Jean Giraud

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Mœbius)
Jump to: navigation, search
Jean Giraud
Moebius Lodz 2008.jpg
Jean Giraud at the International Festival of Comics in Łódź, 4 October 2008.
Born Jean Henri Gaston Giraud
(1938-05-08)8 May 1938
Nogent-sur-Marne, France
Died 10 March 2012(2012-03-10) (aged 73)
Paris, France
Nationality French
Area(s) Writer, Artist
Pseudonym(s) Mœbius, Gir
Notable works
Collaborators Alejandro Jodorowsky, Jean-Michel Charlier
Awards full list
Spouse(s) Claudine Conin (m. 1967–94)
Isabelle Champeval (m. 1995–2012)
Children fr:Hélène Giraud (1970), Julien Giraud (1972), Raphaël Giraud (1997), Nausicaa Giraud
Signature of Jean Giraud

Jean Henri Gaston Giraud (French: [ʒiʁo]; 8 May 1938 – 10 March 2012) was a French artist, cartoonist and writer who worked in the Franco-Belgian bandes dessinées tradition. Giraud garnered worldwide acclaim predominantly under the pseudonym Mœbius (/ˈmbiəs/;[1] French: [məbjys]) and to a lesser extent Gir (French: [ʒiʁ]), which he used for the Blueberry series and his paintings. Esteemed by Federico Fellini, Stan Lee and Hayao Miyazaki among others,[2] he has been described as the most influential bandes dessinées artist after Hergé.[3]

His most famous works include the series Blueberry, created with writer Jean-Michel Charlier, featuring one of the first anti-heroes in Western comics. As Mœbius he created a wide range of science fiction and fantasy comics in a highly imaginative, surreal, almost abstract style. These works include Arzach and the Airtight Garage of Jerry Cornelius. He also collaborated with avant-garde filmmaker Alejandro Jodorowsky for an unproduced adaptation of Dune and the comic book series The Incal.

Mœbius also contributed storyboards and concept designs to numerous science fiction and fantasy films, such as Alien, Tron, The Fifth Element and The Abyss. In 2004,[4] Moebius and Jodorowsky sued Luc Besson for using The Incal as inspiration for Fifth Element, a lawsuit which they lost.[5] Blueberry was adapted for the screen in 2004 by French director Jan Kounen.

Early life[edit]

Jean Giraud was born in Nogent-sur-Marne, Val-de-Marne, in the suburbs of Paris, on 8 May 1938,[6][7] as the only child to Raymond Giraud, an insurance agent, and Pauline Vinchon who had worked at the agency.[8] When he was three years old, his parents divorced and he was raised mainly by his grandparents, who were living in the neighboring municipality of Fontenay-sous-Bois (much later, when he was the acclaimed artist, Giraud returned to live in the municipality in the mid-1970s, but was regrettably unable to buy his grandparents' house[9]). The rupture between mother and father created a lasting trauma that he explained lay at the heart of his choice of separate pen names.[10] An introverted and somewhat sickly child at first, the latter resulting from the poor food situation in German occupied France during World War II, young Giraud found solace after the war in a small theater, located on a corner in the street where his grandparents lived, which concurrently provided an escape from the dreary atmosphere in post-war reconstruction era France. Playing an abundance of American B-Westerns, it was there that Giraud, frequenting the theater as often as he was able to, developed a passion for the genre, as had so many other European boys his age in those times.[9] In 1954 at age 16,[11] he began his only technical training at the École Supérieure des Arts Appliqués Duperré, where he, unsurprisingly, started producing Western comics, which however did not sit well with his teachers.[12] He became close friends with another comic artist, Jean-Claude Mézières, in no small part due to their shared passion for Westerns and the Far West. In 1956 he left art school without graduating to visit his mother, who had married a Mexican in Mexico, and stayed there for eight months.

It was the experience of the Mexican desert, in particular its endless blue skies and unending flat plains, now seeing and experiencing for himself the vistas that had enthralled him so much when watching westerns on the silver screen only a few years earlier, which left an everlasting, "quelque chose qui m'a littéralement craqué l'âme",[13] enduring impression on him, easily recognizable in almost all of his later seminal works.[14] After his return to France, he started to work as a full-time artist.[15] In 1959–1960 he was slated for military service in Algeria,[16] in the throes of the vicious Algerian War at the time, but fortunately for him, ended up serving out his military obligations in the French occupation zone of Germany where he collaborated on the army magazine 5/5 Forces Françaises.[9]


Western comics[edit]

A panel from Giraud's 1958 Western comic "King of the Buffalo", written by Noel Carré. It shows heavy inspiration from Jijé.
Blueberry, created by Giraud and writer Jean-Michel Charlier. Within the series, he turned from the classic Western comic to a grittier realism.

At 18, Giraud was drawing his own comic Western strip, "Frank et Jeremie", for the magazine Far West, his very first commercial sale.[17] From 1956 to 1958 he published Western comics, alongside several others of a French historical nature, in the magazines Fripounet et Marisette, fr:Cœurs Valiants and Ames Valliantes, all from Catholic publisher Fleurus, and all of them of a strong edifying nature aimed at France's adolescent youth, among them a strip called "King of the Buffalo", and another called "A Giant with the Hurons".[18] It was for Fleurus that Giraud also illustrated his first three books.[19] Already in this period his style was heavily influenced by his later mentor, Joseph "Jijé" Gillain.[15] In 1961, returning from military service in Germany (where he, being the only serviceman available with a graphics background, was set to work as illustrator on 5/5 Forces Françaises), Giraud became an apprentice of Jijé, who was one of the leading comic artists in Europe at the time. For Jijé, Giraud created several other shorts and illustrations for the short-lived magazine Bonux-Boy (1960/61), his first work after military service, and his last before embarking on Blueberry.[20] In this period, Jijé used Giraud as his assistant on an album of his Western series Jerry Spring, "The Road to Coronado", which Giraud inked.[16]

In 1962, Giraud and writer Jean-Michel Charlier started the comic strip Fort Navajo for Pilote Magazine #210. At this time the affinity between the styles of Giraud and Jijé (who actually had been Charlier's first choice for the series, but who was reverted to Giraud by Jijé) was so close that Jijé penciled several pages for the series when Giraud went AWOL. The first time was during the production of "Thunder in the West" (1964) when the still inexperienced Giraud, buckling under the stress of having to produce a strictly scheduled magazine serial, suffered from a nervous breakdown, with Jijé taking on plates 28–36.[21] The second time occurred one year later, during the production of "Mission to Mexico (The Lost Rider)", when Giraud unexpectedly packed up and left to travel the United States,[22] and, again, Mexico; yet again former mentor Jijé came to the rescue by penciling plates 17–38.[23][24] While the art style of both artists had been nearly indistinguishable from each other in "Thunder in the West", after Giraud resumed work on plate 39 of "Mission to Mexico", a clearly noticeable style breach was now observable, indicating that Giraud was now well on his way to develop his own signature style, eventually surpassing that of his former teacher Jijé.

The Lieutenant Blueberry character, whose facial features were based on those of the actor Jean-Paul Belmondo, was created in 1963 by Charlier (scenario) and Giraud (drawings) for Pilote.[25][26] While the Fort Navajo series had had originally been intended as an ensemble narrative, it quickly gravitated towards having Blueberry as its central figure. His adventures featured, in what was later called the Blueberry series, may be Giraud's work best known in his native France and the rest of Europe, before later collaborations with Alejandro Jodorowsky. The early Blueberry comics used a simple line drawing style similar to that of Jijé, and standard Western themes and imagery (specifically, those of John Ford's US Cavalry Western trilogy, with Howard Hawk's 1959 Rio Bravo thrown in for good measure for the sixth, one-shot title "The Man with the Silver Star"), but gradually Giraud developed a darker and grittier style inspired by, firstly the 1970 Westerns Soldier Blue and Little Big Man (for the "Iron Horse" saga), and subsequently by the Spaghetti Westerns of Sergio Leone and the dark realism of Sam Peckinpah in particular (for the "Lost Goldmine" saga and beyond).[27] With the fifth album, "The Trail of the Navajos", Giraud established his own style, and after censorship laws were loosened in 1968 the strip became more explicitly adult, and also adopted a wider range of thematics.[3][24] The first Blueberry album penciled by Giraud after he had begun publishing science fiction as Mœbius, "Broken Nose", was much more experimental than his previous Western work.[24]

Giraud left the series in 1974, partly because he was tired of the publication pressure he was under in order to produce the series, partly because of an emerging royalties conflict, but mostly because he wanted further explore and develop his "Mœbius" alter ego. The work he produced under this pseudonym was published in the magazine he co-founded, Métal Hurlant, in the process revolutionizing the Franco-Belgian comic world. He returned to the series in 1979.

