their own governments. The war ended in 1861 with victory by the Liberals, led by president Benito Juárez, who was Amerindian.

In the 1860s Mexico was occupied by France, which established the Second Mexican Empire under the rule of the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria with support from the Roman Catholic clergy and the conservadores. The latter switched sides and joined the liberales. Maximilian surrendered, was tried on June 14, 1867, and was executed a few days later on June 19.

Porfiriato (1876–1910)

Porfirio Díaz, a republican general during the French intervention, ruled Mexico from 1876 to 1880 and then from 1884 to 1911 in five consecutive reelections, period known as the Porfiriato, characterized by remarkable economic achievements, investments in the arts and sciences, but also of economic inequality and political repression.[citation needed]

Mexican Revolution (1910–29)

Further information: Mexican Revolution

President Díaz announced in 1908 that he would retire in 1911, resulting in the development of new coalitions. But then he ran for reelection anyway and in a show of U.S. support, Díaz and William Howard Taft planned a summit in El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, for October 16, 1909, an historic first meeting between a Mexican and a U.S. president and also the first time an American president would cross the border into Mexico.[73] Both sides agreed that the disputed Chamizal strip connecting El Paso to Ciudad Juárez would be considered neutral territory with no flags present during the summit, but the meeting focused attention on this territory and resulted in assassination threats and other serious security concerns.[73]

On the day of the summit, Frederick Russell Burnham, the celebrated scout, and Private C.R. Moore, a Texas Ranger, discovered a man holding a concealed palm pistol standing at the El Paso Chamber of Commerce building along the procession route, and they disarmed the assassin within only a few feet of Díaz and Taft.[73] Both presidents were unharmed and the summit was held.[73] Díaz was re-elected in 1910, but alleged electoral fraud forced him into exile in France and sparked the 1910 Mexican Revolution, initially led by Francisco I. Madero.

Madero was elected president but overthrown and murdered in a coup d'état two years later directed by conservative general Victoriano Huerta. That event re-ignited the civil war, involving figures such as Francisco Villa and Emiliano Zapata, who formed their own forces. A third force, the constitutional army led by Venustiano Carranza managed to bring an end to the war, and radically amended the 1857 Constitution to include many of the social premises and demands of the revolutionaries into what was eventually called the 1917 Constitution. It is estimated that the war killed 900,000 of the 1910 population of 15 million.[74][75]

Assassinated in 1920, Carranza was succeeded by another revolutionary hero, Álvaro Obregón, who in turn was succeeded by Plutarco Elías Calles. Obregón was reelected in 1928 but assassinated before he could assume power. Although this period is usually referred to as the Mexican Revolution, it might also be termed a civil war since president Díaz (1909) narrowly escaped assassination and presidents Francisco I. Madero (1913), Venustiano Carranza (1920), Álvaro Obregón (1928), and former revolutionary leaders Emiliano Zapata (1919) and Pancho Villa (1923) all were assassinated during this period.

One-party rule (1929–2000)

In 1929, Calles founded the National Revolutionary Party (PNR), later renamed the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), and started a period known as the Maximato, which ended with the election of Lázaro Cárdenas, who implemented many economic and social reforms. This included the Mexican oil expropriation in March 1938, which nationalized the U.S. and Anglo-Dutch oil company known as the Mexican Eagle Petroleum Company. This movement would result in the creation of the state-owned Mexican oil company known as Pemex. This sparked a diplomatic crisis with the countries whose citizens had lost businesses by Cárdenas' radical measure, but since then the company has played an important role in the economic development of Mexico.

Students in a burned bus during the protests of 1968.

Between 1940 and 1980, Mexico remained a poor country but experienced substantial economic growth that some historians call the "Mexican miracle".[76] Although the economy continued to flourish for some, social inequality remained a factor of discontent. Moreover, the PRI rule became increasingly authoritarian and at times oppressive in what is now referred to as 'Mexico's dirty war'[77] (see the 1968 Tlatelolco massacre,[78] which claimed the life of around 300 protesters based on conservative estimates and as many as 800 protesters).[79]

Electoral reforms and high oil prices followed the administration of Luis Echeverría,[80][81] mismanagement of these revenues led to inflation and exacerbated the 1982 Crisis. That year, oil prices plunged, interest rates soared, and the government defaulted on its debt. President Miguel de la Madrid resorted to currency devaluations which in turn sparked inflation.

In the 1980s the first cracks emerged in PRI's monopolistic position. In Baja California, Ernesto Ruffo Appel was elected as governor. In 1988, alleged electoral fraud prevented the leftist candidate Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas from winning the national presidential elections, giving Carlos Salinas de Gortari the presidency and leading to massive protests in Mexico City.[82]

NAFTA signing ceremony, October 1992. From left to right: (standing) president Carlos Salinas de Gortari, president George H. W. Bush (U.S.) and prime minister Brian Mulroney (Canada); (seated) Jaime Serra Puche, Carla Hills (U.S.) and Michael Wilson (Canada)

Salinas embarked on a program of neoliberal reforms which fixed the exchange rate, controlled inflation and culminated with the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which came into effect on January 1, 1994. The same day, the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) started a two-week-long armed rebellion against the federal government, and has continued as a non-violent opposition movement against neoliberalism and globalization.

End of one-party rule (2000–present)

In 1994, Salinas was succeeded by Ernesto Zedillo, followed by the Mexican peso crisis and a $50 billion IMF bailout. Major macroeconomic reforms were started by President Zedillo, and the economy rapidly recovered and growth peaked at almost 7% by the end of 1999.[83]

In 2000, after 71 years, the PRI lost a presidential election to Vicente Fox of the opposition National Action Party (PAN). In the 2006 presidential election, Felipe Calderón from the PAN was declared the winner, with a very narrow margin over leftist politician Andrés Manuel López Obrador of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). López Obrador, however, contested the election and pledged to create an "alternative government".[84]

After twelve years, in 2012, the PRI won the Presidency again with the election of Enrique Peña Nieto, the governor of the State of Mexico from 2005–2011. However, he won with only a plurality of about 38%, and did not have a legislative majority.[85]


Main article: Geography of Mexico
Topographic map of Mexico.
Mexico map of Köppen climate classification.

Mexico is located between latitudes 14° and 33°N, and longitudes 86° and 119°W in the southern portion of North America.[citation needed] Almost all of Mexico lies in the North American Plate, with small parts of the Baja California peninsula on the Pacific and Cocos Plates. Geophysically, some geographers include the territory east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (around 12% of the total) within Central America.[86] Geopolitically, however, Mexico is entirely considered part of North America, along with Canada and the United States.[87]

Mexico's total area is 1,972,550 km2 (761,606 sq mi), making it the world's 14th largest country by total area, and includes approximately 6,000 km2 (2,317 sq mi) of islands in the Pacific Ocean (including the remote Guadalupe Island and the Revillagigedo Islands), Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, and Gulf of California. From its farthest land points, Mexico is a little over 2,000 mi (3,219 km) in length.

On its north, Mexico shares a 3,141 km (1,952 mi) border with the United States. The meandering Río Bravo del Norte (known as the Rio Grande in the United States) defines the border from Ciudad Juárez east to the Gulf of Mexico. A series of natural and artificial markers delineate the United States-Mexican border west from Ciudad Juárez to the Pacific Ocean. On its south, Mexico shares an 871 km (541 mi) border with Guatemala and a 251 km (156 mi) border with Belize.

