M. A. R. Barker

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Muhammad Abd-al-Rahman Barker
BornPhillip Barker
(1929-11-03)November 3, 1929
Spokane, Washington, U.S.[1]
DiedMarch 16, 2012(2012-03-16) (aged 82)
Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.
Resting placePleasant View Memorial Gardens (Burnsville, Minnesota)
  • Linguist
  • scholar
  • professor
  • game designer
  • author
GenreLinguistics, role-playing games, fantasy, science fantasy

Muhammad Abd-al-Rahman Barker (born Phillip Barker November 3, 1929 – March 16, 2012) was an American linguist who was professor of Urdu and South Asian Studies and created one of the first roleplaying games, Empire of the Petal Throne. He wrote several fantasy/science fantasy novels based in his associated world setting of Tékumel.

Between 1990 and 2002, he was a member of the Editorial Advisory Committee of the Journal of Historical Review, which advocated Holocaust denial. In 1991 he published a neo-Nazi novel under a pseudonym.

Early life[edit]

Born in Spokane, Washington, descended from ancestors who had originally settled in America in 1626, Barker's childhood was spent around Washington and Idaho.[1] As a youth he had an interest in "fairy stories, history and literature" which would be further influenced by such films as The Thief of Bagdad; all of which helped to turn his casual "wargames" with toy soldiers more towards fantasy. From this his fictional lands of Tsolyanu and others, in what was later to become Tékumel, emerged and were embellished further in middle and high school years during which time he commenced construction of armies of hand-carved figures to represent his creations. Also at an early age, Barker's interest in languages was piqued by neighboring children of Basque origin who were able to exclude others from their secret conversations in their native tongue.[2][3]

Academic life and creative networking[edit]

In, and just before, 1950, while Barker was studying at the University of Washington under Melville Jacobs, he became involved with science fiction fanzines, writing articles, short stories and contributing reviews to Portland-based Fanscient and to the local clubzine Sinisterra,[4] the latter of which contained his review of, and content from, Jack Vance relating to his recently published book, The Dying Earth.[5][6][7][8] Also at this time, Barker corresponded with other authors who contributed to those same publications, including Lin Carter in whose writings and linguistic experiments[9] he took an interest and with whom he finally put to paper the story line of his own created world.[10][11][12]

He received a Fulbright Scholarship in 1951 to study the languages of India and on his first trip to India that year converted to Islam "for purely theological reasons. It seemed like a more logical religion", according to Fine,[13] although Barker himself admitted at the time to an "[unimaginable] feeling of awe and religious ecstasy" upon hearing the recitations of the 99 Names of Allah at the Taj Mahal.[14]

Later academic studies and career[edit]

Barker attended the University of California, Berkeley for graduate studies, writing a dissertation on Klamath language, collecting traditional myths, legends, tales, and oral histories and later publishing a grammar and dictionary on the language.[15][16]

He taught at the Institute of Islamic Studies at McGill University from around 1958/59 until 1972 and became active in the development of Urdu and Baluchi instruction materials for English-speaking students following a period of two years from 1960 when he was attached to the University of the Punjab.[17] Some of these were still recommended university course study materials as of 2010.[18] From 1972 he moved to teach at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, where he chaired the Department of South Asian studies until his retirement in the early 1990s; a few years after, the department was disbanded due to reduced funding.[19]


While at Berkeley, Barker had not set aside his world creation project. Indeed, despite stepping back from an active role in science fiction fandom,[20] he had commenced "proto-gaming" with a group of like-minded science fiction fans including fellow linguist Bill Shipley[21] and Victor Golla, producing elaborate documents to support the exploration of that shared world.[22]

Having watched the Dungeons & Dragons games started by Mike Mornard, one of the original testers for D&D, when Mornard moved to Minneapolis from Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, Barker resolved to create his own ruleset based on his own created world and the game mechanics from D&D. After six weeks, this was self-published in August 1974 as Empire of the Petal Throne and play commenced forthwith, including such occasional members as Dave Arneson – who singled out Barker and Tékumel as being his favorite Dungeon Master and roleplaying game, respectively – from early days.[23][24]