In 1979, the long-running disagreement Charlier and Giraud had with their publishing house Dargaud over the residuals from Blueberry came to a head. They began the western comic Jim Cutlass as a means to put the pressure on Dargaud. It did not work, and Charlier and Giraud turned their back on the parent publisher, leaving for greener pastures elsewhere, and in the process taking all of Charlier's co-creations with them. It would be nearly fifteen years before the Blueberry series returned to Dargaud after Charlier died. After the first album, "Mississippi River", first serialized in Métal Hurlant Giraud took on scripting the series, leaving the artwork to Christian Rossi.[28]

When Charlier, Giraud's collaborator on Blueberry, died in 1989, Giraud assumed responsibility for the scripting of the main series. Blueberry has been translated into 19 languages, the first English book translations being published in 1977/78 by UK publisher Egmont/Methuen. The original Blueberry series has spun off a prequel series called "Young Blueberry", but left the artwork to Colin Wilson and later Michel Blanc-Dumont after volume three in that series, as well as an intermezzo called "Marshall Blueberry".[25]

Science fiction and fantasy comics[edit]

The opening panel of Mœbius's "Arzach".

The Mœbius pseudonym, which Giraud came to use for his science fiction and fantasy work, was born in 1963.[16] In a satire magazine called Hara-Kiri, Giraud used the name for 21 strips in 1963–64. Subsequently, the pseudonym went unused for a decade.

In 1975 he revived the Mœbius pseudonym, and with Jean-Pierre Dionnet, Philippe Druillet and Bernard Farkas, he became one of the founding members of the comics art group and publishing house "Les Humanoïdes Associés".[29] Together they started the magazine Métal hurlant,[30] and for which he had temporarily abandoned his Blueberry series. The magazine known in the English-speaking world as Heavy Metal. Mœbius' famous serial The Airtight Garage and his groundbreaking Arzach both began in Métal hurlant.[31] In 1976, Métal hurlant published "The Long Tomorrow", written by Dan O'Bannon.

Arzach is a wordless comic, created in a conscious attempt to breathe new life into the comic genre which at the time was dominated by American superhero comics. It tracks the journey of the title character flying on the back of his pterodactyl through a fantastic world mixing medieval fantasy with futurism. Unlike most science fiction comics, it has no captions, no speech balloons and no written sound effects. It has been argued that the wordlessness provides the strip with a sense of timelessness, setting up Arzach's journey as a quest for eternal, universal truths.[2]

His series The Airtight Garage is particularly notable for its non-linear plot, where movement and temporality can be traced in multiple directions depending on the readers' own interpretation even within a single planche (page or picture). The series tells of Major Grubert, who is constructing his own universe on an Asteroid named fleur, where he encounters a wealth of fantastic characters including Michael Moorcock's creation Jerry Cornelius.[32]

In 1980 he started his famous L'Incal series in collaboration with Alejandro Jodorowsky. From 1985 to 2001 he also created his six-volume fantasy series Le Monde d'Edena, which has appeared in English as The Aedena Cycle. The stories were strongly influenced by the teachings of Jean-Paul Appel-Guéry.[a] In effect, Giraud and his family did join Appel-Guéry's commune on Tahiti in 1983, until late 1984, when the family moved to the United States, where Giraud set up shop firstly in Santa Monica, and subsequently in Venice and Woodland Hills, California.[33] Giraud's one-shot comic book "La nuit de l'étoile"[34] was co-written by Appel-Guéry, and has been the most visible manifestation of Giraud's stay on Tahiti, aside from the art book "La memoire du futur".[35] Concurrently collaborating on "La nuit de l'étoile" was young artist Marc Bati, also residing at the commune at the time, and for whom Giraud afterwards wrote the comic series The Magic Crystal, while in the US. Having to move statesite for work, served Giraud well, as he became increasingly disenchanted at a later stage with the way Appel-Guéry ran his commune on Tahiti.[14]

During his stay on Tahiti, Giraud had co-founded his first publishing house under two concurrent imprints, Éditions Gentiane[36] (predominantly for his work as Gir, most notably Blueberry) and Éditions Aedena[37] (predominantly for his work as Mœbius, and not entirely by coincidence named after the series he was working on at the time), together with friend and former editor at Les Humanoïdes Associés, fr:Jean Annestay, for the express purpose to release his work in a more artful manner, such as limited edition art prints, art books ("La memoire du futur" was first released under the Gentiane imprint, and reprinted under that of Aedena) and art portfolios. Both men had already released the very first such art book in the Humanoïdes days,[38] and the format then conceived – to wit, large 30x30cm book format at first, with art organized around themes, introduced by philosophical poetry by Moebius – was adhered to for later such releases, including "La memoire du futur".

In his later life, Giraud decided to revive the Arzak character in an elaborate new adventure series; the first volume of a planned trilogy, Arzak l'arpenteur, appeared in 2010. He also added to the Airtight Garage series with a new volume entitled Le chasseur déprime.

Marvel Comics[edit]

Cover for Silver Surfer: Parable.

After having arrived in California, Giraud's wife Claudine set up Giraud's second publishing house Starwatcher Graphics, essentially the US branch of Gentiane/Aedena with the same goals, in 1985, resulting in the release of, among others, the extremely limited art portfolio La Cité Feu, a collaborative art project of Giraud with Geoff Darrow (see below). However, due to their unfamiliarity with the American publishing world, the company did not do well, and in an effort to remedy the situation Claudine hired the French/American editor couple Jean-Marc and Randy Lofficier, whom she had met at the 1987 Vegas ComicCon, as editors-in-chief for Starwatcher.[39] Already veterans of the US publishing world, it was the Lofficier couple that managed to convince Marvel Comics to publish most of Moebius' hitherto produced work on a wider scale in the US – contrary to the Heavy Metal niche market releases by HM Communications in the late 1970s – in graphic novel format trade editions, under its Epic imprint from 1987-1994. These incidentally, included three of Moebius' latter-day art books, as well as his Blueberry Western comic.[40]

A two-issue Silver Surfer miniseries (later collected as Silver Surfer: Parable), written by Stan Lee and drawn by Giraud (as Mœbius), was published through Marvel's Epic Comics imprint in 1988 and 1989. According to Giraud, this was his first time working under the Marvel method instead of from a full script, and he has admitted to being baffled by the fact that he already had a complete story synopsis on his desk only two days after he had met Stan Lee for the first time, having discussed the – what Giraud then assumed a mere – proposition over lunch.[30] This miniseries won the Eisner Award for best finite/limited series in 1989. Moebius' version was discussed in the 1995 submarine thriller Crimson Tide by two sailors pitting his version against those of Jack Kirby, with the main character played by Denzel Washington emphasizing the Kirby one being the better of the two. Unaware of the reference at the time, Giraud was later told around 2005 by the movie's director Tony Scott (brother of Ridley), that it was he who had written in the dialog as an homage to the artist and not (uncredited) script doctor Quentin Tarentino (known for infusing his works with pop culture references) as previously rumored, which titillated Giraud to no end, and who humorously stated, "It's better than a big stature, because in a way, I can not dream of anything better to be immortal [than] being in a movie about submarines!"[1]

As a result, from his cooperation with Marvel, Giraud delved deeper into the American super hero mythology and created super hero art stemming from both Marvel and DC Comics, which were sold as art prints, posters or included in calendars.[41] Even as late as 1997, Giraud had created cover art for two DC comic book outings, Hardware (Vol. 1, issue 49, March 1997) and Static (Vol. 1, issue 45, March 1997), after an earlier cover for Marvel Tales (Vol. 2, issue 253, September 1991). Another project Giraud embarked upon in his American period, was for a venture into that other staple of American pop culture, trading cards. Trading card company Comic Images released a "Mœbius Collector Cards" set in 1993, featuring characters and imagery from all over his Mœbius universe, though his Western work was excluded. None of the images were lifted from already pre-existing work, but was especially created anew by Giraud the year previously.