Mexico is crossed from north to south by two mountain ranges known as Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra Madre Occidental, which are the extension of the Rocky Mountains from northern North America. From east to west at the center, the country is crossed by the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt also known as the Sierra Nevada. A fourth mountain range, the Sierra Madre del Sur, runs from Michoacán to Oaxaca.[88]

As such, the majority of the Mexican central and northern territories are located at high altitudes, and the highest elevations are found at the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt: Pico de Orizaba (5,700 m or 18,701 ft), Popocatepetl (5,462 m or 17,920 ft) and Iztaccihuatl (5,286 m or 17,343 ft) and the Nevado de Toluca (4,577 m or 15,016 ft). Three major urban agglomerations are located in the valleys between these four elevations: Toluca, Greater Mexico City and Puebla.[88]


Main article: Climate of Mexico

The Tropic of Cancer effectively divides the country into temperate and tropical zones. Land north of the twenty-fourth parallel experiences cooler temperatures during the winter months. South of the twenty-fourth parallel, temperatures are fairly constant year round and vary solely as a function of elevation. This gives Mexico one of the world's most diverse weather systems.

Areas south of the 24th parallel with elevations up to 1,000 m (3,281 ft) (the southern parts of both coastal plains as well as the Yucatán Peninsula), have a yearly median temperature between 24 to 28 °C (75.2 to 82.4 °F). Temperatures here remain high throughout the year, with only a 5 °C (9 °F) difference between winter and summer median temperatures. Both Mexican coasts, except for the south coast of the Bay of Campeche and northern Baja, are also vulnerable to serious hurricanes during the summer and fall. Although low-lying areas north of the 24th parallel are hot and humid during the summer, they generally have lower yearly temperature averages (from 20 to 24 °C or 68.0 to 75.2 °F) because of more moderate conditions during the winter.

Many large cities in Mexico are located in the Valley of Mexico or in adjacent valleys with altitudes generally above 2,000 m (6,562 ft). This gives them a year-round temperate climate with yearly temperature averages (from 16 to 18 °C or 60.8 to 64.4 °F) and cool nighttime temperatures throughout the year.

Many parts of Mexico, particularly the north, have a dry climate with sporadic rainfall while parts of the tropical lowlands in the south average more than 2,000 mm (78.7 in) of annual precipitation. For example, many cities in the north like Monterrey, Hermosillo, and Mexicali experience temperatures of 40 °C (104 °F) or more in summer. In the Sonoran Desert temperatures reach 50 °C (122 °F) or more.

In 2012, Mexico passed a comprehensive climate change bill, a first in the developing world, that has set a goal for the country to generate 35% of its energy from clean energy sources by 2024, and to cut emissions by 50% by 2050, from the level found in 2000.[89][90] During the 2016 North American Leaders' Summit, the target of 50% of electricity generated from renewable sources by 2025 was announced.[91]


The jaguar, a native mammal of Mexico

Mexico is one of the 17 megadiverse countries of the world. With over 200,000 different species, Mexico is home of 10–12% of the world's biodiversity.[92] Mexico ranks first in biodiversity in reptiles with 707 known species, second in mammals with 438 species, fourth in amphibians with 290 species, and fourth in flora, with 26,000 different species.[93] Mexico is also considered the second country in the world in ecosystems and fourth in overall species.[94] Approximately 2,500 species are protected by Mexican legislations.[94]

In 2002, Mexico had the second fastest rate of deforestation in the world, second only to Brazil.[95] The government has taken another initiative in the late 1990s to broaden the people's knowledge, interest and use of the country's esteemed biodiversity, through the Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad.

In Mexico, 170,000 square kilometres (65,637 sq mi) are considered "Protected Natural Areas." These include 34 biosphere reserves (unaltered ecosystems), 67 national parks, 4 natural monuments (protected in perpetuity for their aesthetic, scientific or historical value), 26 areas of protected flora and fauna, 4 areas for natural resource protection (conservation of soil, hydrological basins and forests) and 17 sanctuaries (zones rich in diverse species).[92]

The discovery of the Americas brought to the rest of the world many widely used food crops and edible plants. Some of Mexico's native culinary ingredients include: chocolate, avocado, tomato, maize, vanilla, guava, chayote, epazote, camote, jícama, nopal, zucchini, tejocote, huitlacoche, sapote, mamey sapote, many varieties of beans, and an even greater variety of chiles, such as the habanero and the jalapeño. Most of these names come from indigenous languages like Nahuatl.

Because of its high biodiversity Mexico has also been a frequent site of bioprospecting by international research bodies.[96] The first highly successful instance being the discovery in 1947 of the tuber "Barbasco" (Dioscorea composita) which has a high content of diosgenin, revolutionizing the production of synthetic hormones in the 1950s and 1960s and eventually leading to the invention of combined oral contraceptive pills.[97]

Government and politics


Enrique Peña Nieto, President of Mexico.

The United Mexican States are a federation whose government is representative, democratic and republican based on a presidential system according to the 1917 Constitution. The constitution establishes three levels of government: the federal Union, the state governments and the municipal governments. According to the constitution, all constituent states of the federation must have a republican form of government composed of three branches: the executive, represented by a governor and an appointed cabinet, the legislative branch constituted by a unicameral congress and the judiciary, which will include called state Supreme Court of Justice. They also have their own civil and judicial codes.

The legislature is the bicameral Congress of the Union, composed of the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies. The Congress makes federal law, declares war, imposes taxes, approves the national budget and international treaties, and ratifies diplomatic appointments.[98]

The federal Congress, as well as the state legislatures, are elected by a system of parallel voting that includes plurality and proportional representation.[99] The Chamber of Deputies has 500 deputies. Of these, 300 are elected by plurality vote in single-member districts (the federal electoral districts) and 200 are elected by proportional representation with closed party lists[100] for which the country is divided into five electoral constituencies.[101] The Senate is made up of 128 senators. Of these, 64 senators (two for each state and two for the Federal District) are elected by plurality vote in pairs; 32 senators are the first minority or first-runner up (one for each state and one for the Federal District), and 32 are elected by proportional representation from national closed party lists.[100]

The executive is the President of the United Mexican States, who is the head of state and government, as well as the commander-in-chief of the Mexican military forces. The President also appoints the Cabinet and other officers. The President is responsible for executing and enforcing the law, and has the power to veto bills.[102]

The highest organ of the judicial branch of government is the Supreme Court of Justice, the national supreme court, which has eleven judges appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. The Supreme Court of Justice interprets laws and judges cases of federal competency. Other institutions of the judiciary are the Federal Electoral Tribunal, collegiate, unitary and district tribunals, and the Council of the Federal Judiciary.[103]


Main article: Politics of Mexico

Three parties have historically been the dominant parties in Mexican politics: the National Action Party: a conservative party founded in 1939 and belonging to the Christian Democrat Organization of America;[104] the Institutional Revolutionary Party, a center-left party and member of Socialist International[105] that was founded in 1929 to unite all the factions of the Mexican Revolution and held an almost hegemonic power in Mexican politics since then; the Party of the Democratic Revolution: a left-wing party,[106] founded in 1989 as the successor of the coalition of socialists and liberal parties.

