An Oshkosh M-ATV in July 2011
|Type||Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected|
|Place of origin||United States of America|
|Used by||See Operators section below|
|Wars||War in Afghanistan
Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen
|Designer||Oshkosh / Plasan|
|No. built||approaching 10,000|
|Weight||Curb weight: 27,500 lb (12,500 kg)
Gross weight: 32,500 lb (14,700 kg)
|Length||246.8 inches (6,270 mm)|
|Width||98.1 inches (2,490 mm)|
|Height||105 inches (2,700 mm)|
1× 7.62×51mm NATO (.308 in) M240 machine gun,
|Engine||7.2 liter inline-6 Caterpillar C7 turbodiesel
370 bhp; 925 lb-ft
|Payload capacity||4,000 pounds (1,800 kg)|
|Transmission||Allison 3500SP, 6-speed automatic with manumatic shifting|
|Suspension||4x4, TAK-4 independent suspension|
|320 miles (510 km)|
|Speed||65 miles per hour (105 km/h) (electronically limited)|
The Oshkosh M-ATV is a Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicle developed by the Oshkosh Corporation of Oshkosh, Wisconsin for the MRAP All Terrain Vehicle (M-ATV) program. It is designed to provide the same levels of protection as the larger and heavier previous MRAPs but with improved mobility and it is intended to replace M1114 HMMWVs.
Requirements and selection
In the summer of 2008, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) began to examine the possibility of developing and procuring a lighter-weight, all-terrain capable MRAP variant to address the poor roads and extreme terrain of Afghanistan. Source selection activity considered responses from more than 20 companies to a Request for Information (RfI)/Market Survey dated 21 August 2008 and in mid-November 2008 the U.S. government issued a pre-solicitation for an M-ATV. In early December 2008 the M-ATV formal Request for Proposals (RFP) was issued. The original M-ATV program requirement was for between 372 and 10,000 vehicles, with the most probable production quantity stated as 2,080.
In March 2009, it became known that two each of six different vehicle types (from five manufacturers) had been delivered to the U.S. Army for two months of evaluation, at the conclusion of which up to five ID/IQ (Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity) contracts would be awarded. In addition to Oshkosh's proposal, BAE Systems submitted two proposals, these being a Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) derived design and an FMTV-based Caiman derivative. Force Dynamics (a Force Protection/General Dynamics Land Systems (GDLS) joint venture) offered Cheetah, GDLS-C (Canada) offered an RG-31 MRAP derivative, and Navistar offered an MXT-based solution.
After GDLS-C's RG-31 was eliminated from the competition in May 2009, it was announced that the five remaining bidders had been awarded ID/IQ contracts, and were each to deliver three production-ready test vehicles for the next stage of the competition. At the completion of testing, the U.S. DoD stated that it planned to select a single M-ATV producer but could, at its discretion, place production orders with multiple producers as it had done with the initial MRAP procurement. On 30 June 2009, the M-ATV contract award was announced with a single ID/IQ contract award to Oshkosh. Brigadier General Michael Brogan, United States Marine Corps program officer for MRAP, stated that the Oshkosh M-ATV was chosen because it had the best survivability and Oshkosh had the best technical and manufacturing capabilities of all the competitors. The Oshkosh bid was also the second cheapest.
The initial M-ATV delivery order was valued at over $1 billion and included 2,244 M-ATVs. The overall M-ATV requirement had increased in early June from 2,080 to 5,244 M-ATVs, these split 2,598 (Army), 1,565 (Marines), 643 (U.S. Special Operations Command), 280 (Air Force), 65 (Navy), and 93 for testing.
Production and refurbishment
In July 2009, the first 46 M-ATVs were delivered, and in November the 1,000th M-ATV was handed over. Oshkosh reached its contractual obligation to produce 1,000 M-ATVs per month ahead of schedule in December 2009, and by using its existing manufacturing facilities in Oshkosh, WI (50%), and making use of its recession-hit JLG telescopic handler facility in McConnellsburg, PA (50%). The first vehicles arrived in Afghanistan in October 2009 and were to be all delivered by March 2010.
In total 8,722 M-ATVs were delivered to the U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Special Operations Command (SOCOM) for use in Afghanistan. M-ATVs were delivered in two main variants. The base model is designated M1240 with the Objective Gunner Protection Kit [OGPK] manned turret; it is designated M1240A1 when fitted with the Underbody Improvement Kit (UIK). The second main variant is designated M1277 and is fitted with M153 CROWS remote-controlled weapon station (RCWS). Produced in smaller numbers, the SOCOM-specific variant is designated M1245; M1245A1 with UIK fitted.
