M-80s are an American class of large powerful firecrackers, sometimes called salutes. M-80s were originally made in the mid 20th century for the U.S. military to simulate explosives or artillery fire; later, M-80s were manufactured as fireworks. Traditionally, M-80s were made from a small cardboard tube, often red, approximately 1 1⁄2 inches (3.8 cm) long and 9⁄16 inch (1.4 cm) inside diameter, with a fuse coming out of the side; this type of fuse is commonly known as cannon fuse or Visco fuse, after a company responsible for standardizing the product. The tubes usually hold approximately 3 grams of pyrotechnic flash powder. The "M" is designated by a U.S. military convention for "standard" equipment and "80" is a non-meaningful ID number.
M-80s are not authorized under the law; thus making, importation, possession, transportation, storage or manufacturing illegal in Canada.
Because an M-80 is a pyrotechnic device containing a charge in excess of 50 milligrams of pyrotechnic flash power, civilian use requires a license issued by federal authorities. This is the result of the Child Protection Act of 1966 and regulation by the Consumer Product Safety Commission, with the purpose of limiting the potential property damage and bodily harm M-80s can cause. This law also covers cherry bombs.
In 1975, federal regulations were passed to limit all consumer-grade fireworks available for general sale to the public in the United States to a maximum of 50 milligrams flash powder, down from a previous maximum of 200 milligrams. However, firecrackers mounted onto a rocket stick, or other aerial firework devices, such as rockets, Roman candles, and the larger version of m-80s m-1000 etc., may still have significantly more, up to 130 mg, or more, depending on device and classification, and can be legally purchased by any American civilian citizen, except where prohibited by state law.
A person with a federal explosives license, issued by the ATF, may be allowed to purchase M-80s. Federal and state officials sometimes distribute them to farmers to scare away wildlife damaging their crops.
Many firecrackers sold legally in the United States to consumers have names and appearances intended to mimic the "M-80", such as for example "M-80 Firecracker", "M-8000", or "M-##" (where ## is a number). Those differ significantly from the actual "M-80" as they are subject to the regulations with regard to the sale of explosives and fireworks to the general public. These firecrackers most commonly have a small capsule with up to 50 mg of powder and a fuse in it. Surrounding the capsule is plaster or a similar material, and finally a red tube and two plastic endcaps. Because of the size of these firecrackers, buyers are occasionally deceived into thinking that the entire tube is full. Also the fuse, at times, protrudes from the ends of these firecrackers, as opposed to the middle of the tube in real M-80s. Genuine M-80s have paper endcaps, and contain 50–60 times more powder.
Contrary to urban legend, an M-80 that contains 3,000 mg of powder is not equivalent to a quarter-stick of dynamite. Dynamite generally contains a stable nitroglycerin based high explosive, whereas M-80s or any other kind of firecracker contains a low explosive powder, like flash powder or black powder.
Cases of documented injuries and accidents accompanied civilian M-80 use during the 1950s and 1960s, and still occur, as M-80s are still produced and sold to the public. There have been documented cases of users losing their fingers or hands.
On May 24, 1983, a truck trailer being used as a secret unlicensed fireworks factory manufacturing M-80 fireworks exploded outside of Rowesville, South Carolina, killing two, injuring five, and damaging houses up to two and a half miles away. Three days later an explosion at a secret unlicensed fireworks factory producing M-80 and M-100 fireworks near Benton, Tennessee, killed eleven, injured one, and inflicted damage within a radius of several miles. The operation was by far the largest-known illegal fireworks operation, and the initial blast was heard as far away as 20 miles (32 km) from the site. Both operations were connected to a multi-state illegal fireworks distribution and production ring, and multiple people were eventually sent to prison for their involvement in both incidents.
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