Law enforcement

Federal Police headquarters in Mexico City

Public security is enacted at the three levels of government, each of which has different prerogatives and responsibilities. Local and state police departments are primarily in charge of law enforcement, whereas the Mexican Federal Police are in charge of specialized duties. All levels report to the Secretaría de Seguridad Pública (Secretary of Public Security). The General Attorney's Office (Procuraduría General de la República, PGR) is the executive power's agency in charge of investigating and prosecuting crimes at the federal level, mainly those related to drug and arms trafficking,[107] espionage, and bank robberies.[108] The PGR operates the Federal Investigations Agency (Agencia Federal de Investigación, AFI) an investigative and preventive agency.[109]

While the government generally respects the human rights of its citizens, serious abuses of power have been reported in security operations in the southern part of the country and in indigenous communities and poor urban neighborhoods.[110] The National Human Rights Commission has had little impact in reversing this trend, engaging mostly in documentation but failing to use its powers to issue public condemnations to the officials who ignore its recommendations.[111] By law, all defendants have the rights that assure them fair trials and human treatment; however, the system is overburdened and overwhelmed with several problems.[110]

Despite the efforts of the authorities to fight crime and fraud, most Mexicans have low confidence in the police or the judicial system, and therefore, few crimes are actually reported by the citizens.[110] The Global Integrity Index which measures the existence and effectiveness of national anti-corruption mechanisms rated Mexico 31st behind Kenya, Thailand, and Russia.[112] In 2008, president Calderón proposed a major reform of the judicial system, which was approved by the Congress of the Union, which included oral trials, the presumption of innocence for defendants, the authority of local police to investigate crime—until then a prerogative of special police units—and several other changes intended to speed up trials.[113]


Drug cartels are a major concern in Mexico.[114] Mexico's drug war has left over 60,000 dead and perhaps another 20,000 missing.[115] The Mexican drug cartels have as many as 100,000 members.[116] The Mexican government's National Geography and Statistics Institute estimated that there were 41,563 crimes per 100,000 residents in 2012.[117]

President Felipe Calderón made abating organized crime one of the top priorities of his administration by deploying military personnel to cities where drug cartels operate. This move was criticized by the opposition parties and the National Human Rights Commission for escalating the violence, but its effects have been positively evaluated by the US State Department's Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs as having obtained "unprecedented results" with "many important successes".[118]

Since President Felipe Calderón launched a crackdown against cartels in 2006, more than 28,000 alleged criminals have been killed.[119][120] Of the total drug-related violence 4% are innocent people,[121] mostly by-passers and people trapped in between shootings; 90% accounts for criminals and 6% for military personnel and police officers.[121] In October 2007, President Calderón and US president George W. Bush announced the Mérida Initiative, a plan of law enforcement cooperation between the two countries.[122]

Foreign relations

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau of Canada, President Barack Obama and President Enrique Peña Nieto prior to the 2015 APEC Summit

The foreign relations of Mexico are directed by the President of Mexico[123] and managed through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[124] The principles of the foreign policy are constitutionally recognized in the Article 89, Section 10, which include: respect for international law and legal equality of states, their sovereignty and independence, non-intervention in the domestic affairs of other countries, peaceful resolution of conflicts, and promotion of collective security through active participation in international organizations.[123] Since the 1930s, the Estrada Doctrine has served as a crucial complement to these principles.[125]

Mexico is one of the founding members of several international organizations, most notably the United Nations,[126] the Organization of American States,[127] the Organization of Ibero-American States,[128] the OPANAL[129] and the Rio Group.[130] In 2008, Mexico contributed over 40 million dollars to the United Nations regular budget.[131] In addition, it was the only Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development since it joined in 1994 until Chile gained full membership in 2010.[132][133]

Mexico is considered a regional power[134][135] hence its presence in major economic groups such as the G8+5 and the G-20. In addition, since the 1990s Mexico has sought a reform of the United Nations Security Council and its working methods[136] with the support of Canada, Italy, Pakistan and other nine countries, which form a group informally called the Coffee Club.[137]

After the War of Independence, the relations of Mexico were focused primarily on the United States, its northern neighbor, largest trading partner,[138] and the most powerful actor in hemispheric and world affairs.[139] Mexico supported the Cuban government since its establishment in the early 1960s,[140] the Sandinista revolution in Nicaragua during the late 1970s,[141] and leftist revolutionary groups in El Salvador during the 1980s.[142] Felipe Calderón's administration put a greater emphasis on relations with Latin America and the Caribbean.[143]


Main article: Mexican Armed Forces

The Mexican Armed Forces have two branches: the Mexican Army (which includes the Mexican Air Force), and the Mexican Navy. The Mexican Armed Forces maintain significant infrastructure, including facilities for design, research, and testing of weapons, vehicles, aircraft, naval vessels, defense systems and electronics;[144][145] military industry manufacturing centers for building such systems, and advanced naval dockyards that build heavy military vessels and advanced missile technologies.[146]

Mexican built Sierra class corvettes.

In recent years, Mexico has improved its training techniques, military command and information structures and has taken steps to becoming more self-reliant in supplying its military by designing as well as manufacturing its own arms,[147] missiles,[145] aircraft,[148] vehicles, heavy weaponry, electronics,[144] defense systems,[144] armor, heavy military industrial equipment and heavy naval vessels.[149] Since the 1990s, when the military escalated its role in the war on drugs, increasing importance has been placed on acquiring airborne surveillance platforms, aircraft, helicopters, digital war-fighting technologies,[144] urban warfare equipment and rapid troop transport.[150]

Mexico has the capabilities to manufacture nuclear weapons, but abandoned this possibility with the Treaty of Tlatelolco in 1968 and pledged to only use its nuclear technology for peaceful purposes.[151] In 1970, Mexico's national institute for nuclear research successfully refined weapons grade uranium[152][not in citation given] which is used in the manufacture of nuclear weapons but in April 2010, Mexico agreed to turn over its weapons grade uranium to the United States.[153][154]

Historically, Mexico has remained neutral in international conflicts,[155] with the exception of World War II. However, in recent years some political parties have proposed an amendment of the Constitution in order to allow the Mexican Army, Air Force or Navy to collaborate with the United Nations in peacekeeping missions, or to provide military help to countries that officially ask for it.[156]

Administrative divisions

The United Mexican States are a federation of 31 free and sovereign states, which form a union that exercises a degree of jurisdiction over the Federal District and other territories.

Each state has its own constitution, congress, and a judiciary, and its citizens elect by direct voting a governor for a six-year term, and representatives to their respective unicameral state congresses for three-year terms.[157]

The Federal District is a special political division that belongs to the federation as a whole and not to a particular state, and as such, has more limited local rule than the nation's states.[158]

The states are divided into municipalities, the smallest administrative political entity in the country, governed by a mayor or municipal president (presidente municipal), elected by its residents by plurality.[159]

Map State Capital State Capital
 Aguascalientes (AGS) Aguascalientes  Morelos (MOR) Cuernavaca
 Baja California (BC) Mexicali  Nayarit (NAY) Tepic
 Baja California Sur (BCS) La Paz  Nuevo León (NL) Monterrey
 Campeche (CAM) Campeche  Oaxaca (OAX) Oaxaca
 Chiapas (CHP) Tuxtla Gutiérrez  Puebla (PUE) Puebla
 Chihuahua (CHH) Chihuahua  Querétaro (QUE) Querétaro
 Coahuila (COA) Saltillo  Quintana Roo (QR) Chetumal
 Colima (COL) Colima  San Luis Potosí (SLP) San Luis Potosí
 Durango (DUR) Durango  Sinaloa (SIN) Culiacán
 Guanajuato (GTO) Guanajuato  Sonora (SON) Hermosillo
 Guerrero (GRO) Chilpancingo  Tabasco (TAB) Villahermosa
 Hidalgo (HDG) Pachuca  Tamaulipas (TAM) Victoria
 Jalisco (JAL) Guadalajara  Tlaxcala (TLA) Tlaxcala
 State of Mexico (EM) Toluca  Veracruz (VER) Xalapa
 Federal District (DF) Mexico City  Yucatán (YUC) Mérida
 Michoacán (MIC) Morelia  Zacatecas (ZAC) Zacatecas


Main article: Economy of Mexico
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.

Mexico has the 15th largest nominal GDP and the 11th largest by purchasing power parity. GDP annual average growth for the period of 1995–2002 was 5.1%.[81] Mexico's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in purchasing power parity (PPP) was estimated at US $2.2602 trillion in 2015, and $1.3673 trillion in nominal exchange rates.[160] Mexico's GDP in PPP per capita was US $18,714.05. The World Bank reported in 2009 that the country's Gross National Income in market exchange rates was the second highest in Latin America, after Brazil at US $1,830.392 billion,[161] which lead to the highest income per capita in the region at $14,400.[162] Mexico is now firmly established as an upper middle-income country. After the slowdown of 2001 the country has recovered and has grown 4.2, 3.0 and 4.8 percent in 2004, 2005 and 2006,[163] even though it is considered to be well below Mexico's potential growth.[164] Furthermore, after the 2008–2009 recession, the economy grew an average of 3.32 percent per year from 2010 to 2014.

