M. Stanley Whittingham
M. Stanley Whittingham
Michael Stanley Whittingham
22 December 1941
|Education||New College, Oxford (BA, MA, DPhil)|
|Known for||Lithium-ion battery|
|Awards||Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2019)|
|Thesis||Microbalance studies of some oxide systems (1968)|
|Doctoral advisor||Peter Dickens|
|Other academic advisors||Robert Huggins (post-doc)|
Michael Stanley Whittingham (born 22 December 1941) is a British-American chemist. He is currently a professor of chemistry and director of both the Institute for Materials Research and the Materials Science and Engineering program at Binghamton University, State University of New York. He also serves as director of the Northeastern Center for Chemical Energy Storage (NECCES) of the U.S. Department of Energy at Binghamton. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2019 alongside Akira Yoshino and John B. Goodenough.
Whittingham is a key figure in the history of the development of lithium-ion batteries, which now are used in everything from mobile phones to electric vehicles. He discovered the intercalation electrodes in the 1970s for the first time and thoroughly described the concept of intercalation reaction for rechargeable batteries in the late of 1970s. He holds the original patents on the concept of the use of intercalation chemistry in high power-density, highly reversible lithium-ion batteries. And he invented the first rechargeable lithium-ion battery, patented in 1977, and assigned to Exxon. His work on lithium-ion batteries laid the foundations for others' later developments. Therefore, he is called the Founding Father of lithium-ion batteries.
Education and career
Whittingham was born in Nottingham, England, on 22 December 1941. He was educated at Stamford School in Lincolnshire from 1951–1960, before going to New College, Oxford to read Chemistry. At the University of Oxford, he took his BA (1964), MA (1967), and DPhil (1968). After completing his graduate studies, Whittingham was a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University. He then worked for Exxon Research & Engineering Company for 16 years. He then spent four years working for Schlumberger prior to becoming a professor at Binghamton University.
From 1994 to 2000, he served as the University's vice provost for research. He also served as Vice-Chair of the Research Foundation of the State University of New York for six years. He is currently a Distinguished Professor of Chemistry and Materials Science and Engineering at Binghamton University. Whittingham was named Chief Scientific Officer of NAATBatt International in 2017.
Whittingham co-chaired the DOE study of Chemical Energy Storage in 2007, and is now Director of the Northeastern Center for Chemical Energy Storage (NECCES), a U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) at Binghamton. In 2014, NECCES was awarded $12.8 million, from the U.S. Department of Energy to help accelerate scientific breakthroughs needed to build a new 21st-century economy. In 2018, NECCES was given another $3 million by the Department of Energy to continue its important research on batteries. The NECCES team is using the funding to make energy-storage materials work better and to develop new materials that are "cheaper, environmentally friendly, and able to store more energy than current materials can".
Whittingham is a key figure in the history of the development of lithium-ion batteries, discovering the concept of intercalation electrodes. Exxon manufactured Whittingham's lithium-ion battery in the 1970s, which was based on a titanium disulfide cathode and a lithium-aluminum anode. The battery had high energy density and the diffusion of lithium ions into the titanium disulphide cathode was reversible, making the battery rechargeable. In addition, titanium disulphide has a particularly fast rate of lithium ion diffusion into the crystal lattice. Exxon threw its resources behind the commercialization of a Li/LiClO4/ TiS2 battery. Safety concerns left Exxon to end the project. Whittingham and his team continued to publish their work in academic journals of electrochemistry and solid-state physics. He eventually left Exxon in 1984 and spent four years at Schlumberger as a Manager. In 1988, he accepted the position of Professor at the Chemistry Department, Binghamton University, U.S. to pursue his academic interests.
"All these batteries are called intercalation batteries. It’s like putting jam in a sandwich. In the chemical terms, it means you have a crystal structure, and we can put lithium ions in, take them out, and the structure’s exactly the same afterwards," Whittingham said "We retain the crystal structure. That’s what makes these lithium batteries so good, allows them to cycle for so long."
Today's lithium batteries are limited in capacity because less than one lithium-ion/electron is reversibly intercalated per transition metal redox center. To achieve higher energy densities, one approach is to go beyond the one electron redox intercalation reactions of the above systems. Currently, Whittingham's research has advanced to multi-electron intercalation reactions, which can increase the storage capacity by intercalating multiple lithium ions. A few multi-electron intercalation materials have been successfully developed by Whittingham, like LiVOPO4/VOPO4, etc. The multivalent vanadium cation (V3+<->V5+) plays an important role to accomplish the multi-electron reactions. These promising materials shine lights on the battery industry to increase energy density rapidly.