Although Giraud had taken up residence in California for five years, he maintained a transient lifestyle, as his work had him frequently travel to Belgium and native France, as well as to Japan, for extended periods of time. His stay in the United States was an inspiration for his aptly called Made in L.A. art book, and much of his art he had produced in this period of time, including his super hero art, was reproduced in this, and the follow-up art book Fusions,[42] the latter of which having seen a translation in English by Epic.

Giraud's extended stay in the US, garnered him an 1986 Inkpot Award, an additional 1991 Eisner Award, as well as three Harvey Awards in the period 1988–1991 for the various graphic novel releases by Marvel.

Other work[edit]

From 2000 to 2010, Giraud published Inside Mœbius (French text despite English title), an illustrated autobiographical fantasy in six hardcover volumes totaling 700 pages.[10] Pirandello-like, he appears in cartoon form as both creator and protagonist trapped within the story alongside his younger self and several longtime characters such as Blueberry, Arzak (the latest re-spelling of the Arzach character's name), Major Grubert (from The Airtight Garage) and others.

Jean Giraud drew the first of the two-part volume of the XIII series titled La Version Irlandaise ("The Irish Version") from a script by Jean Van Hamme, to accompany the second part by the regular team Jean Van Hamme–William Vance, Le dernier round ("The Last Round"). Both parts were published on the same date (13 November 2007)[43] and were the last ones written by Van Hamme before Yves Sentes took over the series.[44] Vance incidentally, had previously provided the artwork for the first two titles in the Marshall Blueberry spin-off series.

Illustrator and author[edit]

Under the names Giraud and Gir, he also wrote numerous comics for other comic artists like Auclair and Tardi. He also made illustrations for books and magazines, illustrating for example one edition of the novel The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho.


As Mœbius, Giraud contributed storyboards and concept designs to numerous science fiction films, including Alien by Ridley Scott, Tron by Disney, The Fifth Element by Luc Besson (with friend Mézières and daughter Hélène, although she received no credit[45]), Star Wars Episode V and for Jodorowsky's planned adaptation of Frank Herbert's Dune, which was however abandoned in pre-production.[46] Jodorowsky's Dune, a 2013 American-French documentary directed by Frank Pavich, explores Jodorowsky's unsuccessful attempt.

In 1982 he collaborated with director René Laloux to create the science fiction feature-length animated movie Les Maîtres du temps (released in English as Time Masters) based on a novel by Stefan Wul. He and director Rene Laloux shared the award for Best Children's Film at the Fantafestival that year.[47]

With Yutaka Fujioka, he wrote the story for the 1989 Japanese animated feature film Little Nemo: Adventures in Slumberland; as well, he was a conceptual designer for the movie.[47]

Giraud made original character designs and did visual development for Warner Bros. partly animated 1996 movie Space Jam. And, though uncredited, he provided characters and situations for the "Taarna" segment of Ivan Reitman's 1981 film Heavy Metal.[47]

In 1991 his graphic novel Cauchemar Blanc was cinematized by Matthieu Kassovitz. The Blueberry series was adapted for the screen in 2004, by Jan Kounen, as Blueberry: L'expérience secrète. Two previous attempts to bring Blueberry to the silver screen in the 1980s had fallen through; American actor Martin Kove had actually already been signed to play the titular role for one of the attempts.[48]

2005 saw the release of the Chinese movie Thru the Moebius Strip, based on a story by Giraud who also served as the production designer.


From December 2004 to March 2005, his work was exhibited with that of Hayao Miyazaki at La Monnaie in Paris.[49]

From 12 October 2010 to 13 March 2011, the Fondation Cartier pour l'Art Contemporain presented the exhibition MOEBIUS-TRANSE-FORME, which the museum called "the first major exhibition in Paris devoted to the work of Jean Giraud, known by his pseudonyms Gir and Mœbius."[50] A prestigious event, it reflected the status Giraud has attained in French (comic) culture.


In 1988 Giraud was chosen, among 11 other winners of the prestigious Grand Prix of the Angoulême Festival, to illustrate a postage stamp set issued on the theme of communication.[51]


Cover art for the Blueberry album Nez Cassé (1985). Giraud used oil paint as well as line drawings and he changed the artistic style of the Blueberry series several times.

Giraud's working methods were various and adaptable ranging from etchings, white and black illustrations, to work in colour of the ligne claire genre and water colours.[52] Giraud's solo Blueberry works were sometimes criticized by fans of the series because the artist dramatically changed the tone of the series as well as the graphic style.[53] However, Blueberry's early success was also due to Giraud's innovations, as he did not content himself with following earlier styles, an important aspect of his development as an artist.[54]

To distinguish between work by Giraud and Moebius, Giraud used a brush for his own work and a pen when he signed his work as Moebius. Giraud drew very quickly.[55]

His style has been compared to the Nouveaux réalistes, exemplified in his turn from the bowdlerized realism of Hergé's Tintin towards a grittier style depicting sex, violence and moral bankruptcy.[2]

Throughout his career he used drugs and cultivated various New Age type philosophies, such as Guy-Claude Burger's instinctotherapy, which influenced his creation of the comic book series Le Monde d'Edena.[2][10] However, it also negatively influenced his relationship with Philippe Charlier, heir and steward of his father's Blueberry co-creation and legacy, who, as 50% co-owner, had no patience whatsoever with Giraud's New Age predilections, particularly for his admitted fondness for mind-expanding substances. Charlier jr. has vetoed several later Blueberry project proposals by Giraud, the Blueberry 1900 project in particular, precisely for these reasons, as they were to prominently feature substance-induced scenes, going even as far as to take Giraud to court to thwart his intentions.[56]


Giraud died in Paris, on 10 March 2012, aged 73, after a long battle with cancer.[57][58][59][60] The immediate cause of death was pulmonary embolism caused by a lymphoma. Mœbius was buried on 15 March, in the Montparnasse Cemetery.[61] Fellow comic artist François Boucq (incidentally, the artist pegged by Giraud in person for the artwork of the canceled Blueberry 1900 project) stated that Mœbius was a "master of realist drawing with a real talent for humour, which he was still demonstrating with the nurses when I saw him in his hospital bed a fortnight ago".[62] Giraud left his estate to his second wife Isabelle and his four children.[63]

Influence and legacy[edit]

Many artists from around the world have cited Giraud as an influence on their work. Giraud was longtime friends with manga author and anime filmmaker Hayao Miyazaki. Giraud even named his daughter Nausicaä after the character in Miyazaki's Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind.[64][65] Asked by Giraud in an interview how he first discovered his work, Miyazaki replied:

Through Arzach, which dates from 1975, I believe. I only read it in 1980, and it was a big shock. Not only for me. All manga authors were shaken by this work. Unfortunately, when I discovered it, I already had a consolidated style so I couldn't use its influence to enrich my drawing. Even today, I think it has an awesome sense of space. I directed Nausicaä under Mœbius's influence.[66][67]

Pioneering cyberpunk author William Gibson said of Giraud's work "The Long Tomorrow":

So it's entirely fair to say, and I've said it before, that the way Neuromancer-the-novel "looks" was influenced in large part by some of the artwork I saw in Heavy Metal. I assume that this must also be true of John Carpenter's Escape from New York, Ridley Scott's Blade Runner, and all other artefacts of the style sometimes dubbed 'cyberpunk'. Those French guys, they got their end in early.[68]