From the late 1990s onwards, the majority of the population has been part of the growing middle class.[165] But from 2004 to 2008 the portion of the population who received less than half of the median income has risen from 17% to 21% and the absolute levels of poverty rose from 2006 to 2010, with a rise in persons living in extreme or moderate poverty rising from 35 to 46% (52 million persons).[166][167] This is also reflected by the fact that infant mortality in Mexico is three times higher than the average among OECD nations, and the literacy levels are in the median range of OECD nations. Nevertheless, according to Goldman Sachs, by 2050 Mexico will have the 5th largest economy in the world.[168]

Among the OECD countries, Mexico has the second highest degree of economic disparity between the extremely poor and extremely rich, after Chile – although it has been falling over the last decade, being only one of few countries in which this is the case.[169] The bottom ten percent in the income hierarchy disposes of 1.36% of the country's resources, whereas the upper ten percent dispose of almost 36%. OECD also notes that Mexico's budgeted expenses for poverty alleviation and social development is only about a third of the OECD average – both in absolute and relative numbers.[166]

According to a 2008 UN report the average income in a typical urbanized area of Mexico was $26,654, while the average income in rural areas just miles away was only $8,403.[170] Daily minimum wages are set annually by law and determined by zone; $67.29 Mexican pesos ($5.13 USD) in Zone A and $63.77 Mexican pesos ($4.86 USD) in Zone B.[171]

The electronics industry of Mexico has grown enormously within the last decade. Mexico has the sixth largest electronics industry in the world after China, United States, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Mexico is the second largest exporter of electronics to the United States where it exported $71.4 billion worth of electronics in 2011.[172] The Mexican electronics industry is dominated by the manufacture and OEM design of televisions, displays, computers, mobile phones, circuit boards, semiconductors, electronic appliances, communications equipment and LCD modules. The Mexican electronics industry grew 20% between 2010 and 2011, up from its constant growth rate of 17% between 2003 and 2009.[172] Currently electronics represent 30% of Mexico's exports.[172]

Mexico produces the most automobiles of any North American nation.[173] The industry produces technologically complex components and engages in some research and development activities.[174] The "Big Three" (General Motors, Ford and Chrysler) have been operating in Mexico since the 1930s, while Volkswagen and Nissan built their plants in the 1960s.[175] In Puebla alone, 70 industrial part-makers cluster around Volkswagen.[174] In the 2010s expansion of the sector was surging. In 2014 alone, more than $10 billion in investment was committed. Kia Motors in August 2014 announced plans for a $1 billion factory in Nuevo León. At the time Mercedes-Benz and Nissan were already building a $1.4 billion plant near Puebla, while BMW was planning a $1-billion assembly plant in San Luis Potosí. Additionally, Audi began building a $1.3 billion factory near Puebla in 2013.[176]

The domestic car industry is represented by DINA S.A., which has built buses and trucks since 1962,[177] and the new Mastretta company that builds the high-performance Mastretta MXT sports car.[178] In 2006, trade with the United States and Canada accounted for almost 50% of Mexico's exports and 45% of its imports.[12] During the first three quarters of 2010, the United States had a $46.0 billion trade deficit with Mexico.[179] In August 2010 Mexico surpassed France to become the 9th largest holder of US debt.[180] The commercial and financial dependence on the US is a cause for concern.[181]

The remittances from Mexican citizens working in the United States account for 0.2% of Mexico's GDP[182] which was equal to US$20 billion per year in 2004 and is the tenth largest source of foreign income after oil, industrial exports, manufactured goods, electronics, heavy industry, automobiles, construction, food, banking and financial services.[183] According to Mexico's central bank, remittances in 2008 amounted to $25bn.[184]

Major players in the broadcasting industry are Televisa, the largest Spanish media company in the Spanish-speaking world,[185] and TV Azteca.


Morelos 3, the latest addition to the Morelos Satellite System

The telecommunications industry is mostly dominated by Telmex (Teléfonos de México), privatized in 1990. By 2006, Telmex had expanded its operations to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay and the United States. Other players in the domestic industry are Axtel and Maxcom. Because of Mexican orography, providing a landline telephone service at remote mountainous areas is expensive, and the penetration of line-phones per capita is low compared to other Latin American countries, at 40 percent; however, 82% of Mexicans over the age of 14 own a mobile phone. Mobile telephony has the advantage of reaching all areas at a lower cost, and the total number of mobile lines is almost two times that of landlines, with an estimation of 63 million lines.[186] The telecommunication industry is regulated by the government through Cofetel (Comisión Federal de Telecomunicaciones).

The Mexican satellite system is domestic and operates 120 earth stations. There is also extensive microwave radio relay network and considerable use of fiber-optic and coaxial cable.[186] Mexican satellites are operated by Satélites Mexicanos (Satmex), a private company, leader in Latin America and servicing both North and South America.[187] It offers broadcast, telephone and telecommunication services to 37 countries in the Americas, from Canada to Argentina. Through business partnerships Satmex provides high-speed connectivity to ISPs and Digital Broadcast Services.[188] Satmex maintains its own satellite fleet with most of the fleet being designed and built in Mexico.

The use of radio, television, and Internet in Mexico is prevalent.[189] There are approximately 1,410 radio broadcast stations and 236 television stations (excluding repeaters).[186] Major players in the broadcasting industry are Televisa—the largest media company in the Spanish-speaking world[185]—and TV Azteca.


The Central Eólica Sureste I, Fase II in Oaxaca. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the region of Mexico with the highest capacity for wind energy. (see Tehuantepecer, a strond wind that affects the region)
The Central Geotermoeléctrica Azufres III in Michoacán. 100% of the electricity produced in Michoacán comes from renewable sources.[190] 90% comes from hydroelectric plants, and 10% from the Azufres Geothermal Field.[190]

Energy production in Mexico is managed by state-owned companies: the Federal Commission of Electricity and Pemex.

Pemex, the public company in charge of exploration, extraction, transportation and marketing of crude oil and natural gas, as well as the refining and distribution of petroleum products and petrochemicals, is one of the largest companies in the world by revenue, making US $86 billion in sales a year.[191][192][193] Mexico is the sixth-largest oil producer in the world, with 3.7 million barrels per day.[194] In 1980 oil exports accounted for 61.6% of total exports; by 2000 it was only 7.3%.[174]

The largest hydro plant in Mexico is the 2,400 MW Manuel Moreno Torres Dam in Chicoasén, Chiapas, in the Grijalva River. This is the world's fourth most productive hydroelectric plant.[195]

Mexico is the country with the world's third largest solar potential.[196] The country's gross solar potential is estimated at 5kWh/m2 daily, which corresponds to 50 times national electricity generation.[197] Currently, there is over 1 million square meters of solar thermal panels[198] installed in Mexico, while in 2005, there were 115,000 square meters of solar PV (photo-voltaic). It is expected that in 2012 there will be 1,8 million square meters of installed solar thermal panels.[198]

The project named SEGH-CFE 1, located in Puerto Libertad, Sonora, Northwest of Mexico, will have capacity of 46.8 MW from an array of 187,200 solar panels when complete in 2013.[199] All of the electricity will be sold directly to the CFE and absorbed into the utility's transmission system for distribution throughout their existing network. At an installed capacity of 46.8 MWp, when complete in 2013, the project will be the first utility scale project of its kind in Mexico and the largest solar project of any kind in Latin America.

