Mörön

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Mörön
Мөрөн
ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ
Mörön District
Мөрөн сум
ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨᠰᠤᠮᠤ
Mörön from south, July 2008
Mörön from south, July 2008
Mörön is located in Mongolia
Mörön
Mörön
Location in Mongolia
Coordinates: 49°38′08″N 100°09′20″E / 49.63556°N 100.15556°E / 49.63556; 100.15556Coordinates: 49°38′08″N 100°09′20″E / 49.63556°N 100.15556°E / 49.63556; 100.15556
CountryFlag of Mongolia.svg Mongolia
ProvinceKhövsgöl
Settled1809
Area
 • District102.9 km2 (39.7 sq mi)
 • Urban
16.04 km2 (6.19 sq mi)
Elevation
1,710 m (5,610 ft)
Population
 (2017)
 • District39,404
 • Density380/km2 (990/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8
Postal code
210 xxx
Area code(s)+976 (0)138
License plateХӨ (_ variable)

Mörön (Mongolian: Мөрөн;ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ, lit.'river'), also spelled Murun, is the administrative center of Khövsgöl Aimag (province) in northern Mongolia. Before 1933, Khatgal had been the aimag capital.

It has 12,286 families and a population of 46,918, and is considered a major city such as Ulaanbaatar, Darhan, Erdenet and Choibalsan. In terms of administrative units, it is divided into 14 khoroo and covers approximately 102.9 km2. Demographics are split as 51.58% females to 48.42% males. 41.25% of the population is aged between 15 and 39.

Although a poorly developed town, Mörön has a hospital, a museum, a theatre, a post office, nine schools and fifteen kindergartens. It was connected to the Mongolian central power grid in 2004. The town has had a paved road connecting it to Mongolia's capital city Ulaanbaatar since December 2014, as a part of a government effort to extend paved roads from Ulaanbaatar to all Aimag capitals.[1]

History[edit]

The settlement stems from the Möröngiin Khuree monastery, which had been founded in 1809/11 on the banks of the Delgermörön river. By the beginning of the 20th century, the monastery had grown to a population of about 1300 lamas but was destroyed in 1937. A small new monastery (Danzadarjaa Khiid) was erected on the western edge of the town in the 1990s.

The town was notably featured in a 2019 episode of The Grand Tour, where Jeremy Clarkson, Richard Hammond and James May travel from western Mongolia in a hand-built kit car to reach the city in the span of seven days.

Population[edit]

In the western part of Mörön
Mörön population[2][3][4][5][6][7][8]
1959
est.
1969
census
1979
census
1989
census
1994
est.
2000
census
2005
est.
2007
est.
2010
census
9,000 11,200 16,500 21,300 27,230 28,147 35,872 36,082 35,789

Most of the inhabitants live in ger districts.

Education[edit]

Mörön has 27 organizations that are working as educational institutions. There are eight national, one private high schools, thirteen national, four private kindergartens, one vocational training center, and the university. As of 2020, there were a total of 14,865 students in the city. The first school of the local was established in 1923 under the name "Suhiin tenhim". In 2000 it was renamed "Delgermurun" and remains in use until now. The two main institutions are the "Delgermurun" and "Erdmiin Dalai". "Erdmiin Dalai" that is one of the top 10 national school in Mongolia was founded in 1962 with the name "Erdem".

Airport[edit]

Since 1957, the Mörön Airport (ICAO: ZMMN, IATA: MXV) has two runways, one paved 2400m long 42m wide and one gravel 2000m. It is served by regular flights from and to Ulaanbaatar. Some flights to the western Aimags may stop over. It is a first class capacity of 150 passengers per hour.

Climate[edit]

Mörön experienced a continental semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) with a subarctic temperature regime (Dwc) based upon the 1961 to 1990 reference period resulting in long, very dry, frigid winters and short, warm summers. Just a 0.3 °C (0.5 °F) rise of May temperatures would render the climate to have a warm-summer continental temperature profile (Dwb), and given the mildness of northern latitudes in recent decades, the regime is likely to be so if newer averages were used.