As part of the overall divestiture of the wartime MRAP fleet, the U.S. Government will keep about 80% (around 7,000) of the M-ATV fleet, 5,651 of these (inc. 250 for SOCOM) to be retained by the Army. Work is currently underway at Oshkosh's Wisconsin facility and the Red River Army Depot to reset the around 7,000 M-ATVs retained to a common build standard. Oshkosh was awarded an initial 500-vehicle M-ATV Reset contract in August 2014. Three additional contract options for 100 vehicles each were awarded in December 2014. Total contract value is in excess of US$77 million. Deliveries were scheduled to continue through September 2015.
Reset work centers on returning vehicles to Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) 22 standard: essentially the build standard for the final M-ATV production batch. LRIP 22 includes upgrades such as the UIK and enhanced Automatic Fire Extinguishing System (AFES). Reset work also adds Engineering Change Proposals (ECPs) that include acoustic signature reduction (muffler), Modular Ammunition Restraint System (MARS) ammunition storage, and some Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) relocation.
On 28 May 2015, Oshkosh announced the U.S. Army had awarded it a contract modification for the reset of 360 additional M-ATVs. The modification includes options for the reset of up to 1,440 additional M-ATVs. Deliveries for this latest modification started October 2015. Oshkosh is on contract to reset a combined 1,160 M-ATVs with a total value of over $115 million.
In January 2017, the US Marine Corps disclosed that they will upgrade and refurbish around 80 M-ATVs over a five-month period. The work is to take three to four weeks for each M-ATV and costs around $385,000 per vehicle. Both Marine and Air Force M-ATVs are involved. The main difference between the two services M-ATVs being the armament; Air Force M-ATVs are fitted with a CROWS (Common Remotely Operated Weapon Station), while Marine M-ATVs are fitted with a manual OGPK (Objective Gunner Protection Kit) turret.
At AUVSI 2013, Oshkosh announced it will integrate the TerraMax system onto the M-ATV to allow the vehicles to be converted into unmanned ground vehicles. The goal is to use the M-ATV as an unmanned platform for route clearance and counter-IED missions by engineers.
Oshkosh Defense unveiled the M-ATV Extended Wheel Base Medical (EXM) variant at the International Defense Exhibition and Conference (IDEX) 2015 (22–26 Feb.) in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. This variant of the M-ATV has enough interior capacity to simultaneously transport two litter-bound patients, two ambulatory patients, a medic, commander and driver. The M-ATV EXM’s customizable internal configuration also enables equipment to be accessed quickly by a centrally positioned medic.
In February 2015, Oshkosh Defense and Alliant Techsystems conducted a firing demonstration of the M230LF 30 mm chain gun on an M-ATV to demonstrate the viability and effectiveness of a medium caliber weapon system for light tactical vehicles. The live fire demonstration showcased improved accuracy in mobile engagements and improved lethality on the M-ATV using the gun, mounted on the R400S-Mk2, a 3-axis stabilized remote weapon station weighing less than 400 kg (880 lb). The addition of the 72.6 kg (160 lb) M230LF stabilized on the RWS provides mobile precise lethality, usually reserved for heavier combat vehicles, with exceptional off-road mobility and MRAP levels of protection.
Although the M-ATV was more survivable than the Humvee and was lighter than other MRAP versions, soldiers criticized it for being still top-heavy, cramped, and prone to engine and mechanical errors. To obtain a vehicle combining light weight, mobility, and protection, the U.S. military undertook the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) program. In August 2015, Oshkosh was awarded the contract for their Light Combat Tactical All-Terrain Vehicle (L-ATV), which took design lessons from fielding the M-ATV and incorporated them into a truck at two-thirds the weight and with faster off-road speeds.
The M-ATV utilizes the Medium Tactical Vehicle Replacement (MTVR) chassis and TAK-4 suspension with the Plasan designed armored hull developed for the Northrop Grumman/Oshkosh JLTV Technology Development (TD) phase proposal. The V-shaped Plasan armored hull offers protection for the occupants from IED attacks while a central tire inflation system (CTIS) and run-flat inserts allow the M-ATV to travel at least 30 miles at 30 mph even if two tires lose pressure. The vehicle can also take a 7.62 mm round to its engine oil/coolant/hydraulic system and continue to drive for at least one kilometer. The Stat-X engine fire suppression system provides for further survivability.