Science and technology

The National Autonomous University of Mexico was officially established in 1910,[200] and the university become one of the most important institutes of higher learning in Mexico.[201] UNAM provides world class education in science, medicine, and engineering.[202] Many scientific institutes and new institutes of higher learning, such as National Polytechnic Institute (founded in 1936),[203] were established during the first half of the 20th century. Most of the new research institutes were created within UNAM. Twelve institutes were integrated into UNAM from 1929 to 1973.[204] In 1959, the Mexican Academy of Sciences was created to coordinate scientific efforts between academics.

In 1995, the Mexican chemist Mario J. Molina shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Paul J. Crutzen and F. Sherwood Rowland for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone.[205] Molina, an alumnus of UNAM, became the first Mexican citizen to win the Nobel Prize in science.[206]

In recent years, the largest scientific project being developed in Mexico was the construction of the Large Millimeter Telescope (Gran Telescopio Milimétrico, GMT), the world's largest and most sensitive single-aperture telescope in its frequency range.[207] It was designed to observe regions of space obscured by stellar dust.


Main article: Tourism in Mexico
The Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de los Remedios atop the Great Pyramid of Cholula with Popocatépetl visible in the background has become an iconic image of Mexico.

Mexico has traditionally been among the most visited countries in the world according to the World Tourism Organization and it is the most visited country in the Americas, after the United States. The most notable attractions are the Mesoamerican ruins, cultural festivals, colonial cities, nature reserves and the beach resorts. The nation's wide range of climates, from temperate to tropical, and unique culture – a fusion of the European and the Mesoamerican – make Mexico an attractive destination. The peak tourism seasons in the country are during December and the mid-Summer, with brief surges during the week before Easter and Spring break, when many of the beach resort sites become popular destinations for college students from the United States.

Mexico has the 23rd highest income from tourism in the world, and the highest in Latin America.[208] The vast majority of tourists come to Mexico from the United States and Canada followed by Europe and Asia. A smaller number also come from other Latin American countries.[209] In the 2011 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index report, Mexico was ranked 43rd in the world, which was 4th in the Americas .[210]

The coastlines of Mexico harbor many stretches of beaches that are frequented by sun bathers and other visitors. On the Yucatán peninsula, one of the most popular beach destinations is the resort town of Cancún, especially among university students during spring break. Just offshore is the beach island of Isla Mujeres, and to the east is the Isla Holbox. To the south of Cancun is the coastal strip called Riviera Maya which includes the beach town of Playa del Carmen and the ecological parks of Xcaret and Xel-Há. A day trip to the south of Cancún is the historic port of Tulum. In addition to its beaches, the town of Tulum is notable for its cliff-side Mayan ruins.

On the Pacific coast is the notable tourist destination of Acapulco. Once the destination for the rich and famous, the beaches have become crowded and the shores are now home to many multi-story hotels and vendors. Acapulco is home to renowned cliff divers: trained divers who leap from the side of a vertical cliff into the surf below.

At the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula is the resort town of Cabo San Lucas, a town noted for its beaches and marlin fishing.[211] Further north along the Sea of Cortés is the Bahía de La Concepción, another beach town known for its sports fishing. Closer to the United States border is the weekend draw of San Felipe, Baja California.


The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.

The roadway network in Mexico is extensive and all areas in the country are covered by it.[212] The roadway network in Mexico has an extent of 366,095 km (227,481 mi),[213] of which 116,802 km (72,577 mi) are paved,[213] making it the largest paved-roadway network in Latin America.[214] Of these, 10,474 km (6,508 mi) are multi-lane expressways: 9,544 km (5,930 mi) are four-lane highways and the rest have 6 or more lanes.[213]

Mexico was one of the first Latin American countries to promote railway development,[110] and the network covers 30,952 km (19,233 mi).[189] The Secretary of Communications and Transport of Mexico proposed a high-speed rail link that will transport its passengers from Mexico City to Guadalajara, Jalisco.[215][216] The train, which will travel at 300 kilometers per hour,[217] will allow passengers to travel from Mexico City to Guadalajara in just 2 hours.[217] The whole project was projected to cost 240 billion pesos, or about 25 billion US$[215] and is being paid for jointly by the Mexican government and the local private sector including the wealthiest man in the world, Mexico's billionaire business tycoon Carlos Slim.[218] The government of the state of Yucatán is also funding the construction of a high speed line connecting the cities of Cozumel to Mérida and Chichen Itza and Cancún.[219]

Mexico has 233 airports with paved runways; of these, 35 carry 97% of the passenger traffic.[189] The Mexico City International Airport remains the largest in Latin America and the 44th largest in the world[220] transporting 21 million passengers a year.[221]

Water supply and sanitation

Among the achievements is a significant increase in access to piped water supply in urban areas (88% to 93%) as well as in rural areas (50% to 74%) between 1990 and 2010. Additionally, a strong nationwide increase in access to improved sanitation (64% to 85%) was observed in the same period. Other achievements include the existence of a functioning national system to finance water and sanitation infrastructure with a National Water Commission as its apex institution; and the existence of a few well-performing utilities such as Aguas y Drenaje de Monterrey.

The challenges include water scarcity in the northern and central parts of the country; inadequate water service quality (drinking water quality; 55% of Mexicans receiving water only intermittently according to results of the 2000 census); poor technical and commercial efficiency of most utilities (with an average level of non-revenue water of 51% in 2003); an insufficient share of wastewater receiving treatment (36% in 2006); and still inadequate access in rural areas. In addition to on-going investments to expand access, the government has embarked on a large investment program to improve wastewater treatment.


The 2010 Census[222] showed a population of 112,336,538, making it the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world.[223] Between 2005 and 2010, the Mexican population grew at an average of 1.70% per year, up from 1.16% per year between 2000 and 2005.

Prior to 2015, the Mexican government did not ask for the ethnicity nor race of its citizens (last doing so in 1921). The number of indígenas (indigenous peoples) was defined narrowly to speakers of one of Mexico's 62 indigenous languages or connections to established indigenous communities. As a result, the 2010 census found that 14.86% of the population was indigenous.[224] However, beginning with the 2015 inter-census estimate, the government now asks whether an individual self-identifies as indigenous (21.5% of the population) and/or Afro-Mexican (1.2% of the population).[225] These categories are not exclusionary and an individual can indicate both indigenous and afro-descendant heritage. No other groups (such as mestizos, whites or Asian-descendants) are quantified by the government.

As of 2015, the foreign-born population was 1,007,063.[226] The majority of these individuals were born in the United States and Mexico is home to the largest number of U.S. citizens abroad.[227] After Americans the largest immigrant groups are Guatemalans, Spaniards and Colombians. Besides the Spanish, large immigrant-descended groups are the French, Germans, Lebanese and Chinese. Mexico is the largest source of immigration to the United States.[228] Some 11.6 million residents of the United States have Mexican citizenship as of 2014.[229]

Ethnicity and race

De español e india, mestiza, 1763,
Miguel Cabrera
De español y negra, mulata, 1763,
Miguel Cabrera
De negro e india, zamba, 1763,
Miguel Cabrera
Depictions of the three main castas resulting from miscegenation of Europeans, Africans and indigenous Americans. The pinturas de castas were produced during the Age of Enlightenment and were an attempt to "rationally categorize" the racial diversity of colonial Mexico.

Mexico is ethnically diverse; the various indigenous peoples, whites, afro-descendants and mestizos are united under a single national identity.[230] The core part of Mexican national identity is formed on the basis of a synthesis of cultures, primarily European culture and indigenous cultures, in a process known as mestizaje, alluding to the mixed biological origins of the majority of Mexicans.[230][231] Mexican politicians and reformers such as José Vasconcelos (promoter of the cosmic race) and Manuel Gamio (promoter of indigenismo) were instrumental in building a Mexican national identity on the concept of mestizaje.[232]

In 1810, towards the end of the Colonial era, the population of Mexico was estimated to be about 6 million (based on the 1793 Revillagigedo Census and the 1803 estimate by geographer Alexander Humboldt and 1810 estimate by royal accountant Francisco Navarro y Noriega). From these population estimates, anthropologist Gonzalo Aguirre Beltrán approximated the following in regards to race and ethnicity: there were some 15,000 peninsulares (expelled after independence), less than 10,000 Africans (mostly enslaved, legally freed in 1829), more than a million "Euromestizos" (criollos and individuals of primarily European descent, such as castizos), some 700,000 "Indomestizos" (individuals of significant Native descent), some 600,000 "Afromestizos" (individuals of significant African descent, such as mulatos) and some 3.7 million indigenous peoples.[233] Mexico does not ask about race in its census in part because it eliminated the legal basis of the Colonial caste system (based on race and birth) after independence.