"The Long Tomorrow" also came to the attention of Ridley Scott and was a key visual reference for Blade Runner.[68]

"I consider him more important than Doré", said Italian filmmaker Federico Fellini:

"He's a unique talent endowed with an extraordinary visionary imagination that's constantly renewed and never vulgar. Moebius disturbs and consoles. He has the ability to transport us into unknown worlds where we encounter unsettling characters. My admiration for him is total. I consider him a great artist, as great as Picasso and Matisse."[69]

Following his death, Brazilian author Paulo Coelho paid tribute on Twitter stating:

"The great Moebius died today, but the great Mœbius is still alive. Your body died today, your work is more alive than ever."[62]

Benoît Mouchart, artistic director at France's Angoulême International Comics Festival, made an assessment of his importance to the field of comics:

"France has lost one of its best known artists in the world. In Japan, Italy, in the United States he is an incredible star who influenced world comics. Mœbius will remain part of the history of drawing, in the same right as Dürer or Ingres. He was an incredible producer, he said he wanted to show what eyes do not always see".[62]

French Culture Minister Frédéric Mitterrand, speaking at his funeral services at Saint Clotilde Basilica on March 15, 2012,[70] said that by the simultaneous death of Giraud and Mœbius, France had lost "two great artists".[62]

Awards and honors[edit]


Those works for which English translations have been published are noted as such. Their respective pages describe this further, and/or is detailed in the "English (collected) editions" section further down the line.

As Jean Giraud (Gir)[edit]

  • Blueberry (29 volumes, partial English translation, 1965–2007), artist (all vol), writer vol 25–29 (writer vol. 1–24: Jean Michel Charlier), Paris: Dargaud (primary)
  • Young Blueberry (3 volumes, English translation, 1968–1970), artist (writer: Jean Michel Charlier), Paris: Dargaud
  • Jim Cutlass (7 volumes, vol. 1 English translation, 1979–1999), artist vol. 1 (writer: Jean Michel Charlier), writer vol. 2–7 (artist: Christian Rossi), Paris: Les Humanoïdes Associés (vol. 1)/Tournai: Casterman (vol. 2–7)
  • Le Cristal Majeur (The Magic Crystal, 7 volumes, vol. 1–3 in English translation, 1986–2003), writer (artist: Marc Bati), Paris: Dargaud
  • Marshal Blueberry (3 volumes, 1991–2000), writer (artist vol. 1–2: William Vance, artist vol. 3: Michel Rouge), Paris: Alpen Publishers (vol. 1–2)/Paris: Dargaud (vol. 3)
  • XIII, volume 18 (La Version irlandaise, The Irish Version, English translation, 2007), artist (writer: Jean van Hamme), Paris: Dargaud

As Mœbius[edit]

English (collected) editions[edit]

Note: for particulars on the English-language Blueberry publications, please refer to main article; contingent digital releases are not included for expediency.

The English-language versions of many of Mœbius's comics have been collected into various editions, beginning with a small series of US graphic novel sized trade paperbacks from HM Communications, Inc., collecting work originally published in its Heavy Metal magazine (the US version of the French original, co-founded by Giraud), and in which Moebius' work was introduced to American readership in the 1970s.

HM Communications[edit]

Heavy Metal presents (1977–1981)

  • Arzach (64 pages, HM Communications, 1977, ISBN 0930368886)
  • Is Man Good? (64 pages, HM Communications, 1978, ISBN 0930368924)
  • Moebius (96 pages, HM Communications, 1981, OCLC 9043362, issued without ISBN), art/comic book hybrid with an introduction by Federico Fellini, featuring a selection of art lifted from the French 1980 "Mœbius" source art book.[38]


Cover image of the 1987 Epic edition of Moebius 3 - The Airtight Garage

A far more comprehensive effort was undertaken at Marvel Comics under its Epic imprint in the late 1980s and early 1990s, initiated, translated and introduced by Jean-Marc and Randy Lofficier. When initiated, the collection was otherwise unaltered published in Great Britain as well, with a lag ranging from a few months to a year, by Titan Books in a smaller print run of 6.000 copies per title – like the previous HM Communications book releases had been – as opposed to the 20.000 copies per title released by Epic.[80] However, of the eventual eleven titles in the softcover collection, only six (Moebius 1 - Moebius 6) were ultimately released by Titan Books. With the exception of Moebius 9 – Stel, Giraud created new cover art for the Marvel/Epic releases, including the Incal series. Aside from the covers, it was for this release that stories, originally done in black and white, received first time coloring, most notably The Airtight Garage.

The Collected Fantasies of Jean Giraud (1987–1994):

The Incal collection (1988)
Moebius' magnus opus as such, The Incal, was separately released both in the US and Great Britain in its own mini series, each title collecting two of the original French source publications:

The Marvel/Epic graphic novel releases earned Moebius his three Harvey Awards in the category "Best American Edition of Foreign Material" in 1988 (for the Moebius collection), in 1989 (for The Incal series) and in 1991 (for the Blueberry series).

The Silver Surfer (1988–2012)

  • The Silver Surfer, Part 1 (32 pages, Epic, December 1988); US standard comic book.
  • The Silver Surfer, Part 2 (32 pages, Epic, January 1989); US standard comic book.
  • The Silver Surfer (68 pages, Epic, December 1988, ISBN 0871354918); With editorial enhanced, limited deluxe hardcover anthology edition in dust jacket, though print run is unknown.
  • The Silver Surfer: Parable (68 pages, Marvel, 1998/Q1, ISBN 0785106561); Softcover trade paperback reissue.
  • The Silver Surfer: Parable (168 pages, Marvel, May 2012, ISBN 9780785162094); Hardcover trade edition, augmented with work from Keith Pollard, concurrently released as a numbered, limited to 640 copies, hardcover edition in dust jacket (ISBN 9780785162100).

This miniseries won Giraud his Eisner Award for best finite/limited series in 1989.

Art Books (1989–1995)
In between, Epic Comics did release four stand-alone art book titles, with Chaos and Metallic Memories reproducing most of the 1980 original:[38]

  • The Art of Moebius (96 pages, Epic/Byron Preiss, October 1989, ISBN 0871356104); Softcover US graphic novel format, collecting a selection of art previously published in the French source publications, including "La memoire du futur", but does not adhere to the size format of the source publications.
  • Chaos (96 pages, Epic, November 1991, ISBN 0871358336); Hardcover book in deviant 30x30cm format issued without dust jacket, faithful reproduction of the French source publication.
  • Metallic Memories (88 pages, Epic, November 1992, ISBN 0871358344); Hardcover book in deviant 30x30cm format issued without dust jacket, faithful reproduction of the French source publication.
  • Fusion (126 pages, Epic, 1995, ISBN 0785101551); Oversized European graphic novel format hardcover book issued without dust jacket, faithful reproduction of the French source publication.

The Elsewhere Prince (1990)
While Giraud (with Lofficier) was only the co-writer of this US standard comic book mini series, which took place in "The Airtight Garage" universe, there was additional art from him featured in short accompanying editorials, as well as one to two page short stories.

  • Sonnet 1: The Jouk (32 pages, Epic, May 1990)
  • Sonnet 2: The Princess (32 pages, Epic, June 1990)
  • Sonnet 3: Abagoo (32 pages, Epic, July 1990)
  • Sonnet 4: The Prince (32 pages, Epic, August 1990)
  • Sonnet 5: The Bouch' Tarhai (32 pages, Epic, September 1990)
  • Sonnet 6: The Artist (32 pages, Epic, October 1990)

Onyx Overlord (1992–1993)
By Giraud co-written sequel to The Elsewhere Prince, and like that series, also featuring additional art from his hand.

  • Log 1: Armjourth (32 pages, Epic, October 1992)
  • Log 2: Randomearth Yby (32 pages, Epic, November 1992)
  • Log 3: Onyx (32 pages, Epic, December 1992)
  • Log 4: Return to Armjourth (32 pages, Epic, January 1993)

Moebius' Airtight Garage (1993)
Standard US comic book reissue of the 1987 graphic novel, with some additional art in the editorials.