He received the Young Author Award from The Electrochemical Society in 1971, the Battery Research Award in 2003, and was elected a Fellow in 2004. In 2010, he was listed as one of the Top 40 innovators for contributions to advancing green technology by Greentech Media. In 2012, Whittingham received the IBA Yeager Award for Lifetime Contribution to Lithium Battery Materials Research, and he was elected a Fellow of Materials Research Society in 2013. He was listed along with John B. Goodenough, for pioneering research leading to the development of the lithium-ion battery on a list of Clarivate Citation Laureates for the Nobel Prize in Chemistry by Thomson Reuters in 2015. In 2018, Whittingham was elected to the National Academy of Engineering, "for pioneering the application of intercalation chemistry for energy storage materials."
- 2007 Chancellor's Award for Excellence in Scholarship and Creative Activities, and Outstanding Research Award, State University of New York
- 2010 Award for Lifetime Contributions from the American Chemical Society
- 2015 Thomson Reuters Citation Laureate
- 2017 Senior Scientist Award from the International Society for Solid State Ionics
- 2018 Turnbull Award from the Materials Research Society
- 2018 Member National Academy of Engineering
- 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with John B. Goodenough and Akira Yoshino
- J. B. Goodenough & M. S. Whittingham (1977). Solid State Chemistry of Energy Conversion and Storage. American Chemical Society Symposium Series #163. ISBN 978-0-8412-0358-7.
- G. G. Libowitz & M. S. Whittingham (1979). Materials Science in Energy Technology. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-447550-2.
- M. S. Whittingham & A. J. Jacobson (1984). Intercalation Chemistry. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-747380-2.
- D. L. Nelson, M. S. Whittingham and T. F. George (1987). Chemistry of High Temperature Superconductors. American Chemical Society Symposium Series #352. ISBN 978-0-8412-1431-6.
- M. A. Alario-Franco, M. Greenblatt, G. Rohrer and M. S. Whittingham (2003). Solid-state chemistry of inorganic materials IV. Materials Research Society. ISBN 978-1-55899-692-2.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
Following is a short list of some of his most cited papers.
- Whittingham, M. S. (1976). "Electrical energy storage and intercalation chemistry". Science. 192 (4244): 1126–1127. Bibcode:1976Sci...192.1126W. doi:10.1126/science.192.4244.1126. PMID 17748676. S2CID 36607505.
- Whittingham, M. Stanley (1976). "The role of ternary phases in cathode reactions". Journal of the Electrochemical Society. 123 (3): 315–320. Bibcode:1976JElS..123..315W. doi:10.1149/1.2132817.
- Whittingham, M.Stanley (1978). "Chemistry of intercalation compounds: metal guests in chalcogenide hosts". Progress in Solid State Chemistry. 12 (1): 41–99. doi:10.1016/0079-6786(78)90003-1.
- Whittingham, M. Stanley (October 2004). "Lithium batteries and cathode materials" (PDF). Chemical Reviews. 104 (10): 4271–4301. doi:10.1021/cr020731c. PMID 15669156.
- Whittingham, M. Stanley (October 2014). "Ultimate limits to intercalation reactions for lithium batteries". Chemical Reviews. 114 (23): 11414–11443. doi:10.1021/cr5003003. PMID 25354149.
- Chirayil, Thomas; Zavalij, Peter Y.; Whittingham, M. Stanley (October 1998). "Hydrothermal synthesis of vanadium oxides". Chemistry of Materials. 10 (10): 2629–2640. doi:10.1021/cm980242m.
- Zavalij, Peter Y.; Whittingham, M. Stanley (October 1999). "Structural chemistry of vanadium oxides with open frameworks". Acta Crystallographica Section B. 55 (5): 627–663. doi:10.1107/S0108768199004000. PMID 10927405.
- Chen, Rongji; Zavalij, Peter; Whittingham, M. Stanley (June 1996). "Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of KxMnO2·yH2O". Chemistry of Materials. 8 (6): 1275–1280. doi:10.1021/cm950550.
- Janauer, Gerald G.; Dobley, Arthur; Guo, Jingdong; Zavalij, Peter; Whittingham, M. Stanley (August 1996). "Novel tungsten, molybdenum, and vanadium oxides containing surfactant ions". Chemistry of Materials. 8 (8): 2096–2101. doi:10.1021/cm960111q.
