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The name Münsingen is assumed to be derived of an alemannic chief called Munigis, who founded a settlement on the present-day city boundaries. In 775 Münsingen is mentioned for the first time on a deed of gift of Lorsch Abbey. The church of Münsingen is first mentioned in 804. After the rule of the Franks the village went to the county of Württemberg-Urach, which sold it in 1263 to Ulrich I.
In 1339, Münsingen was granted Town privileges. Through the partition of Württemberg it came under the purview of Urach, until in 1482 the Treaty of Münsingen declared the re-unification of the County of Württemberg. On October 23, 1654 it became an administrative center of regional importance. From 1938 to 1973 Münsingen was capital of the district of Münsingen.
In 1895, the German Empire began the construction of a Proving ground. Later this became the Duke-Albrecht-Barracks. It was closed on March 31, 2004. The ground was transformed into a settlement.