Climate data for Mörön
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
9.2
(48.6)
18.7
(65.7)
27.1
(80.8)
32.5
(90.5)
35.4
(95.7)
33.9
(93.0)
33.0
(91.4)
28.8
(83.8)
23.6
(74.5)
10.7
(51.3)
9.6
(49.3)
35.4
(95.7)
Average high °C (°F) −14.5
(5.9)
−9.3
(15.3)
0.8
(33.4)
9.9
(49.8)
18.2
(64.8)
22.9
(73.2)
23.4
(74.1)
21.9
(71.4)
16.7
(62.1)
7.6
(45.7)
−3.7
(25.3)
−12.1
(10.2)
6.8
(44.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −22.7
(−8.9)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−8.0
(17.6)
1.4
(34.5)
9.7
(49.5)
15.2
(59.4)
16.2
(61.2)
14.4
(57.9)
7.9
(46.2)
−0.7
(30.7)
−11.4
(11.5)
−19.8
(−3.6)
−1.3
(29.6)
Average low °C (°F) −28.8
(−19.8)
−25.8
(−14.4)
−15.9
(3.4)
−6.4
(20.5)
1.2
(34.2)
7.5
(45.5)
10.1
(50.2)
7.6
(45.7)
0.4
(32.7)
−8.0
(17.6)
−18.0
(−0.4)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−8.5
(16.8)
Record low °C (°F) −45.7
(−50.3)
−44.3
(−47.7)
−34.6
(−30.3)
−22.3
(−8.1)
−11.7
(10.9)
−5.8
(21.6)
1.4
(34.5)
−1.6
(29.1)
−12.7
(9.1)
−27.3
(−17.1)
−37.9
(−36.2)
−45.8
(−50.4)
−45.8
(−50.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 1.3
(0.05)
1.0
(0.04)
0.8
(0.03)
7.0
(0.28)
15.3
(0.60)
42.6
(1.68)
59.6
(2.35)
54.1
(2.13)
17.5
(0.69)
5.3
(0.21)
1.9
(0.07)
1.4
(0.06)
207.8
(8.19)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.4 2.9 6.8 10.2 8.0 3.7 1.3 0.3 0.4 36.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 168.4 199.0 252.6 250.0 294.5 291.5 274.3 274.1 249.0 224.9 168.1 154.5 2,800.9
Source: NOAA (1961-1990)[9]

Notable buildings[edit]

  • There were 60 temples and monasteries in Mörön at the end of the 19th century. Möröngiin Chüree Khiid Monastery in which about 2500 monks were living was the most important one. It was famous for its Tsam dances. In 1937, however, the monasteries and temples of Mörön were all destroyed by order of the then president Khorloogiin Choibalsan, like everywhere in Mongolia. Danzadardscha Khiid, a small new monastery, was built in a traditional style in the western part of Mörön in June 1990, and 40 monks are living there.[10] Several stupas and a tall Buddha statue were also built around it.
  • The municipal theatre and the post office are on the southern and southwestern edges of the large Central Square. Opposite, the Town Hall which was built in a typical socialist style, is worth a look as well. In the middle of the square, an equestrian statue was erected as a monument for Chingunjav, the leader of a local rebellion against the Qing dynasty, in 2010. This statue replaced an older monument for Davaadorj (see below).
  • The monument for Davaadorj, a Mongolian border guard from Khövsgöl who was killed in a skirmish on the Khovd/Xinjiang border in 1948, has been moved to the compound of the border troops, around 300 m northeast of the Central Square.
  • Another sightworthy memorial was erected in front of the airport: Khainzangiin Gelenkhüü (Хайнзангийн Гэлэнхүү; 1870–1938), a Buddhist monk who tried to fly with wings made of sheep leather near the town of Jargalant in the 1930s.[11]
  • The Aimag Museum, founded in 1949, is halfway between Central Square and the Wrestlers' Stadium. It shows about 4000 objects, e.g., are traditional clothes and other items of minorities living in Khövsgöl Aimag.[12]
  • The Wrestlers' Stadium is an interesting modern building in the eastern part of the town. In front of it, a memorial was erected to honour three famous wrestlers stemming from Mörön. A special park for children was laid out opposite the stadium.

Museum[edit]

The first department to explore the local area was established in 1949 in order to have historical and ethnographic exhibits. As a result of the collection of antique books and geological samples, the first building foundations were laid to explore the local area. In 1967, it eventually became a museum to research the local area and grew the collection to include approximately 1000 exhibits and artifacts. In 1987, a zoo was constructed and opened its doors next to the museum. The zoo showed people wild animals, birds, and local breeds of livestock. In 2010, the museum was reorganized and currently Khövsgöl province's local history museum operates with 13 employees, 3 halls, consisting of 3693 exhibits and artifacts from 1860 locations. In the museum, rare and valuable exhibits are included. For instance, 108 tomes of Ganjuur (also known as Kanjur) scripture, mammoth tusks, a meteor that weighs about 52.5 kilograms, as well as a flint gun and sword of Chingunjav who was the Khalkha prince ruler of the Khotogoid among other historical and ethnographic artifacts.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ulaanbaatar Murun Paved Road Complete". Archived from the original on 2016-03-12. Retrieved 2014-12-11.
  2. ^ National Statistical Office Archived 2007-06-07 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ National Economy of the Mongolian People's Republic (1921 - 1981), Ulaanbaatar 1981
  4. ^ GeoHive: Global Statistics Archived 2013-07-30 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "Population Statistics: historical demography". Archived from the original on 2015-02-23. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
  6. ^ M. Nyamaa, Khövsgöl aimgiin lavlakh toli, Ulaanbaatar 2001, passim
  7. ^ Rural Poverty Reduction Programme: official site Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Khövsgöl Aimag Statistical Yearbook 2007[permanent dead link]
  9. ^ "Muren Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
  10. ^ Michael Kohn: Mongolia, p. 150. London 2008.
  11. ^ Michael Kohn: Mongolia, p. 163. London 2008.
  12. ^ Marion Wisotzki: Mongolei, p. 232. Berlin 2010.

External links[edit]

Media related to Mörön at Wikimedia Commons