- Yang, Shoufeng; Song, Yanning; Zavalij, Peter Y.; Stanley Whittingham, M. (March 2002). "Reactivity, stability and electrochemical behavior of lithium iron phosphates". Electrochemistry Communications. 4 (3): 239–244. doi:10.1016/S1388-2481(01)00298-3.
- Yang, Shoufeng; Zavalij, Peter Y.; Stanley Whittingham, M. (September 2001). "Hydrothermal synthesis of lithium iron phosphate cathodes". Electrochemistry Communications. 3 (9): 505–508. doi:10.1016/S1388-2481(01)00200-4.
- Whittingham, M. Stanley; Guo, Jing-Dong; Chen, Rongji; Chirayil, Thomas; Janauer, Gerald; Zavalij, Peter (January 1995). "The hydrothermal synthesis of new oxide materials". Solid State Ionics. 75: 257–268. doi:10.1016/0167-2738(94)00220-M.
- Petkov, V.; Zavalij, P. Y.; Lutta, S.; Whittingham, M. S.; Parvanov, V.; Shastri, S. (February 2004). "Structure beyond Bragg: Study of V2O5 nanotubes" (PDF). Physical Review B. 69 (8): 085410 (1–6). Bibcode:2004PhRvB..69h5410P. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.69.085410. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2019.
- "Vanadium modified LiFePO4 cathode for Li-ion batteries". Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters. 12 (2): A33–A38. February 2009. doi:10.1149/1.3039795.
- Zhou, Hui; Upreti, Shailesh; Chernova, Natasha A.; Hautier, Geoffroy; Ceder, Gerbrand; Whittingham, M. Stanley (December 2010). "Iron and Manganese Pyrophosphates as cathodes for Lithium-Ion batteries" (PDF). Chemistry of Materials. 23 (2): 293–300. doi:10.1021/cm102922q.
- "Nobel Prize in Chemistry Announcement". The Nobel Prize. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
- Specia, Megan (9 October 2019). "Nobel Prize in Chemistry Honors Work on Lithium-Ion Batteries". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
- "Stanley Whittingham, Ph.D." Marquis Who's Who Top Educators. 23 January 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- "M. Stanley Whittingham: Facts". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
- "Dr. M. Stanley Whittingham". Binghamton University. Archived from the original on 22 August 2019. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
- Yarosh, Ryan (9 October 2019). "Binghamton University professor wins Nobel Prize in Chemistry". Binghamton University. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- Desmond, Kevin (16 May 2016). Innovators in Battery Technology: Profiles of 93 Influential Electrochemists. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. p. 240. ISBN 9780786499335. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- Ellis, Katie (19 June 2014). "Federal grant boosts smart energy research". Binghamton University Division of Research. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- "Binghamton professor recognized for energy research". The Research Foundation for the State University of New York. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- "Norman Hackerman Young Author Award". The Electrochemical Society. Archived from the original on 22 August 2019. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
- "Battery Division Research Award". The Electrochemical Society. Archived from the original on 22 August 2019. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
- "Fellow of The Electrochemical Society". The Electrochemical Society. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- Kanellos, Michael (20 April 2010). "The Greentech Hall of Fame". Greentech Media. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- "Awards". International Battery Materials Association. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- "2013 MRS Fellows". Materials Research Society. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- Mackof, Alexandra. "BU chemistry professor named as Nobel Prize hopeful". Pipe Dream. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- "Dr. M. Stanley Whittingham". National Academy of Engineering. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- "2019 Nobel Prize winner: Dr. M. Stanley Whittingham talks award, impact, batteries". Binghamton Press & Sun-Bulletin. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
- "Faculty profile, Modern Languages: Georgina Whittingham". State University of New York at Oswego. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
- "Research & Scholarship Award Recipients by Region". SUNY Foundation. 2 May 2007.
- "Prof. M. Stanley Whittingham". internationalsocietysolidstateionics.org. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
- "Stan Whittingham selected for 2018 David Turnbull Lectureship Award". MRS Bulletin. 43 (11): 871. November 2018. doi:10.1557/mrs.2018.273. ISSN 0883-7694.
- "Dr. M. Stanley Whittingham". NAE Website. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
- "Stanley Whittingham". Google Scholar. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
|Scholia has a profile for M. Stanley Whittingham (Q285062).|
- M. Stanley Whittingham's profile at Binghamton University website
- M. Stanley Whittingham's interview  at École supérieure de physique et de chimie industrielles de la ville de Paris history of science website
- M. Stanley Whittingham on Nobelprize.org including the Nobel Lecture on Sunday 8 December 2019 The Origins of the Lithium Battery