The TAK-4 suspension is coil sprung and fully independent, and offers 16 inches of travel. The M-ATV's roof mounted turret is capable of mounting weapons such as an M240 machine gun, a Mk 19 grenade launcher, an M2 Browning machine gun, a MILAN anti-tank guided missile, or a BGM-71 TOW anti-tank guided missile launcher. The roof weapons can be operated either from the turret by person or remotely inside the cabin with a CROWS remote weapon system. The M-ATV also features modern vehicle safety systems such as traction control and anti-lock brakes in addition to modern creature comforts such as an HVAC system and power outlets for charging portable electronic devices. Unique among MRAP vehicles are the M-ATV's back rear-hinged doors.
The United Arab Emirates Army initially ordered 55 M-ATVs through a FMS sale in 2011. The UAE ordered another 750 M-ATVs direct from Oshkosh in July 2012. These are to provide greater off-road mobility and crew protection for regional security and peace-keeping operations; users include the elite Presidential Guard. Deliveries were completed in August 2013. In September 2014, the UAE requested another 44 M-ATVs from U.S. surplus stocks.
In September 2013, the Saudi Arabian Army began negotiations for an order for an undisclosed number of M-ATVs. Saudi Arabia received an estimated 450 M-ATVs including some Extended Wheelbase variants.
On 7 April 2014, the U.S. government donated 162 M-ATVs to the Croatian Army for use in small-scale combat operations in urban and restricted environments. Fifteen M-ATVs are going to the Croatian Special Forces Command (SFCOM), five will be with the Support Command (SCOM), two with the Military Police Regiment, and 78 have entered service with the Croatian Army in 2015, with a further 62 to follow in 2016 for the 1st Battalion of the Motorized Guards Brigade in Gospic.
In January 2015, it was reported that the U.S. was to donate 308 Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles to Uzbekistan under the Excess Defense Articles program. Requested totals include 159 M-ATVs with UIK, plus 50 Maxxpro Plus, 20 MaxxPro recovery, 50 BAE RG-33L CAT II and 70 Cougar CAT 1 (W/ISS (65); W/O ISS 5) vehicles.
On 25 February 2015, Polish special forces received 45 M-ATVs. The handover ceremony took place in Cracow, Poland and the US Ambassador in Poland Stephen D. Mull participated in the event. Delivery of the MRAP vehicles was carried out within the framework of the Excess Defense Articles program, the standard way that the U.S. military gives surplus equipment to allies.
In June 2016, photographs released by the Iraqi Ministry of Defence showed M-ATVs with Iraqi Special Operation Forces (ISOF) (also known as the Counter-Terrorism Service (CTS)) units advancing northwards for the operation to retake the Islamic State-held city of Mosul.
The five current variants are:
- M-ATV Special Forces - 5-seat with protected cargo area. 14,273 kg curb weight; 2500 kg payload
- M-ATV Assault - modular seating for up to 11. 16,700 kg curb weight; 2000 kg payload. Extended wheelbase
- M-ATV Engineer - modular seating for 5 to 11. 16,500 kg curb weight; 2000 kg payload. Mine roller ready. Extended wheelbase
- M-ATV Command - 5-seat. 16,500 kg curb weight; 2000 kg payload. Extended wheelbase
- M-ATV Utility - 5-seat. 14,515 kg curb weight; 3683 kg payload. Flatbed platform with ISO corner fixings. Extended wheelbase
6x6 Technology Demonstrator
In October 2015, Oshkosh unveiled an M-ATV 6x6-wheeled technology demonstrator. The vehicle was designed with greater interior volume to transport 3 crew and 8-12 troops and to have greater payload capacity while maintaining MRAP-level protection and off-road mobility, combining the TAK-4 independent suspension and the M-ATV 6x6's all-wheel steer for maneuverability across any terrain. Top speed is 65 mph (105 km/h) with a 70 percent off-road/30 percent on-road suspension durability profile. It has a curb weight of 21 tons (42,000 lb (19,000 kg)), a payload capacity of 12,000 lb (5,400 kg), and the same turning radius as the 4x4 version.
- Libya[better source needed]
- Romania
- Saudi Arabia
- United Arab Emirates
- United States
- Yemen - Evidence of use by both sides in current conflict.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oshkosh Corporation.|
- "AUSA 2015: Oshkosh Defense on their M-ATV Technology Demonstrator; IHS Jane's YouTube".
- M-ATV on Oshkosh Defense page
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- "Oshkosh M-ATV all-terrain MRAP wheeled armoured vehicle; YouTube".