  • Volume 1 (32 pages, Epic, July 1993)
  • Volume 2 (32 pages, Epic, August 1993)
  • Volume 3 (32 pages, Epic, September 1993)
  • Volume 4 (32 pages, Epic, October 1993)

The Halo Graphic Novel (2006)
Comprising four chapters, Giraud provided the art for chapter 4, "Second Sunrise over New Mombasa".

Graphitti Designs[edit]

Excepting The Art of Moebius, Moebius 9, Fusion (being Johnny-come-lately's, the latter two were released too late for inclusion, whereas the first one, having been a co-publication, could not for copyright reasons), The Silver Surfer and The Elsewhere Prince/Onyx Overlord, all these volumes were very shortly thereafter reissued by Graphitti Designs – having themselves added a volume to the Collected Fantasies series – as part of their signed and numbered, "Limited Hardcover Edition" 1500 copy each collection (in dust jacket), combining these with the similar Blueberry releases by Epic and Catalan Communications, in a single "Mœbius" ten-volume complete works anthology release. Excepting the last volume, the Mœbius collection was executed in the standard European graphic novel size.

Moebius anthology collection (1988–1993)

  • Limited Hardcover Edition 12 - Moebius 1 (272 pages, Graphitti Designs, July 1987, ISBN 0936211105); collects Moebius 1 - 3
  • Limited Hardcover Edition 13 - Moebius 2 (220 pages, Graphitti Designs, 1988, ISBN 0936211113); collects Moebius 4 - 6
  • Limited Hardcover Edition 14 - Moebius 3; The Incal (312 pages, Graphitti Designs, 1988, ISBN 0936211121); collects the Marvel/Epic Incal series
  • Limited Hardcover Edition 22 - Moebius 4; Blueberry (240 pages, Graphitti Designs, 1989, ISBN 0936211202); collects the Marvel/Epic Blueberry series
  • Limited Hardcover Edition 23 - Moebius 5; Blueberry (240 pages, Graphitti Designs, 1990, ISBN 0936211210); collects the Marvel/Epic Blueberry series
  • Limited Hardcover Edition 24 - Moebius 6; Young Blueberry (168 pages, Graphitti Designs, 1990, ISBN 0936211229); collects the ComCat Young Blueberry series
  • Limited Hardcover Edition 35 - Moebius 7 (220 pages, Graphitti Designs, 1990, ISBN 0936211334); collects Moebius 0,½ and 7
  • Limited Hardcover Edition 36 - Moebius 8; Blueberry (240 pages, Graphitti Designs, 1991, ISBN 0936211350); collects the Marvel/Epic Blueberry series
  • Limited Hardcover Edition 37 - Moebius 9; Blueberry (180 pages, Graphitti Designs, 1991, ISBN 0936211350); collects the Marvel/Epic Blueberry series & Moebius 8; erroneous use of the same ISBN as the previous volume
  • Limited Hardcover Edition 44 - Virtual Meltdown: Images of Moebius (188 pages, Graphitti Designs, 1993, ISBN 0936211385); collects Chaos and Metallic Memories; issued without dust jacket in deviant 30x30cm format

Dark Horse[edit]

The Abyss (1989)
This mini comic book series, is the comic adaptation of the eponymous movie. The eight-page editorials in each are dedicated to the production design art Giraud had provided for the movie.

  • The Abyss, issue 1 (32 pages, Dark Horse Comics, June 1989)
  • The Abyss, issue 2 (32 pages, Dark Horse Comics, July 1989)

City of Fire art portfolio (1993)
The second Moebius outing of Dark Horse concerned a reissue of the art portfolio La Cité Feu – a collaborative art project of Giraud with Geoff Darrow – Starwatcher Graphics had released as an English language (for the introduction folio) "Limited american lux edition" version of 100 signed and numbered copies in January 1985 under its original title, alongside the French 950 copy original by Aedena.[81] Some of the art is reproduced in the aforementioned Fusion art book by Epic.

  • City of Fire (10 folios, Dark Horse, 1993); Unsigned and limited, though print run is unknown, 14.5"x19" sized lithograph prints with cover folio in envelope, as opposed to the hardboard box of the 1985 release. Also lacking the by Moebius written introduction folio for that release, original cover, description and two black and white art folios, which are however replaced by two color additions.

Moebius collection (1996)
Having added the 0-volume to the Collected Fantasies series in 1990, Dark Horse Comics too decided to release a Moebius specific – meaning without his western work – collection themselves, this time executed in the standard US comic book-sized format and soliciting the editorial input from Jean-Marc Lofficier who had already done so for the previous efforts. Though much of the contents were essentially a recapitulation of the Marvel/Epic publications, Lofficier made use of the opportunity to add work Moebius had created after the Marvel/Epic publications had run its course, such as the story The Man from the Ciguri (a sequel to The Airtight Garage) and the first two outings of the Madwomen of the sacred Heart series.

  • Arzach (80 pages, Dark Horse Comics, February 1996, ISBN 1569711321)
  • Exotics (80 pages, Dark Horse Comics, April 1996, ISBN 1569711348)
  • The Man from the Ciguri (80 pages, Dark Horse Comics, May 1996, ISBN 1569711356), collecting the episodes as originally serialized in black & white in the publisher's Cheval Noir (French for Dark Horse) magazine (issues 26–30, 33–37, 40–41, and 50, 1992–1994).
  • H.P.'s Rock City (80 pages, Dark Horse Comics, June 1996, ISBN 156971133X)
  • Madwomen of the sacred Heart (144 pages, Dark Horse Comics, August 1996, ISBN 1569711364); black & white, collecting the first two volumes as serialized in their Dark Horse Presents magazine (issues 70–76, 1993).

Moebius Library (2016-)
Twenty years later, in April 2016, Dark Horse announced an ambitious project called the "Moebius Library" to be released by its book division in American graphic novel hardcover format.[82] The stated intent was to predominantly publish latter day work by Moebius, originally published under the auspices of his own publishing house "Moebius Productions", headed after his death in 2012 by second wife Isabelle. The first title was released in October 2016.

  • Moebius Library 1 - The World of Edena (360 pages, Dark Horse Books, October 2016, ISBN 9781506702162); featuring the first time English language version of the last installment Sra, thereby completing The World of Edena series in English


The Magic Crystal (1989–1990)

Legends of Arzach (1992)
This original American publication consists of six, 9.2"x12.2" sized, art portfolios, each of them containing an introduction plate, a by Giraud illustrated booklet featuring a short story by R.J.M. Lofficier, set in the Arzach universe, and eight art prints by American comic artists, paying homage to Moebius' seminal character, 48 in total. Lofficier later expanded upon his short stories in his 2000 book title by iBOOKS, mentioned below.

Visions of Arzach (1993)
Original American art book publication with a new cover by Moebius, collecting the art prints by American artists from Legends of Arzach with a few additions.

Mœbius Collector Cards (1993)

  • Mœbius Collector Cards trading card set (Comic Images, 1993, OCLC 931830987); Basic set of 90 cards plus 6 chase "Chromium Cards", original US release without any other (other language) editions.

Moebius Comics (1996–1997)
Interior art executed in black & white, the series features a reprint of The Man from the Ciguri, but also new, and previously unseen Moebius comics and art. Noteworthy are his storyboards for the abandoned Internal Transfer movie. Also featured in the series are two versions of the short story "The Still Planet", set in the Edena universe, of which the final 23-page one had previously seen a (color) publication, in the comic book Concrete Celebrates Earth Day 1990 (52 pages, Dark Horse, April 1990). That issue had made Moebius co-winner of the 1991 Eisner Award in the category "Best Single Issue".