A large majority of Mexicans have been classified as "Mestizos" (between 50% to 67% according to the Encyclopædia Britannica).[234] In modern Mexico, the term mestizo is primarily a cultural identity rather than the racial identity it was during the colonial era, resulting in individuals with varying phenotypes being classified under the same identity. The term is not in wide use in Mexican society, although often used in literature about Mexican social identities. Since the term carries a variety of socio-cultural, economic, racial and biological meanings, it was deemed too imprecise to be used for ethnic classification and was abandoned in Mexican censuses.[110][235] Various genetic studies have found that Mexico's population is not uniform in its genetic composition, with there being significant regional variation.[236][237][238] According to the country's Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, on average mestizos of primarily European ancestry predominate in the north while mestizos from the southern region have predominately indigenous ancestry.[238] Mestizos from the center of the country have a more even contribution from Europeans and Natives, while the highest African contribution was found in the southwest and Veracruz.[238] In the Yucatán peninsula the word Mestizo is even used about Maya-speaking populations living in traditional communities, because during the Caste War of the late 19th century those Maya who did not join the rebellion were classified as mestizos.[239] In Chiapas the word "Ladino" is used instead of mestizo.[240]

Estimates of the number of whites range from 10% to 20% according to Encyclopædia Britannica.[234] The numbers very since the criteria to define mestizo might be different from study to study and in Mexico some number of white people have been historically classified as mestizos since the Mexican government defined ethnicity on cultural standards as opposed to racial ones.[241] During the colonial and independent era, most of the European migration into Mexico was Spanish. However, in the 19th and 20th centuries a substantial number of non-Spanish Europeans immigrated to the country. However, at its height, the total immigrant population in Mexico never exceeded two percent of the total.[242] Some of these immigrants, along with non-European immigrants, were forced out of the country as a result of the Mexican Revolution. Mexico's northern regions have the greatest European population and admixture. According to the last racial census Mexico took, which was in 1921,[243] there were no states in Mexico that had a majority "white" population, and in virtually every state in the north Mestizos were the largest population group.[243] The only state where "whites" outnumbered Mestizos was Sonora, in which "whites" composed 41.85% of the population, and Mestizos 40.38%.[243]

The absolute indigenous population of Mexico (26,694,928 individuals as of 2015)[225] is growing, but at a slower rate than the rest of the population so that the percentage of indigenous peoples in regards to total population is nonetheless falling.[244] The majority of the indigenous population is concentrated in the central and southern states, primarily in rural areas. Some indigenous communities have a degree of autonomy under the legislation of "usos y costumbres", which allows them to regulate some internal issues under customary law. According to the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples, the states with the greatest proportion of indigenous residents are:[245] Yucatán at 59%, Quintana Roo 39% and Campeche 27%, chiefly Maya; Oaxaca with 48% of the population, the most numerous groups being the Mixtec and Zapotec peoples; Chiapas at 28%, the majority being Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya; Hidalgo 24%, the majority being Otomi; Puebla 19%, and Guerrero 17%, mostly Nahua peoples and the states of San Luis Potosí and Veracruz both home to a population that is 15% indigenous, mostly from the Totonac, Nahua and Teenek (Huastec) groups.[246] All of the indices of social development for the indigenous population are considerably lower than the national average. In all states indigenous people have higher infant mortality, in some states almost double of the non-indigenous populations. Literacy rates are also much lower, with 27% of indigenous children between 6 and 14 being illiterate compared to a national average of 12%. The indigenous population participate in the workforce longer than the national average, starting earlier and continuing longer. However, 55% of the indigenous population receive less than a minimum salary, compared to 20% for the national average. Many practice subsistence agriculture and receive no salaries. Indigenous people also have less access to health care and a lower quality of housing.[246]

The Afro-Mexican population (1,381,853 individuals as of 2015)[225] is an ethnic group made up of descendants of Colonial-era slaves and recent immigrants of sub-Saharan African descent. Mexico had an active slave trade during the colonial period and some 200,000 Africans were taken there, primarily in the 17th century. The creation of a national Mexican identity, especially after the Mexican Revolution, emphasized Mexico's indigenous and European past; it passively eliminated the African ancestors and contributions. Most of the African-descended population was absorbed into the surrounding Mestizo (mixed European/indigenous) and indigenous populations through unions among the groups. Evidence of this long history of intermarriage with Mestizo and indigenous Mexicans is also expressed in the fact that in the 2015 inter-census, 64.9% (896,829) of Afro-Mexicans also identified as indigenous. It was also reported that 9.3% of Afro-Mexicans speak an indigenous language.[247] The states with the highest self-report of Afro-Mexicans were Guerrero (6.5% of the population), Oaxaca (4.95%) and Veracruz (3.28%).[248] Afro-Mexican culture is strongest in the communities of the Costa Chica of Oaxaca and Costa Chica of Guerrero.

Smaller ethnic groups in Mexico include South and East Asians, present since the colonial era. During the colonial era Asians were termed Chino (regardless of ethnicity), and arrived as merchants, artisans and slaves.[249] The largest group were Filipinos and some 200,000 Mexicans can trace Filipino ancestry.[250] Modern Asian immigration began in the late 19th century and at one point in the early 20th century, the Chinese were the second largest immigrant group.[251] During the early 20th century, a substantial number of Arabs (mostly Christians)[252] began arriving from the crumbling Ottoman Empire. The largest group were the Lebanese and an estimated 400,000 Mexicans have some Lebanese ancestry.[253]


Main article: Languages of Mexico

The country has the largest Spanish-speaking population in the world with almost a third of all Spanish native speakers.[223][254]

Almost all of the Mexican population speaks Spanish, 99.3% according to the latest census,[255] nonetheless around 5.4% still speaks an indigenous language besides Spanish. The indigenous languages with most speakers are Nahuatl, spoken by approximately 1.45 million people,[256] Yukatek Maya spoken by some 750,000 people and the Mixtec[257] and Zapotec languages[258] each spoken by more than 400,000 people.

The National Institute of Indigenous Languages INALI recognizes 68 linguistic groups and some 364 different specific varieties of indigenous languages.[259] Since the promulgation of the Law of Indigenous Linguistic Rights in 2003, these languages have had status as national languages, with equal validity with Spanish in all the areas and contexts in which they are spoken.[260]

In addition to the indigenous languages, other minority languages are spoken by immigrant populations, such as the 80,000 German-speaking Mennonites in Mexico,[261] and 5,000 the Chipilo dialect of the Venetian language spoken in Chipilo, Puebla.

Urban areas

Here are the 20 largest urban areas in Mexico.