Once Gary Gygax's attention had been drawn to Barker's work, it was decided that TSR would publish a revised version of the game mechanics along with a condensed version of his campaign setting. Empire of the Petal Throne was published by TSR in August 1975 for Gen Con VIII, making it the third role-playing game from TSR.[25]: 8  In a December 1976 editorial for The Dragon magazine, editor Tim Kask drew comparisons between the world of Tékumel and J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth not in terms of literature created, nor that his work was derivative of Tolkien's, but rather regarding the in-depth detail in the setting, mythos and linguistic backgrounds and concluded that "In terms of development of detail, I think EPT [Empire of the Petal Throne] has it over Middle Earth in the matters that most concern gamers"[3] since it had been developed by a "wargamer", whereas Tolkien had no such background and having died prior to the release of D&D was thus unable to address this new pastime personally.[26]

Barker disliked the limited support TSR gave to the setting, and after 1977 he took his Tékumel setting back from TSR and ultimately brought it from one publisher to another: Imperium Publishing (1978), Adventure Games (1981), Gamescience (1983–1984), Tékumel Games (1983–1986), Different Worlds Publications (1987–1988), TOME (1991–1994), Tita's House of Games (1997–2002), Zottola Publishing (2002–2003), and Guardians of Order (2005).[25]: 8  Barker had a personal friendship with Dave Arneson, which led to Arnesons's company Adventures Games released several books for Tékumel, such as army lists, maps and reference material.[25]: 39  DAW published the novel The Man of Gold (July 1984) by Barker, which took place in Tékumel.[25]: 238  His second novel, Flamesong (1985), was also published by DAW.[27]

Despite having had a head start on other in-depth campaign settings and seeing his game released no less than four times with various supplements and magazine articles, many which he contributed to, and having authored five books using the same setting, Barker's Tékumel in both roleplaying and literary domains is still well known to only a relatively small audience, leading German magazine Der Spiegel in 2009 to publish an article on Barker's life entitled "Der vergessene Tolkien" ("The forgotten Tolkien"). The article quotes friends and acquaintances who posit that this may be, at least in part, due to the unfamiliarity of the setting[28] compared with Western society, echoing Fine's observations from 1983, and possibly even that Tékumel was released to the gaming world too early on, when players had only just started to experiment with their own invented worlds rather than fitting their play into preconfigured, non-literary domains with novel backgrounds.[13][23]

In 2008, Barker founded the Tékumel Foundation along with many of his long-time players "to support and protect the literary works and all related products and activities surrounding [his] world of Tékumel and the Empire of the Petal Throne." The Foundation acts as his literary executor.[23][29]

Neo-Nazi/white supremacist work[edit]

Barker wrote a sixth novel, Serpent's Walk, under the pseudonym Randolph D. Calverhall (likely a play on "Randolph de Caverhall", a supposed ancestor).[30][31] The novel was published in 1991 by National Vanguard Books, which published white supremacist and neo-Nazi material including The Turner Diaries.

Serpent's Walk features an alternate history where SS soldiers begin an underground resistance after the end of WWII, with their descendants rising up a century later to take over the United States of America with the "tactics of their enemies", "building their economic muscle and buying into the opinion-forming media". The back cover of the book states "The good guys win sometimes. Not always, of course. They lost big in the Second World War. That was a victory for communists, democrats, and Jews, but everyone else lost." It continues, "A century after the war they are ready to challenge the democrats and Jews for the hearts and minds of White Americans, who have begun to have their fill of government-enforced multi-culturalism and 'equality.'"[32]

Between 1990 and 2002, Barker also served as a member of the Editorial Advisory Committee of the Journal of Historical Review, an advocate of Holocaust denial and revisionist pseudohistory.[33][34]

In March 2022, the Tékumel Foundation confirmed Barker's authorship of Serpent's Walk and association with the Journal of Historical Review.[35] The Foundation repudiated Barker's views in the novel, from which it does not receive royalties, and apologized for not acknowledging its authorship earlier.