  • Issue 1 (32 pages, Caliber Comics, May 1996)
  • Issue 2 (32 pages, Caliber Comics, July 1996)
  • Issue 3 (32 pages, Caliber Comics, September 1996)
  • Issue 4 (32 pages, Caliber Comics, November 1996)
  • Issue 5 (32 pages, Caliber Comics, January 1997)
  • Issue 6 (32 pages, Caliber Comics, March 1997)

Angel Claw (1997)
Due to the graphic, erotic nature of the book, this work of Moebius has not been published in the US in the 1990s by the "usual suspects", but rather by outlier NBM Publishing under its "Eurotica" imprint, as a European A4 format hardcover in dust jacket book.

  • Angel Claw (72 pages, Eurotica, February 1997, ISBN 1561631531); Black & white.

XIII (2013)


iBOOKS Inc. was a publishing imprint of Byron Preiss, who had previously been the editor-in-chief and co-publisher of the 1989 The Art of Moebius book by Epic.

Moebius Arzach (2000)

  • Moebius Arzach (291 pages, iBOOKS, August 2000, ISBN 0743400151); Illustrated trade paperback softcover novel, taking place in the Arzach universe.

Icaro (2003–2004)

  • Book 1 (160 pages, iBOOKS, November 2003, ISBN 0743475380); Softcover trade paperback
  • Book 2 (140 pages, iBOOKS, January 2004, ISBN 0743479807); Softcover trade paperback

Humanoids Publishing[edit]

After the initial cooperation with DC Comics in the mid-2000s, publisher Humanoids, Inc. (until 2013 the US subsidiary of the French publisher co-founded by Moebius in 1974) has from 2010 onward begun to reissue new editions of Mœbius works on its own, starting with two of Mœbius's past collaborations with Alejandro Jodorowsky: The Incal and Madwoman of the Sacred Heart. Humanoids releases these latter-day hardcover editions, usually without dust jacket, in variant size formats, US graphic novel format (trade editions), oversized format (which is essentially the larger, standard European graphic novel A4 format), and the even larger coffee table format, the latter typically in a limited print run. Aside from the English language publications, Humanoids occasionally imports French deluxe, limited edition specialty Moebius editions, such as Le Garage hermétique (ISBN 9782731652253) and Arzach (ISBN 9782731634365), from the parent publisher especially on behalf of its American readership. The post-2010 Humanoids editions are also intended for, and disseminated to, the UK market, with the exception of two 2011 Incal editions, which were licensed and featured variant cover art.

Cover image of The Incal 2014 hardcover trade edition

The Incal (2005–2014)
Excepting the early 2005 co-productions with DC Comics, all subsequent editions feature the original coloring.

  • The Incal (2005)
    • Volume 1:The Epic Conspiracy (160 pages, Humanoids/DC Comics, January 2005, ISBN 1401206298); Softcover trade edition, collecting volumes 1–3 from the French original source publications with new coloring by Valérie Beltran.
    • Volume 2:The Epic Journey (160 pages, Humanoids/DC Comics, June 2005, ISBN 1401206468); Softcover trade edition, collecting volumes 4–6 from the French original source publications with new coloring by Valérie Beltran.
  • The Incal anthology collections (2010–2014)
    • The Incal Classic Collection (308 pages, Humanoids Inc, December 2010, ISBN 9781594650116); To 750 copies limited oversized hardcover edition in hardboard slipcase.
    • The Incal Classic Collection (308 pages, Humanoids Inc, June 2011, ISBN 9781594650154); Hardcover trade edition, reprinted in May 2012, and April 2013.
    • The Incal (316 pages, Humanoids Inc, September 2014, ISBN 9781594650932); Hardcover trade edition, essentially a reprint, but featuring new introductions.
  • The Incal anthology collections (2011 licensed UK editions)
  • The Incal individual volumes (2013–2014)
    • Volume 1: The Black Incal (48 pages, Humanoids Inc, January 2013, ISBN 9781594650291); To 999 copies limited hardcover coffee table edition.
    • Volume 2: The Luminous Incal (48 pages, Humanoids Inc, March 2013, ISBN 9781594650277); To 999 copies limited hardcover coffee table edition.
    • Volume 3: What Lies Beneath (56 pages, Humanoids Inc, May 2013, ISBN 9781594650093); To 999 copies limited hardcover coffee table edition.
    • Volume 4: What Is Above (60 pages, Humanoids Inc, August 2013, ISBN 9781594650499); To 999 copies limited hardcover coffee table edition.
    • Volume 5: The Fifth Essence Part One: The Dreaming Galaxy (48 pages, Humanoids Inc, November 2013, ISBN 9781594650543); To 999 copies limited hardcover coffee table edition.
    • Volume 6: The Fifth Essence Part Two: Planet Difool (48 pages, Humanoids Inc, January 2014, ISBN 9781594650697); To 999 copies limited hardcover coffee table edition.

Giraud had created one 8-page short story "Au coeur de l'inviolable meta bunker" in 1989,[83] focusing on one of the major secondary characters, The Metabaron, whose ancestry later received its own The Metabarons spin-off series. Though that story was redrawn by the series' artist Juan Giménez for later book publications, Giraud's original was included in Humanoids' The Metabarons: Alpa/Omega title in their "Prestige Format Comic Book" collection as "Metabaron 1: The Lost Pages", actually introducing Valérie Beltran's new coloring for Giraud's Incal series (48 pages, Humanoids Inc, October 2002, ISBN 1930652410).

Madwoman of the Sacred Heart (2010–2013)
With the translation of volume 3 of the series, "The Sorbonne's Madman", these anthology collections complete the series.

  • Madwoman of the Sacred Heart (192 pages, Humanoids Inc, December 2010, ISBN 9781594650987); Hardcover trade edition in dust jacket.
  • Madwoman of the Sacred Heart (192 pages, Humanoids Inc, February 2012, ISBN 9781594650628); Softcover trade edition.
  • Madwoman of the Sacred Heart (192 pages, Humanoids Inc, September 2013, ISBN 9781594650468); Hardcover trade edition with deviant cover.

The Eyes of the Cat (2011–2013)
For unknown reasons, this work had been inexplicability left out of the Marvel/Epic collection of the 1980s–1990s, despite the fact that the work was hailed by comic critics as a graphic masterpiece. Still, the story had already been published, with elaborate annotations from its authors, in issue 4 of the underground comics anthology Taboo (ISBN 0922003033) from publisher Spiderbaby Grafix & Publications in 1990.

  • The Eyes of the Cat (56 pages, Humanoids Inc, December 2011, ISBN 9781594650581); To 750 copies limited hardcover coffee table format edition with black & white art featured on white paper.
  • The Eyes of the Cat (56 pages, Humanoids Inc, August 2012, ISBN 9781594650321); Hardcover trade edition with black & white art featured on white paper.
  • The Eyes of the Cat (56 pages, Humanoids Inc, June 2013, ISBN 9781594650420); "Yellow edition" with deviant cover, hardcover trade edition with black & white art featured on yellow paper as originally published in French (and as published in Taboo).

Angel Claws (2013)
Essentially a reissue of he 1997 Eurotica title, but on this occasion issued without a dust jacket, using the plural for the title, and featuring a deviant cover.

  • Angel Claws (72 pages, Humanoids Inc, March 2013, ISBN 9781594650123); To 800 copies limited black & white hardcover coffee table format edition.

Final Incal (2014)
Though this three-volume series (originally called Après l'IncalAfter the Incal) was ultimately realized with art from José Ladrönn, Giraud had actually already penciled the first outing in the series, "Le nouveau rêve",[84] but which was replaced by a re-scripted and by Ladronn redrawn variant for reprint runs. The anthology editions below however, feature the Moebius 56-page original as well as a bonus.

  • Final Incal (216 pages, Humanoids Inc, May 2014, ISBN 9781594650871); To 200 copies limited coffee table format edition in hardboard slipcase, issued with three art prints and a by Jodorowsky and Ladrönn signed and numbered bookplate.
  • Final Incal (216 pages, Humanoids Inc, May 2014, ISBN 9781594650864); To 1500 copies limited oversized format edition in hardboard slipcase.