Religion in Mexico (2010 census)[262]
Roman Catholicism
Other Christian
Other Religion
No religion

The 2010 census by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (National Institute of Statistics and Geography) gave Roman Catholicism as the main religion, with 83% of the population, while 10% (10,924,103) belong to other Christian denominations, including Evangelicals (5%); Pentecostals (1.6%); other Protestant or Reformed (0.7%); Jehovah's Witnesses (1.4%); Seventh-day Adventists (0.6%); and members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (0.3%).[262] 172,891 (or less than 0.2% of the total) belonged to other, non-Christian religions; 4.7% declared having no religion; 2.7% were unspecified.[262]

The 92,924,489[262] Catholics of Mexico constitute in absolute terms the second largest Catholic community in the world, after Brazil's.[263] 47% percent of them attend church services weekly.[264] The feast day of Our Lady of Guadalupe, the patron saint of Mexico, is celebrated on December 12 and is regarded by many Mexicans as the most important religious holiday of their country.[265]

The 2010 census reported 314,932 members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,[262] though the church in 2009 claimed to have over one million registered members.[266] About 25% of registered members attend a weekly sacrament service although this can fluctuate up and down.[267]

The presence of Jews in Mexico dates back to 1521, when Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztecs, accompanied by several Conversos.[268] According to the 2010 census, there are 67,476 Jews in Mexico.[262] Islam in Mexico is practiced by a small population in the city of Torreón, Coahuila, and there are an estimated 300 Muslims in the San Cristóbal de las Casas area in Chiapas.[269][270] In the 2010 census 18,185 Mexicans reported belonging to an Eastern religion,[262] a category which includes a tiny Buddhist population.


Further information: Women in Mexico

Until the twentieth century, Mexico was an overwhelmingly rural country, with rural women's status defined within the context of the family and local community. With urbanization beginning in the sixteenth century, following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire, cities have provided economic and social opportunities not possible within rural villages. Roman Catholicism in Mexico has shaped societal attitudes about women's social role, emphasizing the role of women as nurturers of the family, with the Virgin Mary as a model. Marianismo has been an ideal, with women's role as being within the family under the authority of men. In the twentieth century, Mexican women made great strides toward toward a more equal legal and social status. In 1953, women in Mexico were granted the vote in national elections.

Mexican women face discrimination and at times harassment from the machismo population. Although women in Mexico are making big advancements they are faced with the traditional expectations of being the head of the household. Researcher Margarita Valdés noted that while there are few inequalities enforced by law or policy in Mexico, there are gender inequalities perpetuated by social structures and Mexican cultural expectations that limit the capabilities of Mexican women.[271]

As of 2014, Mexico has the 16th highest rate of homicides committed against women in the world [272] The prevalence of domestic violence against women in Mexican marital relationships varies at between 30 and 60 percent of relationships.[273] The remains of the victims were frequently mutilated.[274] According to a 1997 study, domestic abuse in Mexican culture "is embedded in gender and marital relations fostered in Mexican women's dependence on their spouses for subsistence and for self-esteem, sustained by ideologies of romantic love, by family structure and residential arrangements."[275] The perpetrators are often the boyfriend, father-in-law, ex-husbands or husbands but only 1.6% of the murder cases led to an arrest and sentencing.[274]


Main article: Culture of Mexico
Frida Kahlo with Diego Rivera in 1932.

Mexican culture reflects the complexity of the country's history through the blending of indigenous cultures and the culture of Spain, imparted during Spain's 300-year colonization of Mexico. Exogenous cultural elements have been incorporated into Mexican culture as time has passed.

The Porfirian era (el Porfiriato), in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, was marked by economic progress and peace. After four decades of civil unrest and war, Mexico saw the development of philosophy and the arts, promoted by President Díaz himself. Since that time, as accentuated during the Mexican Revolution, cultural identity has had its foundation in the mestizaje, of which the indigenous (i.e. Amerindian) element is the core. In light of the various ethnicities that formed the Mexican people, José Vasconcelos in his publication La Raza Cósmica (The Cosmic Race) (1925) defined Mexico to be the melting pot of all races (thus extending the definition of the mestizo) not only biologically but culturally as well.[276]


Mexican literature has its antecedents in the literatures of the indigenous settlements of Mesoamerica. The most well known prehispanic poet is Nezahualcoyotl. Modern Mexican literature was influenced by the concepts of the Spanish colonialization of Mesoamerica. Outstanding colonial writers and poets include Juan Ruiz de Alarcón and Juana Inés de la Cruz.

Other writers include Alfonso Reyes, José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi, Ignacio Manuel Altamirano, Carlos Fuentes, Octavio Paz (Nobel Laureate), Renato Leduc, Carlos Monsiváis, Elena Poniatowska, Mariano Azuela ("Los de abajo") and Juan Rulfo ("Pedro Páramo"). Bruno Traven wrote "Canasta de cuentos mexicanos" (Mexican tales basket), "El tesoro de la Sierra Madre" (Treasure of the Sierra Madre).

Visual arts

See also: Mexican art
The Palacio de Bellas Artes is the preeminent arts museum in Mexico.

Post-revolutionary art in Mexico had its expression in the works of renowned artists such as David Alfaro Siqueiros, Federico Cantú Garza, Frida Kahlo, Juan O'Gorman, José Clemente Orozco, Diego Rivera, and Rufino Tamayo. Diego Rivera, the most well-known figure of Mexican muralism, painted the Man at the Crossroads at the Rockefeller Center in New York City, a huge mural that was destroyed the next year because of the inclusion of a portrait of Russian communist leader Lenin.[277] Some of Rivera's murals are displayed at the Mexican National Palace and the Palace of Fine Arts.

Mesoamerican architecture is mostly noted for its pyramids which are the largest such structures outside of Ancient Egypt.[citation needed] Spanish Colonial architecture is marked by the contrast between the simple, solid construction demanded by the new environment and the Baroque ornamentation exported from Spain.[citation needed] Mexico, as the center of New Spain has some of the most renowned buildings built in this style.


Main article: Cinema of Mexico
Mexican film actress Dolores del Río, successful Hollywood star in the 1920s and 1930s and one of the most important figures of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema in the 1940s and 1950s.

Mexican films from the Golden Age in the 1940s and 1950s are the greatest examples of Latin American cinema, with a huge industry comparable to the Hollywood of those years. Mexican films were exported and exhibited in all of Latin America and Europe. Maria Candelaria (1943) by Emilio Fernández, was one of the first films awarded a Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival in 1946, the first time the event was held after World War II. The famous Spanish-born director Luis Buñuel realized in Mexico, between 1947 and 1965 some of him master pieces like Los Olvidados (1949) and Viridiana (1961). Famous actors and actresses from this period include María Félix, Pedro Infante, Dolores del Río, Jorge Negrete and the comedian Cantinflas.

More recently, films such as Como agua para chocolate (1992), Cronos (1993), Y tu mamá también (2001), and Pan's Labyrinth (2006) have been successful in creating universal stories about contemporary subjects, and were internationally recognized, as in the prestigious Cannes Film Festival. Mexican directors Alejandro González Iñárritu (Amores perros, Babel, Birdman, The Revenant), Alfonso Cuarón (Children of Men, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Gravity), Guillermo del Toro, Carlos Carrera (The Crime of Father Amaro), screenwriter Guillermo Arriaga and photographer Emmanuel Lubezki are some of the most known present-day film makers.

Some Mexican actors have achieved recognition as Hollywood stars. These include Ramon Novarro, Dolores del Río, Lupe Vélez, Gilbert Roland, Anthony Quinn, Katy Jurado, Ricardo Montalbán and Salma Hayek


There are two major television companies in Mexico that own the four primary networks that broadcast to 75% of the population. They are Televisa, which owns the Canal de las Estrellas and Canal 5 networks, and TV Azteca, which owns the Azteca 7 and Azteca Trece networks. Televisa is also the largest producer of Spanish-language content in the world and also the world's largest Spanish-language media network.[278] Grupo Multimedios is another media conglomerate with Spanish-language broadcasting in Mexico, Spain, and the United States. The telenovelas are very traditional in Mexico and are translated to many languages and seen all over the world with renowned names like Verónica Castro, Lucía Méndez and Thalía.


Main article: Music of Mexico
Mariachi at the Festival del Mariachi, Charrería y Tequila in San Juan de los Lagos, Jalisco. Mariachi was inscribed in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List in 2011.