Barker died in home hospice on March 16, 2012. He is survived by his wife, Ambereen.[36]

Partial bibliography[edit]

Language texts[edit]

Barker studied various languages academically and helped author and co-author various publications relating to some of those, including the following:

Published by the University of California Press:

  • Klamath Texts (1963)
  • Klamath Dictionary (1963)
  • Klamath Grammar (1964)

Published by the McGill University Institute of Islamic Studies:

  • A Course in Urdu (1967)
  • An Urdu Newspaper Reader (1968)
  • A Reader of Modern Urdu Poetry (1968)
  • A Course in Baluchi (1969)


Tékumel has spawned five professionally published roleplaying games over the course of the years. It was also reportedly a major influence on other creations such as Hârn and the Skyrealms of Jorune.


Barker wrote five novels set in the world of Tékumel - in chronological reading order these are:

  1. The Man of Gold (1984)
  2. Flamesong (1985)
  3. Lords of Tsámra (2003)
  4. Prince of Skulls (2002)
  5. A Death of Kings (2003)

Novels (non-Tékumel)[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b Barker, M.A.R. (2005-04-07). "Family Background note by M.A.R. Barker". Archived from the original on 2013-01-06. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
  2. ^ Barker, M.A.R. (Winter 1975). "Tsolyani Names Without Tears" (PDF). Strategic Review (4). TSR: 7–9. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
  3. ^ a b Kask, Tim (December 1976). "Dragon Rumbles (Editorial)" (PDF). The Dragon (4). TSR: 3.
  4. ^ Barker's world, later known as Tékumel, was placed as the fourth planet in the Sinistra system.
  5. ^ Barker, Phillip (Fall 1949). "Egyptian Mythology in Fantastic Literature". Fanscient (9). Portland, Oregon: Donald B. Day: 41–44. Archived from the original on 2011-07-17.
  6. ^ Barker, Phillip (Spring 1950). "The Language Problem". Fanscient (11). Portland, Oregon: Donald B. Day: 28–30. Archived from the original on 2018-12-25. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
  7. ^ Barker, Phillip (Summer 1950). "-and the STRONG Shall INHERIT". Fanscient (12). Portland, Oregon: Donald. B. Day: 28–31. Archived from the original on 2018-12-25. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
  8. ^ Barker, Phillip (Winter 1950). "An Appreciation of The Dying Earth (with a letter from Jack Vance)". Sinisterra (4). Seattle, Washington: The Nameless Ones. (Gertrude Carr and Richard Frahm): 21–23.
  9. ^ Carter, Lin (1949–1950). The Tursai os Llani Alphabet and some remarks on Grammar. St. Petersburg, Florida.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  10. ^ "Tékumel :: The World of the Petal Throne". Tekumel.com. 2001-10-18. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  11. ^ Barker, Phillip (1950). A History of the Nations of the Universe. Seattle. pp. 1–7.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  12. ^ Barker, Phillip (1950). Remarks Upon the Ts Solyani (by Messìliu Badàrian). Seattle. pp. 1–15.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  13. ^ a b Fine, Gary (1983). Shared Fantasy: Role Playing Games As Social Worlds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-24944-1.
  14. ^ Barker, Phillip (1951). "A Letter from Phil Barker/'India Barks'". Sinisterra. 2 (1). Seattle, Washington: The Nameless Ones (Gertrude Carr and Richard Frahm): 14–25.
  15. ^ Barker, M. A. R. (1963). Klamath Texts. University of California Publications in Linguistics (No. 30). Berkeley: University of California. pp. 7–117. (21 Klamath myths collected in 1955-1957)