Video games[edit]

  • Fade to Black cover art (1995)
  • Panzer Dragoon (1995)
  • Pilgrim: Faith as a Weapon (1998)
  • An arcade and bar based on Giraud's work, called The Airtight Garage, was one of the original main attractions at the Metreon in San Francisco when the complex opened in 1999. It included three original games: Quaternia, a first-person shooter networked between terminals and based on the concept of "junctors" from Major Fatal and The Airtight Garage; a virtual reality bumper cars game about mining asteroids; and Hyperbowl, an obstacle course bowling game incorporating very little overtly Moebius imagery. The arcade was closed and reopened as "Portal One", retaining much of the Moebius-based decor and Hyperbowl but eliminating the other originals in favor of more common arcade games.
  • Jet Set Radio Future inspired the artwork and graphics of the game (2002)
  • Seven Samurai 20XX character design (2004)
  • Gravity Rush inspired the artwork and graphics of the game


  • The Masters of Comic Book Art – Documentary by Ken Viola (USA, 1987, 60 min.)
  • La Constellation Jodorowsky – Documentary by Louis Mouchet. Giraud and Alejandro Jodorowsky on The Incal and their abandoned film adaptation of Frank Herbert's Dune. During the psycho-genealogical session that concludes the film, Giraud impersonates Mouchet's father (Switzerland, 1994, 88 min. and 52 min.)
  • Mister Gir & Mike S. Blueberry – Documentary by Damian Pettigrew. Giraud executes numerous sketches and watercolors for the Blueberry album, "Géronimo l'Apache", travels to Saint Malo for the celebrated comic-book festival, visits his Paris editor Dargaud, and in the film's last sequence, does a spontaneous life-size portrait in real time of Geronimo on a large sheet of glass (France, 2000: Musée de la Bande dessinée d'Angoulême, 55 min.)
  • The Visual Element - Special feature with Giraud and his friend and co-worker Jean-Claude Mézières discussing their production design work on the movie The Fifth Element (The Fifth Element - Ultimate Edition 2005 DVD; The Fifth Element 2015 4K Blu-ray, 18 min.)
  • Moebius Redux: A Life in Pictures – Biographical documentary by Hasko Baumann (Germany, England, Finland, 2007: Arte, BBC, ZDF, YLE, AVRO, 68 min.)
    • Australian 1-disc DVD release in 2008 (OCLC 951516758)
    • German 2-disc DVD release in 2010, extended to 190 min. (OCLC 891515384)
  • Jean Van Hamme, William Vance et Jean Giraud à l'Abbaye de l'Épau – Institutional documentary (France, 2007: FGBL Audiovisuel, 70 min.)
  • Métamoebius – Autobiographical portrait co-written by Jean Giraud and directed by Damian Pettigrew for the 2010 retrospective held at the Fondation Cartier for Contemporary Art in Paris (France, 2010: Fondation Cartier, CinéCinéma, 72 min.)
    • French 1-disc DVD release in 2011 (OCLC 887535650), augmented with Pettigrew's 2000 Mister Gir & Mike S. Blueberry documentary.


  1. ^ "Appel-Guéry encouraged Moebius to tap into the more positive zones of his subconscious. 'Most of the people that were studying spirituality with Appel-Guéry did not know much about comics, but they immediately picked on the morbid, and overall negative feelings that permeated my work,' said Moebius. 'So I began to feel ashamed, and I decided to do something really different, just to show them that I could do it.'"[85]