Mexican society enjoys a vast array of music genres, showing the diversity of Mexican culture. Traditional music includes mariachi, banda, norteño, ranchera and corridos; on an everyday basis most Mexicans listen to contemporary music such as pop, rock, etc. in both English and Spanish. Mexico has the largest media industry in Latin America, producing Mexican artists who are famous in Central and South America and parts of Europe, especially Spain.

Some well-known Mexican singers are Thalía, Luis Miguel, Juan Gabriel, Alejandro Fernández, Julieta Venegas, Jose Jose and Paulina Rubio. Mexican singers of traditional music are: Lila Downs, Susana Harp, Jaramar, GEO Meneses and Alejandra Robles. Popular groups are Café Tacuba, Caifanes, Molotov and Maná, among others. Since the early years of the 2000s (decade), Mexican rock has seen widespread growth both domestically and internationally.[citation needed]

According to the Sistema Nacional de Fomento Musical, there are between 120 and 140 youth orchestras affiliated to this federal agency from all federal states.[citation needed] Some states, through their state agencies in charge of culture and the arts—Ministry or Secretary or Institute or Council of Culture, or in some cases the Secretary of Education or the State University—sponsor the activities of a professional symphony orchestra or philharmonic crchestra so all citizens can have access to this artistic expression from the field of classical music. Mexico City is the most intense hub of this activity, hosting 12 professional orchestras sponsored by different agencies such as the National Institute of Fine Arts, the Secretary of Culture of the Federal District, The National University, the National Polytechnic Institute, a Delegación Política (Coyoacán) and private ventures.[citation needed]


Main article: Mexican cuisine
Mole sauce, which has dozens of varieties across the Republic, is seen as a symbol of Mexicanidad[279] and is considered Mexico's national dish.[279]
Chile en nogada, due to the dish's incorporation of red, white and green, is popularly consumed during the celebrations of the
Grito de Dolores.[280]

Mexican cuisine is known for its intense and varied flavors, colorful decoration, and variety of spices. Most of today's Mexican food is based on pre-Columbian traditions, including Aztec and Maya, combined with culinary trends introduced by Spanish colonists.

The conquistadores eventually combined their imported diet of rice, beef, pork, chicken, wine, garlic and onions with the native pre-Columbian food, including maize, tomato, vanilla, avocado, guava, papaya, pineapple, chili pepper, beans, squash, sweet potato, peanut, and turkey.

Mexican food varies by region, because of local climate and geography and ethnic differences among the indigenous inhabitants and because these different populations were influenced by the Spaniards in varying degrees. The north of Mexico is known for its beef, goat and ostrich production and meat dishes, in particular the well-known Arrachera cut.

Central Mexico's cuisine is largely made up of influences from the rest of the country, but also has its authentics, such as barbacoa, pozole, menudo, tamales, and carnitas.

Southeastern Mexico, on the other hand, is known for its spicy vegetable and chicken-based dishes. The cuisine of Southeastern Mexico also has quite a bit of Caribbean influence, given its geographical location. Veal is common in the Yucatan. Seafood is commonly prepared in the states that border the Pacific Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico, the latter having a famous reputation for its fish dishes, in particular à la veracruzana.

In modern times, other cuisines of the world have become very popular in Mexico, thus adopting a Mexican fusion. For example, sushi in Mexico is often made with a variety of sauces based on mango or tamarind, and very often served with serrano-chili-blended soy sauce, or complemented with vinegar, habanero and chipotle peppers

The most internationally recognized dishes include chocolate, tacos, quesadillas, enchiladas, burritos, tamales and mole among others. Regional dishes include mole poblano, chiles en nogada and chalupas from Puebla; cabrito and machaca from Monterrey, cochinita pibil from Yucatán, Tlayudas from Oaxaca, as well as barbacoa, chilaquiles, milanesas, and many others.


Main article: Sport in Mexico
The Estadio Azteca, regarded as one of the iconic football stadiums in the world, hosted the 1970 and 1986 World Cup finals and was the main venue of the 1968 Summer Olympics.

Mexico City hosted the XIX Olympic Games in 1968, making it the first Latin American city to do so.[281] The country has also hosted the FIFA World Cup twice, in 1970 and 1986.[282]

Mexico's most popular sport is association football. It is commonly believed that football was introduced in Mexico by Cornish miners at the end of the 19th century. By 1902 a five-team league had emerged with a strong British influence.[283][284] Mexico's top clubs are América with 12 championships, Guadalajara with 11, and Toluca with 10.[285] Antonio Carbajal was the first player to appear in five World Cups,[286] and Hugo Sánchez was named best CONCACAF player of the 20th century by IFFHS.[287]

Game at the Estadio de Béisbol Monterrey. Baseball is most popular in the North (particularly Northwest) and Southeast of Mexico.

The Mexican professional baseball league is named the Liga Mexicana de Beisbol. While usually not as strong as the United States, the Caribbean countries and Japan, Mexico has nonetheless achieved several international baseball titles.[citation needed] Mexican teams have won the Caribbean Series nine times. Mexico has had several players signed by Major League teams, the most famous of them being Dodgers pitcher Fernando Valenzuela.

In 2013, Mexico's basketball team won the Americas Basketball Championship and qualified for the 2014 Basketball World Cup where it reached the playoffs. Because of these achievements the country earned the hosting rights for the 2015 FIBA Americas Championship.[288]

Bullfighting is a popular sport in the country, and almost all large cities have bullrings. Plaza México in Mexico City, is the largest bullring in the world, which seats 55,000 people. Professional wrestling (or Lucha libre in Spanish) is a major crowd draw with national promotions such as AAA, LLL, CMLL and others.

Mexico is an international power in professional boxing (at the amateur level, several Olympic boxing medals have also been won by Mexico). Vicente Saldivar, Rubén Olivares, Salvador Sánchez, Julio César Chávez, Ricardo Lopez and Erik Morales are but a few Mexican fighters who have been ranked among the best of all time.[289]

Notable Mexican athletes include golfer Lorena Ochoa, who was ranked first in the LPGA world rankings prior to her retirement,[290] Ana Guevara, former world champion of the 400 metres (1,300 ft) and Olympic subchampion in Athens 2004, Fernando Platas, four-time Olympic medal winning diver, and taekwondo fighter María Espinoza, most decorated Mexican female Olympian.


Main article: Healthcare in Mexico

Since the early 1990s, Mexico entered a transitional stage in the health of its population and some indicators such as mortality patterns are identical to those found in highly developed countries like Germany or Japan.[291] Mexico's medical infrastructure is highly rated for the most part and is usually excellent in major cities,[292][293] but rural communities still lack equipment for advanced medical procedures, forcing patients in those locations to travel to the closest urban areas to get specialized medical care.[110] Social determinants of health can be used to evaluate the state of health in Mexico.

State-funded institutions such as Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) and the Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers (ISSSTE) play a major role in health and social security. Private health services are also very important and account for 13% of all medical units in the country.[294]

Medical training is done mostly at public universities with much specializations done in vocational or internship settings. Some public universities in Mexico, such as the University of Guadalajara, have signed agreements with the U.S. to receive and train American students in Medicine. Health care costs in private institutions and prescription drugs in Mexico are on average lower than that of its North American economic partners.[292]


Main article: Education in Mexico

In 2004, the literacy rate was at 97%[295] for youth under the age of 14 and 91% for people over 15,[296] placing Mexico at the 24th place in the world rank according to UNESCO.[297]

The National Autonomous University of Mexico ranks 190th place in the Top 200 World University Ranking published by The Times Higher Education Supplement in 2009.[298] Private business schools also stand out in international rankings. IPADE and EGADE, the business schools of Universidad Panamericana and of Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education respectively, were ranked in the top 10 in a survey conducted by The Wall Street Journal among recruiters outside the United States.[299]

See also


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External links