  16. ^ "OLAC resources in and about the Klamath-Modoc language". Language-archives.org. 2011-02-08. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  17. ^ Rehman, Mumtazul Haque. "The Story of Indo-Pakistani Muslim Community in Montreal, Quebec". Retrieved 2009-10-13.
  18. ^ Pritchett, Frances. "Readings in Urdu Literature (Spring 2010 Syllabus)". Columbia University. Retrieved 2009-10-14.
  19. ^ "Indira Junghare: Voices From the Gaps: University of Minnesota". Voices.cla.umn.edu. 2012-12-03. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  20. ^ Raymond, Victor (1994). "A Brief History of Roleplaying Games". Retrieved 2009-10-14.
  21. ^ Lamb, Sydney M.; Webster, Jonathan (2004). Language and Reality (Open Linguistics). London & New York: Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd. p. 23. ISBN 0-8264-6820-9.
  22. ^ Barker, M. A. R. (December 1976). "Land grant to the Shipali Family of the Protectorate of Kerunan (Cover)". Dragon (4). TSR: 1.
  23. ^ a b c d Lischka, Konrad (2009-10-06). "Der vergessene Tolkien" [The Forgotten Tolkien]. Der Spiegel. Retrieved 2009-10-13. (English translation)
  24. ^ "Interview with Dave Arneson". Fight On! (2). Ignatius Umlaut: 63–64. Summer 2008.
  25. ^ a b c d Shannon Appelcline (2011). Designers & Dragons. Mongoose Publishing. ISBN 978-1-907702-58-7.
  26. ^ a b Barker, M. A. R. (1975). Empire of the Petal Throne. Lake Geneva, Wisconsin: TSR. ASIN B000G9WH5Q.
  27. ^ "M.A.R. Barker, Nov 3 1929 – March 16, 2012 – Black Gate". 30 March 2012.
  28. ^ Brady, Patrick (Spring 1995). "You're not in Kansas anymore". The Eye of All-Seeing Wonder (4). Dave Morris: 3. Retrieved 2009-10-14.
  29. ^ Barker, M. A. R. (2010-08-04). "The Tékumel Foundation" (PDF). Letter to Whom It May Concern. Retrieved 2022-03-23.
  30. ^ "From Reddit: "M.A.R. Barker, creator of Tékumel and Empire of the Petal Throne, wrote a neo-Nazi novel in 1991"". 2022-03-17. Retrieved 2022-03-19.
  31. ^ Howard, Joseph Jackson, ed. (1877). Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica. Vol. 2. Mitchell, Hughes and Clarke. p. 505. Retrieved 2022-03-19.
  32. ^ Barker, M. A. R. (as "Randolph D. Caverhall") (1991). Serpent's Walk. National Vanguard Books. ISBN 0-937944-05-X. Retrieved 2022-03-19.
  33. ^ "The Journal of Historical Review - Editorial Advisory Committee". September 2, 2017. Archived from the original on May 18, 2021. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  34. ^ de Araújo Magalhães, Luiz Paulo (2019). Intelectuais de extrema-direita e o negacionismo do Holocausto: o caso do Institute for Historical Review (IHR) [Far-Right Intellectuals and Holocaust Denialism: The Case of the Institute for Historical Review (IHR)] (PDF) (Post-graduate) (in Brazilian Portuguese). Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro. p. 78. Retrieved 2022-03-22.
  35. ^ The Tekumel Foundation (2022-03-19). "The Tekumel Foundation Board of Directors statement on Serpent's Walk". Facebook. Archived from the original on 2022-03-20. Retrieved 2022-03-20.
  36. ^ "Gaming Giant M. A. R. Barker Dead At 83". Forbes. 2012-03-17. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
  37. ^ "Tékumel :: The World of the Petal Throne". Tekumel.com. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  38. ^ "Tékumel :: The World of the Petal Throne". Tekumel.com. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  39. ^ "Tékumel :: The World of the Petal Throne". Tekumel.com. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  40. ^ "Tékumel :: The World of the Petal Throne". Tekumel.com. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  41. ^ "Bethorm :: The Plane of Tékumel". bethorm.com. Archived from the original on 2015-02-04.

External links[edit]