  1. ^ a b An evening with “Moebius” A CTN exclusive special event (2010)
  2. ^ a b c d Screech, Matthew. 2005. Moebius/Jean Giraud: Nouveau Réalisme and Science fiction. in Libbie McQuillan (ed) "The Francophone bande dessinée" Rodopi. p. 1
  3. ^ a b Screech, Matthew. 2005. "A challenge to Convention: Jean Giraud/Gir/Moebius" Chapter 4 in Masters of the ninth art: bandes dessinées and Franco-Belgian identity. Liverpool University Press. pp 95 – 128
  4. ^ "Moebius perd son procès contre Besson". 28 May 2004. 
  5. ^ "Moebius perd son procès contre Besson". (in French). 28 May 2004. Retrieved 20 January 2007. 
  6. ^ Comics Buyer's Guide #1485; 3 May 2002; Page 29
  7. ^ De Weyer, Geert (2008). 100 stripklassiekers die niet in je boekenkast mogen ontbreken (in Dutch). Amsterdam / Antwerp: Atlas. p. 215. ISBN 978-90-450-0996-4. 
  8. ^ a b "Biographie Mœbius", (French)
  9. ^ a b c Giraud has discussed his early life at length throughout the interview book Moebius: Entretiens avec Numa Sadoul. In the book his mother Pauline is also featured in her only known interview, relating events surrounding Giraud's earliest years such as the family's headlong flight from the German invaders during the tumultuous 1940 Blitzkrieg months, being bombed by Stukas along the way. (pp. 146–147). Whereas the relationship with his mother had been mended, Giraud also divulged that he had no memories of father Raymond. (pp. 26–27)
  10. ^ a b c Booker, Keith M. 2010. "Giraud, Jean" in Encyclopedia of Comic Books and Graphic Novels, Volume 1ABC-CLIO pp. 259–60
  11. ^ "page-Biographie". 5 January 2011. 
  12. ^ Blueberry L'integrale 1, Paris: Dargaud 2012, p. 6, ISBN 9782205071238; As in so many other countries at the time, comics were considered by the conservative establishment as a perfidious influence on their youths, and the medium still had decades to go before it attained the revered status in French culture as "le neuvième art" (the 9th art)
  13. ^ Moebius Redux: Mexico
  14. ^ a b In Search of Moebius/Moebius Redux: A Life in Pictures 2007 on YouTube
  15. ^ a b Giraud, Jean. "Introduction to King of the Buffalo by Jean Giraud". 1989. Moebius 9: Blueberry. Graphitti designs.
  16. ^ a b c "Jean Giraud". Comiclopedia. Lambiek. 
  17. ^ "Jean Giraud makes own drawing strip". Retrieved 11 January 2017. 
  18. ^ Schtroumpf, Les cahier de la bande dessinee, issue 25, 1974, pp. 38–39
  19. ^ Two educational books, Hommes et cavernes (1957, OCLC 300051389), Amérique an mille (1959, OCLC 936885225), and one novel for girls, Sept filles dans la brousse (1958, OCLC 759796722)
  20. ^ Sapristi!, issue 27, Winter 1993, p. 77; Invariably overlooked by Giraud scholars, Bonux-Boy was a digest-sized marketing enticer for a French detergent of the same name, conceived by its marketing manager, Jijé's son Benoit Gillain. For Giraud however, it was nevertheless of seminal importance, as his work therein showed a marked progression over the work he had provided previously for Fleurus, indicating he had continued to work on his style during his military service.
  21. ^
  22. ^ Close friend Mézières, like Giraud passionate about Westerns and the Far West, took it up a notch, when he too left at about the same time for the United States, actually working as a cowboy for two years, albeit not in the South-West, but rather in the North-West.
  23. ^
  24. ^ a b c Jean-Marc Lofficier. 1989. "The Past Master", in Moebius 5: Blueberry. Graphitti designs.
  25. ^ a b Booker Keith M. 201. "Blueberry" in Encyclopedia of comic books and graphic novels, Volume 2. ABC-CLIO. p. 69
  26. ^ Dargaud archive: "C'est en 1963 qu'est créé ce personnage pour PILOTE par Charlier et Giraud."[permanent dead link]
  27. ^ Booker Keith M. 201. "Western Comics" in Encyclopedia of comic books and graphic novels, Volume 2. ABC-CLIO. p. 691
  28. ^ Jean-Marc Lofficier. 1989. "Gone with the Wind Revisited", in Moebius 9: Blueberry. Graphitti designs.
  29. ^ Le Blog des Humanoïdes Associés: Adieu Mœbius, merci Mœbius
  30. ^ a b Lofficier, Jean-Marc (December 1988). "Moebius". Comics Interview (64). Fictioneer Books. pp. 24–37. 
  31. ^ "Breasts and Beasts: Some Prominent Figures in the History of Fantasy Art." 2006. Dalhousie University
  32. ^ Grove, Laurence. 2010. Comics in French: the European bande dessinée in context Berghahn Books p. 46
  33. ^ Sadoul, 1991, pp. 59–69
  34. ^ Aedena, 1986, ISBN 2905035250
  35. ^ Gentiane, 1983, ISBN 2904300031; later retitled "Starwatcher", Aedena, 1986, ISBN 290503520X
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^ a b c Moebius, 146 pages, Paris:Les Humanoïdes Associés, January 1980, ISBN 2731600004
  39. ^ Sadoul, 1991, pp. 69–70
  40. ^ O'Neill, Patrick Daniel. "The Wild [French] West", Comics Scene, issue 9, pp. 8–12, 68, Mt. Morris: Starlog Group, Inc., 1989
  41. ^
  42. ^ Made in L.A., Tournai: Casterman, September 1988, ISBN 2203346019; Fusions, 126 pages, Tournai: Casterman, April 1995, ISBN 2203346051
  43. ^ Libiot, Eric (4 January 2007). "Giraud s'aventure dans XIII" (in French). L'Express. 
  44. ^ Lestavel, François (18 December 2012). "Yves Sente et Jean Van Hamme: le succès en série" (in French). Paris Match. 
  45. ^ L'histoire du "Cinquième élément", Luc Besson, Jack English, Intervista, 1997, ISBN 2910753042
  46. ^ Grove, Laurence. 2010. Comics in French: the European bande dessinée in context Berghahn Books p. 211
  47. ^ a b c Minovitz, Ethan (11 March 2012). "French cartoonist Jean "Moebius" Giraud dies at 73". Big Cartoon News. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  48. ^ Collective (1986). L'univers de 1: Gir. Paris: Dargaud. p. 85. ISBN 2205029452.
  49. ^ Official website on the Miyazaki-Moebius exhibition at La Monnaie, Paris
  50. ^ Museum web page for exhibition, Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  51. ^ Hachereau, Dominique. "BD – Bande Dessinee et Philatelie" (in French). Retrieved 18 July 2009. 
  52. ^ Expo GIR et MOEBIUS, 1997, accessed 12 March 2011.
  53. ^ "Blueberry au bord du Nervous break-down...". bdparadisio
  54. ^ "Jean Giraud sur un scénario de Jean-Michel Charlier". (French)
  55. ^ "Moebius – Jean Giraud – Video del Maestro all' opera" on YouTube. 30 May 2008
  56. ^ Svane, 2003, p. 12
  57. ^ Hamel, Ian (10 March 2012). "Décès à Paris du dessinateur et scénariste de BD Moebius". Le
  58. ^ Connelly, Brendon (10 March 2012). "Moebius, aka Jean Girard, aka Gir, Has Passed Away". Bleeding Cool.
  59. ^ "Jean Giraud alias Moebius, père de Blueberry, s'efface". Libération. 9 March 2012.
  60. ^ "French ‘master of comics’ artist Moebius dies". 10 March 2012.
  61. ^ "L’enterrement de Jean Giraud, alias Moebius, aura lieu à Paris le 15 mars".
  62. ^ a b c d "Comic book artist Moebius dies". Jakarta Globe. 11 March 2012
  63. ^ Arzak marque de Giraud, (French)
  64. ^ Bordenave, Julie. "Miyazaki Moebius : coup d'envoi". Retrieved 18 May 2008. 
  65. ^ Ghibli Museum (ed.). Ghibli Museumdiary 2002-08-01 (in Japanese). Tokuma Memorial Cultural Foundation for Animation. Retrieved 18 May 2008. 
  66. ^ "Miyazaki and Moebius". Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  67. ^ "R.I.P. Jean 'Moebius' Giraud (1938–2012) – ComicsAlliance | Comic book culture, news, humor, commentary, and reviews". ComicsAlliance. 22 April 2013. Archived from the original on 19 June 2012. Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  68. ^ a b "Did Blade Runner influence William Gibson when he wrote his cyberpunk classic, Neuromancer?". Archived 9 December 2013 on Wayback Machine.
  69. ^ Italian television interview cited in Mollica, Vincenzo (2002), Fellini mon ami, Paris: Anatolia, 84.
  70. ^ L’Adieu à Moebius. (French)
  71. ^ "11° Salone Internationale del Comics, del Film di Animazione e dell'Illustrazione" (in Italian). 
  72. ^ Zack, issue 4, Koralle, 1979
  73. ^ "14° Salone Internationale del Comics, del Film di Animazione e dell'Illustrazione" (in Italian). 
  74. ^ "Grand Prix de l'Imaginaire" (in French). 
  75. ^; Received from Culture Minister of France, Jack Lang
  76. ^ Jean Giraud (Gir, Moebius) est mort, (French):Awarded in person by President of France François Mitterrand, uncle of Frédéric Mitterrand.
  77. ^ a b c "Giraud, Jean ('Moebius')". The Locus Index to SF Awards: Index of Art Nominees. Locus Publications. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
  78. ^ ""Science Fiction Hall of Fame"". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011. . [Quote: "EMP is proud to announce the 2011 Hall of Fame inductees: ..."]. May/June/July 2011. EMP Museum ( Archived 21 July 2011. Retrieved 2013-03-19.
  79. ^; Received from Higher Education Minister of France Laurent Wauquiez on November 24, 2011
  80. ^ Sadoul, 1991, pp. 70–71
  81. ^ (AUT) Giraud/Moebius - Le Para-BD, (French)
  82. ^ "Moebius Library Debuts This Fall", publisher's blog 04/07/2016
  83. ^ Original publication in the Incal side publication Les mystères de l'Incal (Paris: Les Humanoïdes Associés, 1989/11, ISBN 2731607023), in the original coloring.
  84. ^ Après l'Incal: Tome 1, Le nouveau rêve, Paris: Les Humanoides Associés, 2000/11, ISBN 2731614250
  85. ^ Randy Lofficier and Jean-Marc Lofficier, Moebius Comics No. 1, Caliber Comics, 1996.


  • Sadoul, Numa (1976). Mister Mœbius et Docteur Gir. Paris: Éditions Albin Michel. p. 96. ISBN 2226002669. 
  • de Bree, Kees; Frederiks, Hans (1982). Stripschrift special 4: Blueberry, Arzach, Majoor Fataal, John Difool, de kleurrijke helden van Giraud/Mœbius. Zeist: Vonk. p. 100. OCLC 63463307. 
  • Hjorth-Jørgensen, Anders (1984). Giraud/Mœbius – og Blueberrys lange march. Odense: Stavnsager. p. 100. ISBN 8788455262. 
  • Collective (1986). L'univers de 1: Gir. Paris: Dargaud. p. 96. ISBN 2205029452. 
  • Sadoul, Numa (1991). Entretiens avec Mœbius (Updated, expanded and revised version of the 1976 Albin Michel ed.). Tournai: Casterman. p. 198. ISBN 2203380152. 
  • Sadoul, Numa; Rebiersch, Resel (1992). Das grosse Mœbius Buch (German language version of the 1991 Casterman ed.). Hamburg: Carlsen Verlag GmbH. p. 200. ISBN 3551019002. 
  • Svane, Erik; Surmann, Martin; Ledoux, Alain; Jurgeit, Martin; Berner, Horst; Förster, Gerhard (2003). Zack-Dossier 1: Blueberry und der europäische Western-Comic. Berlin: Mosaik. p. 96. ISBN 393266759X. 
  • Bosser, Frédéric (2005). Dossier Jean Giraud: Cavalier solitaire (Les dossiers de la bande dessinée, issue 27 ed.). Paris: DBD. p. 96. 
  • Sadoul, Numa (2015). Docteur Mœbius et Mister Gir (Updated, expanded and revised version of the 1991 Casterman ed.). Tournai: Casterman. p. 264. ISBN 9782203041639. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]